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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Sandra Streukens and Sara Leroi-Werelds

The purpose of this paper is to provide an illustrated step-by-step guideline of the partial least squares factorial structural equation modeling (PLS FAC-SEM) approach…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an illustrated step-by-step guideline of the partial least squares factorial structural equation modeling (PLS FAC-SEM) approach. This approach allows researchers to assess whether and how model relationships vary as a function of an underlying factorial design, both in terms of the design factors in isolation (i.e. main effects) as well as their joint impact (i.e. interaction effects).

Design/methodology/approach

After an introduction of its building blocks as well as a comparison with related methods (i.e. n-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multi-group analysis (MGA)), a step-by-step guideline of the PLS FAC-SEM approach is presented. Each of the steps involved in the PLS FAC-SEM approach is illustrated using data from a customer value study.

Findings

On a methodological level, the key result of this research is the presentation of a generally applicable step-by-step guideline of the PLS FAC-SEM approach. On a context-specific level, the findings demonstrate how the predictive ability of several key customer value measurement methods depends on the type of offering (feel-think), the level of customer involvement (low-high), and their interaction (feel-think offerings×low-high involvement).

Originality/value

This is a first attempt to apply the factorial structural equation models (FAC-SEM) approach in a PLS-SEM context. Consistent with the general differences between PLS-SEM and covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM), the FAC-SEM approach, which was originally developed for CB-SEM, therefore becomes available for a larger amount of and different types of research situations.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Nazlin Imram

Investigates the effects of ingredients and processing procedure on colour and appearance properties of chilled dairy dessert products, namely mousse. Chilled mousse…

Abstract

Investigates the effects of ingredients and processing procedure on colour and appearance properties of chilled dairy dessert products, namely mousse. Chilled mousse products were formulated via a factorial design involving several ingredients and processing factors. Sixteen formulated dairy dessert mousses were presented to a trained sensory panel. A screening experiment was carried via a fractional factorial design involving eight factors at two levels. The effects were examined by means of graphical half normal plots using the software Design Ease (Stat‐Ease Inc., USA). Five factors were identified as being the more significant factors which were cream level (CRE), mix time (MIX), blue (BLU), yellow (YEL) and red (RED) colouring agent levels. A further full factorial formulation design was carried out involving four factors: CRE, MIX, BLU, RYR (ratio of red to yellow additive) in a series of sensory perception experiments. Results verified by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that it was the level of cream and colouring agents that were the most significant factors (p<0.001) affecting colour and appearance aspects of chilled mousse.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 99 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Robert P. Hamlin

This paper aims to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of experimental design and development in academic marketing since 1950.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of experimental design and development in academic marketing since 1950.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper does so by taking one experimental design, Latin Square, and describing its history and development within academic marketing in detail.

Findings

The Latin Square is a powerful experimental technique that first rose to prominence in agriculture in the 1920s and has remained a key tool in this discipline ever since. The technique was introduced into marketing in 1953, and enjoyed a period of great influence and popularity until 1973, when it abruptly disappeared from the publications of the discipline. Careful investigation of the research record of this period revealed that its demise was due to increasingly poor application method that led to compromised results, combined with an erroneous assignation of superior capabilities to full and fractional factorials that occurred at approximately the same time.

Practical implications

Two major implications arise from these findings. First, the discipline has incorrectly retired a tool that is still unmatched in some key research situations. Second, the errors that led to the technique's demise led to the rise of other techniques that do not have the capabilities that many researchers appear to think they have.

Originality/value

This is the first longitudinal historical case study of a single research technique that has appeared in print in a major journal, and it reveals aspects of the discipline's approach to science that could not have been illustrated in any other way.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Francisco Mendes de Alencar Filho and Lucijane Monteiro de Abreu

The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the main factors which have explained the sanitation companies' performance and to expand the information on basic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the main factors which have explained the sanitation companies' performance and to expand the information on basic sanitation as a way of subsidizing the planners of this important component in the population's quality of life.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological approach used consisted of the selection of a set of 36 indicators from the 26 sanitation companies regarding the year 2003, divided into two groups, with the intent of avoiding spurious correlations. The groups were separated, taking into account their economic, financial and operational features. Subsequently, the indicators were submitted to the factorial analysis, by using the method of the main components extraction.

Findings

Based on variables examined it was possible to identify the Operational Management factors: Monitoring and control; Water demand management; Sewage coverage; Urban structure; Environmental protection; Disposition and use of the urban space; Economic and financial capacity; Tariff policies; Collection efficiency; and Liabilities quality as the most representatives ones and those which can better explain the Sanitation Companies' performance.

Practical implications

The results achieved from the factorial analysis intend to be a contribution to the formulation of management actions for the sanitation companies. They may also be used in a city or in a set of cities as a subsidy to the elaboration of various policies.

Originality/value

This article is an innovation as far as it applies the multivariate analysis for the construction of factors which explain the sanitation companies' performance.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Narasimha Murthy, Kuldip Singh Sangwan and Nuggenahalli S. Narahari

The purpose of this paper is to examine how sub-criteria of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model is structurally connected and influence each other…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how sub-criteria of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model is structurally connected and influence each other. This paper also tries to find the underpinning logics in the EFQM model.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the empirical methodology based on assessment scores of 58 different organizations to gauge the underlying structure, develop the construct and establish interlinkages among the various sub-criteria in the EFQM model. Statistical analysis is used to find the impact on results and cross influencing of criteria at the sub-criteria level. The factorial analysis is carried out using the Doe technique to create factorial plots for result categories (customer results, people results, society results and business results). The approach is to unravel (1) the role played by each sub-criterion of the model, (2) the effects of sub-criteria on the results of the EFQM model and (3) the influence of sub-criteria on the managerial aspects of the model in an organizational context.

Findings

The EFQM sub-criteria are categorised as promoters, proponents, defenders or detractors based on their impact on the results and cross-influence on each other. The study unfolded seven sub-criteria positively impacting the results and one sub-criterion negatively impacting the results if not handled properly. Out of 32 sub-criteria, nine sub-criteria are influencing more than six other sub-criteria.

Originality/value

The paper investigates, for the first time: (1) the role played by each sub-criteria of the model; (2) the relationships that are produced between these sub-criteria on the EFQM results and (3) identify how such sub-criteria would influence the managerial aspects of the model in an organizational context. This research develops underlying logics in the EFQM model using Doe factorial methods for overcoming the multi-collinearity.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

George J. Besseris

Screening simultaneously for effects and their curvature may be useful in industrial environments when an economic restriction on experimentation is imposed…

Abstract

Purpose

Screening simultaneously for effects and their curvature may be useful in industrial environments when an economic restriction on experimentation is imposed. Saturated‐unreplicated fractional factorial designs have been a regular outlet for scheduling screening investigations under such circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to devise a practical test that may simultaneously quantify in statistical terms the possible existence of active factors in concert with an associated non‐linearity during screening.

Design/methodology/approach

The three‐level, nine‐run orthogonal design is utilized to compute a family of parameter‐free reference cumulative distributions by permuting ranked observations via a brute‐force method. The proposed technique is simple, practical and non‐graphical. It is based on Kruskal‐Wallis test and involves a sum of effects through the squared rank‐sum inference statistic. This statistic is appropriately extended for fractional factorial composite contrasting while avoiding explicitly the effect sparsity assumption.

Findings

The method is shown to be worthy competing with mainstream comparison methods and aids in averting potential complications arising from the indiscriminant use of analysis of variance in very low sampling schemes where subjective variance pooling is otherwise enforced.

Research limitations/implications

The true distributions obtained in this paper are suitable for sieving a fairly small amount of potential control factors while maintaining the non‐linearity question in the search.

Practical implications

The method is objective and is further elucidated by reworking two recent case studies which account for a total of five saturated screenings.

Originality/value

The statistical tables produced are easy to use and uphold the need for estimating separately mean and variance effects which are rather difficult to pinpoint for the fast track, low‐volume trials this paper is intended to.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2018

Mohammad Gharaibeh

This paper aims to present a reliability performance assessment of electronic packages subjected to harmonic vibration loadings by using a statistical factorial analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a reliability performance assessment of electronic packages subjected to harmonic vibration loadings by using a statistical factorial analysis technique. The effects of various geometric parameters, the size and thickness of the printed circuit board and component and solder interconnect dimensions on the fundamental resonant frequency of the assembly and the axial strain of the most critical solder joint were thoroughly investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A previously published analytical solution for the problem of electronic assembly vibration was adopted. This solution was modified and used to generate the natural frequency and solder axial strains data for various package geometries. Statistical factorial analysis was used to analyze these data.

Findings

The results of the present study showed that the reliability of electronic packages under vibration could be significantly enhanced by selecting larger and thicker printed circuit boards and thinner and smaller electrical components. Additionally, taller and thinner solders might also produce better reliability behavior.

Originality/value

The results of this investigation can be very useful in the design process of electronic products in mechanical vibration environments.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Edward Osei Akoto

The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the academic motivation scale (AMS), including mean structures and reliabilities across two culturally…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the academic motivation scale (AMS), including mean structures and reliabilities across two culturally diverse samples. Thus, the study assesses the fit of the seven-factor conceptualization of AMS to a non-Western context.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey questionnaire was used to elicit responses from undergraduate business students from universities in the USA (267) and Ghana (262). The data were analyzed using the multi-group CFA technique in LISREL 8.7, to assess measurement equivalency and the fit of the AMS to the non-Western context.

Findings

After baseline models were established, a hierarchy of successively restrictive models were specified and estimated. Support was found for factorial, metric, and scalar invariance across the two samples, but different levels of psychometric soundness exist.

Research limitations/implications

In spite of the low reliabilities in the non-Western context, the AMS has the potential to measure the same traits in the same way across diverse groups.

Practical implications

Researchers, educators, and policy makers interested in this field of study may be confident in employing the AMS to investigate students' motives, including cross-cultural motivational studies. Organizations may also use the AMS as a pre-employment tool to understand college graduates motivational profile for better person-organization match.

Originality/value

The AMS has been developed and validated in the Western context, but its validity in non-Western contexts remains unexplored. This study provides a cross-cultural comparative test of the seven-factor conceptualization.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

George J. Besseris

The purpose of this paper is to propose a manufacturing product‐screening methodology that will require minimal resource expenditures as well as succinct improvement tools…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a manufacturing product‐screening methodology that will require minimal resource expenditures as well as succinct improvement tools based on multi‐response prioritisation.

Design/methodology/approach

A six‐step methodology is overviewed that relies on the sampling efficiency of fractional factorial designs introduced and recommended by Dr G. Taguchi. Moreover, the multi‐response optimisation approach based on the super‐ranking concept is expanded to the more pragmatic situation where prioritising of the implicated responses is imperative. Theoretical developments address the on‐going research issue of saturated and unreplicated fractional‐factorial designs. The methodology promotes the “user‐friendly” incorporation of assigned preference weights on the studied responses. Test efficiency is improved by concise rank ordering. This technique is accomplished by adopting the powerful rank‐sum inference method of Wilcoxon‐Mann‐Whitney.

Findings

Two real‐life case studies complement the proposed technique. The first discusses a production problem on manufacturing disposable shavers. Injection moulding data for factors such as handle weight, two associated critical handle dimensions and a single mechanical property undergo preferential multi‐response improvement based on working specification standards. This case shows that regardless of fluctuations incurred by four different sources of response prioritisation, only injection speed endures high‐statistical significance for all four cases out of the seven considered production factors. Similarly, the technique identifies a single active factor in a foil manufacturing optimisation of three traits among seven examined effects.

Originality/value

This investigation suggests a technique that targets the needs of manufacturing managers and engineers for “quick‐and‐robust” decision making in preferential product improvement. This is achieved by conjoining orthogonal arrays with a well‐established non‐parametric comparison test. A version of the super‐ranking concept is adapted for the weighted multi‐response optimisation case.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Bruno Souza Fernandes, Kleber Gustavo da Silva Souza, Idalina Vieira Aoki and Franco Dani Rico Amado

The application of coatings on metal substrates can provide an increase in corrosion resistance in the environment where the material is employed. The use of silane causes…

Abstract

Purpose

The application of coatings on metal substrates can provide an increase in corrosion resistance in the environment where the material is employed. The use of silane causes low environmental impact and may represent an alternative to replace chromates and phosphates applied as a pretreatment prior to surface painting. The objective of this study was to evaluate experimental parameters for the investigation of the formation of a vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMOS) monolayer on 1010 carbon steel applying electrochemical techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 24 types of coated samples were obtained, following three 23 factorial design of experiments (DOE), and one uncoated. The VTMOS monolayer was formed by hand dip process, followed by curing in a stove, using substrates of sanded, pickled and degreased 1010 carbon steel and hydrolyzed silane.

Findings

The results of coated samples were satisfactory as compared to those of uncoated carbon steel, as the former were better protected against corrosion.

Originality/value

This paper shows an evaluation of experimental parameters that influence the formation of a film of silane VTMOS on 1010 carbon steel by means of electrochemical techniques. The results indicated that the silane monolayer VTMOS promotes enhanced properties that prevent corrosion of 1010 carbon steel and the method of film formation directly influences the properties of such protection.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 60 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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