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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Siu-kee Wong

When the factor endowments of two trading countries do not lie in the same diversification cone, trade in commodities may not reduce the international factor return…

Abstract

When the factor endowments of two trading countries do not lie in the same diversification cone, trade in commodities may not reduce the international factor return differentials. This chapter specifies some conditions of the demand function in a two-factor, infinite-good model that guarantee partial factor price equalization. The wage-rental ratios of two trading countries are convergent if goods farther apart are poorer substitutes than goods closer together in the factor-intensity ranking. This generalizes the result in the literature, which is usually obtained under the assumption of Cobb–Douglas utility and production functions.

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Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Eric W. Bond and Robert A. Driskill

We extend the Jones (1971) analysis of the effects of distortions in 2×2 trade models to the case of a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model of a small open economy…

Abstract

We extend the Jones (1971) analysis of the effects of distortions in 2×2 trade models to the case of a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model of a small open economy with capital accumulation. We do a comparative steady state analysis for the effect of policy changes on factor prices and the capital stock, and examine the dynamics of the system in the neighborhood of the steady state. We also show that the system will have multiple equilibria when value and physical factor intensity rankings of the sectors do not agree.

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Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Erik S. Reinert

This paper attempts to trace and describe the role played by the government sector – the state – in promoting economic growth in Western societies since the Renaissance…

Abstract

This paper attempts to trace and describe the role played by the government sector – the state – in promoting economic growth in Western societies since the Renaissance. One important conclusion is that the antagonism between state and market, which has characterised the twentieth century, is a relatively new phenomenon. Since the Renaissance one very important task of the state has been to create well‐functioning markets by providing a legal framework, standards, credit, physical infrastructure and – if necessary – to function temporarily as an entrepreneur of last resort. Early economists were acutely aware that national markets did not occur spontaneously, and they used “modern” ideas like synergies, increasing returns, and innovation theory when arguing for the right kind of government policy. In fact, mercantilist economics saw it as a main task to extend the synergetic economic effects observed within cities to the territory of a nation‐state. The paper argues that the classical Anglo‐Saxon tradition in economics – fundamentally focused on barter and distribution, rather than on production and knowledge – systematically fails to grasp these wider issues in economic development, and it brings in and discusses the role played by the state in alternative traditions of non‐equilibrium economics.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 26 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Brati Sankar Chakraborty and Abhirup Sarkar

Most models attempting to give an account of trade-induced symmetric increase in wage inequality have abandoned the factor price equalization (FPE) framework. The present…

Abstract

Most models attempting to give an account of trade-induced symmetric increase in wage inequality have abandoned the factor price equalization (FPE) framework. The present chapter retains the FPE framework and identifies a plausible route through which trade might increase wage inequality in all trading countries. A two-sector model with one constant returns sector producing basic goods and another increasing returns to scale sector producing fancy goods is developed. A quasi-linear utility function is used to capture the divide between basic and fancy goods. There are two types of productive factors, skilled and unskilled labour, and they differ with respect to their occupational options. Skilled labour can work both in the skill using fancy goods sector and in the unskilled labour using basic good producing sector, whereas unskilled labour is tied down to unskilled job. The model holds possibilities of multiple equilibria and under reasonable parameterization skill premium increases in all countries following trade.

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Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Lawrence A. Leger

Both labour groups and the national press frequently justifydemands for protection against industrial adjustment on the grounds thatit leads to the destruction of…

Abstract

Both labour groups and the national press frequently justify demands for protection against industrial adjustment on the grounds that it leads to the destruction of communities and traditional ways of life, with a devastating effect on welfare. To justify this claim in the context of a Ricardian open‐economy model requires quite strong restrictions on worker preferences, but a plausible case can be made. Presents a model based on the attachment of workers to their socio‐cultural environment, and suggests some policy options for redressing trade‐induced inequities.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1981

The‐Hiep Nguyen

The controversial Prebisch thesis in international economics of development asserts that (i) less‐developed countries (LDCs) experience a long‐run deterioration in their

Abstract

The controversial Prebisch thesis in international economics of development asserts that (i) less‐developed countries (LDCs) experience a long‐run deterioration in their terms of trade with developed countries (DCs), and (ii) these experiences are the cause of the ever‐widening gap in their per capita incomes with DCs. By surveying the controversy and discussing the connection between trends in terms of trade and international economic inequality, this paper attempts to disprove some widely held notions derived from misinterpretations and from broad generalisations with indirect inferences. We conclude that there is need for case studies; in order to evaluate and select appropriate policy options.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2011

Jaroslav Vanek

I welcome any dialogue on the present subject because it clarifies and makes us reflect on such a significant issue of our times. Especially I would like to stress the…

Abstract

I welcome any dialogue on the present subject because it clarifies and makes us reflect on such a significant issue of our times. Especially I would like to stress the subject of the appendix on destructive trade. We live in a world impregnated with the notion of free trade optimality, but in many contexts the notion is incorrect, and such mistakes can be serious for the advanced economies including the United States. For the theoretical mind of economists, let me stress that the theory of optimal comparative advantage includes the conditions of full employment and factor price equalization [or near-equalization], but with wage differentials of the order of one thousand percent the optimality is most unlikely. The unemployment and the financial crisis of the great recession are the most dramatic and convincing verification – as well as substantiation of my arguments concerning global ecology.

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Advances in the Economic Analysis of Participatory and Labor-Managed Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-760-5

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Sajal Lahiri and Yoshiyasu Ono

We develop a 2×2×2 model of international trade in which one of the sectors is oligopolistic. The oligopolistic sector consists of a given number of a priori identical…

Abstract

We develop a 2×2×2 model of international trade in which one of the sectors is oligopolistic. The oligopolistic sector consists of a given number of a priori identical firms belonging to one of the two countries, but some deciding to locate in the other country so as to realize higher profits. If a firm locates in the foreign country, its technological capability is assumed to go down due to the alien environment. In this framework we examine the effect of the environment on the level of foreign direct investment and on factor prices in the two countries.

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Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1983

Ulrich Kohli

Using duality theory, we give a simple mathematical proof of some well‐known theorems of international trade theory. The two‐sector production model is described by a…

Abstract

Using duality theory, we give a simple mathematical proof of some well‐known theorems of international trade theory. The two‐sector production model is described by a joint cost function from which the standard comparative statics results can be derived with little difficulty: all that is basically needed is the inversion of a Hessian matrix. This representation of the technology emphasises the importance of the assumption of non‐joint production, and it is useful for generalisation to many goods and factors, for treatment of intermediate products, and for empirical implementation.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Chulho Jung and Khosrow Doroodian

Hourly labor costs in the manufacturing sector of seven EC countries, the USA and Canada are used to test the factor price convergence (FPC) by employing Johansen’s…

Abstract

Hourly labor costs in the manufacturing sector of seven EC countries, the USA and Canada are used to test the factor price convergence (FPC) by employing Johansen’s multivariate cointegration tests. We also examine if there is a two‐way causality in wages between two groups of countries covered in this study. Both objectives are evaluated by developing error‐correction models for Western Europe and North America. Our empirical findings provide support for the FPC and the existence of a long‐run equilibrium cointegration relationship among labor costs in manufacturing. The estimation results of error correction models show that a feedback causality exists between manufacturing labor costs in North America and Western Europe.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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