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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Eric W. Bond and Robert A. Driskill

We extend the Jones (1971) analysis of the effects of distortions in 2×2 trade models to the case of a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model of a small open economy…

Abstract

We extend the Jones (1971) analysis of the effects of distortions in 2×2 trade models to the case of a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model of a small open economy with capital accumulation. We do a comparative steady state analysis for the effect of policy changes on factor prices and the capital stock, and examine the dynamics of the system in the neighborhood of the steady state. We also show that the system will have multiple equilibria when value and physical factor intensity rankings of the sectors do not agree.

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Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Phuong Thi Nguyen and Minh Khac Nguyen

This research identifies the level of misallocation in Vietnamese manufacturing sector for the period 2000–2015. Meltiz and Polanec dynamic productivity decomposition is…

Abstract

Purpose

This research identifies the level of misallocation in Vietnamese manufacturing sector for the period 2000–2015. Meltiz and Polanec dynamic productivity decomposition is used to compare the relative productivity contributions from surviving, entering and exiting firms to aggregate productivity change by the type of ownership. Heckman's two-step model is used to examine the effect of misallocation and industry- and firm-level factors on entry or exit decision and market share of firms in Vietnamese manufacturing sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The level of misallocation and efficiency gains in total factor productivity (TFP) are assessed using Hsieh and Klenow (2009) productivity decomposition framework for the period 2000–2015. The dynamic productivity decomposition of Meltiz and Polanec (2015) is used to compare the relative contributions from surviving, entering and exiting firms to aggregate productivity change. The effects of misallocation and other factors on entry or exit decisions and market share of firms are determined by using Heckman choice model.

Findings

The results indicate three main points. Firstly, resource misallocation is found to be highest among state-owned enterprise (SOEs) and low technology industries. TFP is found to 81.2% greater if there is no resource misallocation among firms. Secondly, the aggregate productivity change for the entering, exiting and surviving firms is 35% due to productivity reallocation among three groups. Finally, the decision of entry or exit as well as the market share of firms are influenced by misallocation and industry- and firm-level factors such as Vietnam's WTO entry, tax policy, financial frictions, industrial concentration, technology gap, capital intensity, human capital, scale of firm, time entry and FDI spillovers. The result finds the higher misallocation level is, the lower the probability and market share for a new firm to enter in the industry is.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of the study is that the market is assumed perfectly competitive and the method has only decomposed misallocation of resources to those arising from output and capital distortions. The results of Heckman choice model only clarify on the sub-sample of state-owned enterprises and low technology firms.

Originality/value

The focus of many previous research papers on resource misallocation was generally to look at the level of misallocation in developed countries. However, knowledge about the effect of misallocation and other factors on entry or exit decisions and market share of firms is limited, particularly in the context of developing countries. This paper clarifies the level of misallocation in Vietnamese manufacturing sector and the effect of misallocation and other factors on entry or exit decisions and market share of firms.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Phuong Thi Nguyen and Minh Khac Nguyen

The purpose of this paper is to examine resource misallocation among Vietnam’s small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector. The paper also aims…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine resource misallocation among Vietnam’s small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector. The paper also aims to consider selective factors on reducing the level of resource misallocation in SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

Resource misallocation and efficiency gains in total factor productivity (TFP) are assessed using Vietnam’s annual enterprise survey data for the period 2000–2015 and an appropriate productivity decomposition framework.

Findings

Resource misallocation is found to be higher among SMEs than large scale enterprises. TFP is found to 116.3 per cent greater if there is no resource misallocation among SMEs. Smaller scale, lower market concentration, trade liberalisation and corruption control are found to be associated with lower level of resource misallocation in SMEs.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study is that it has only decomposed misallocation of resources arising from output and capital distortions and that it focusses on selective factors contribution to reducing misallocation level in SMEs.

Originality/value

Resource misallocation is attracting attention in both developed and developing countries. However, knowledge about resource misallocation among SMEs is limited, particularly in the context of developing countries. This paper assesses the level of resource misallocation among SMEs in Vietnamese manufacturing sector.

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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Subhasankar Chattopadhyay

This paper aims to theoretically find out whether investments could close the formal-informal wage gap in India.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to theoretically find out whether investments could close the formal-informal wage gap in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds a general equilibrium model of a developing economy with a large informal sector and a capital-intensive formal sector with sector-specific capital and incorporates endogenous demand.

Findings

With homothetic preferences, a small initial wage premium and elastic relative demand, investment in the formal sector is likely to close the wage gap, but the gap persists with non-homothetic preferences. However, investment in the informal sector is unlikely to close the wage gap with either type of preferences.

Originality/value

Though labour market distortions in developing economies leading to a formal-informal wage gap are well-documented in the development literature, little attention has been given to the question of whether such a gap would close over time.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Kaiming Guo, Jing Hang and Se Yan

Economic theories on structural change focus on factors such as fluctuations in relative prices and income growth. In addition, China’s reform and opening up has also been…

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Abstract

Purpose

Economic theories on structural change focus on factors such as fluctuations in relative prices and income growth. In addition, China’s reform and opening up has also been accompanied by increasing openness, significant fluctuations in investment rates, and frictions in the labor market. Existing literature lacks a unified theoretical framework to assess the relative importance of all these determinants. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To incorporate all of the potential determinants of China’s structural change, the authors build a two-country four-sector neoclassical growth model that embeds the multi-sector Eaton and Kortum (2002) model of international trade, complete input-output structure, non-homothetic preference and labor market frictions. The authors decompose the sectoral employment shares into six effects: the Baumol, Engel, investment, international trade, factor intensity and labor market friction effects. Using the data of Chinese economy from 1978 to 2011, the authors perform a quantitative investigation of the six determinants’ effects through the decomposition approach and counterfactual exercises.

Findings

Low-income elasticity of demand, high labor intensity, and the existence of the switching costs are the reasons for the high employment share in the agricultural sector. Technological progress, investment and international trade have comparatively less influence on the proportion difference of employment in the three sectors.

Originality/value

Therefore, to examine the impact on China’s structural change, in addition to Baumol effect and the Engel effect, it is also necessary to consider the impact of three more factors: international trade, investment and switching costs. Therefore, the authors decompose the factors that may influence China’s structural change into the Baumol, Engel, investment, international trade, factor intensity effect and switching cost effects. The authors evaluate these six effects using the decomposition approach and counterfactual exercises.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

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Article
Publication date: 13 December 2019

Fuqian Fang

Western economics came into being with the rise of the capitalist market economy. It had a nature of duality beginning from its birth: the justificativeness of providing…

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Abstract

Purpose

Western economics came into being with the rise of the capitalist market economy. It had a nature of duality beginning from its birth: the justificativeness of providing theoretical pillars for the capitalist market economy system and the scientificity of revealing the internal relations and operating rules of the capitalist market economy. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

However, after the 1830s, this justificativeness gradually evolved into vulgarity. Since the 1930s, modern western mainstream economics has mainly explored the general market economy on the assumption that the capitalist system remains unchanged, and many outcomes of such research are positive and beneficial.

Findings

Political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics, at the present stage, is mainly a Chinese socialist market economics. It is guided by the Marxist political economy and rooted in the great practice of China’s reform and opening up and socialist modernization.

Originality/value

According to political complexion, western economic theories can be divided into political economic theory, mainstream economic theory and basic economic theory. By subjecting these theories to what we term “elimination,” “transformation” and “transplantation” surgeries, respectively, we can absorb and accommodate their beneficial elements in building a political economy of socialism with Chinese characteristics, which in turn is conducive to the development and prosperity of such an economy.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Zafiris Tzannatos

This article examines the possible long‐run effects of the Sex Discrimination Act upon output, male wages and female wages after the hypothetical abolition of occupational…

Abstract

This article examines the possible long‐run effects of the Sex Discrimination Act upon output, male wages and female wages after the hypothetical abolition of occupational differentials between men and women in Britain. If male and female employment distributions were equalised on the assumption that men and women had the same productive characteristics and no employers' discrimination were allowed, then the movement of female workers from low‐paid to high‐paid occupations should result in efficiency gains and an increase in female wages probably at low losses to male wages. The findings of our simulations indicate that the improvement in female wages would be considerable at little cost to male wages. Efficiency gains are found to depend crucially on the assumed elasticity of substitution between female and male labour, but it is more likely that gains would be much higher than those suggested by other related studies on the misallocation of labour. This should not be a surprise because women are the largest “minority” group and are also the most underutilised factor of production.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2004

Abstract

Details

Environmental Policy International Trade and Factor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-708-1

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Sugata Marjit and Eden S.H. Yu

The collection of essays in this volume provides fairly comprehensive analyses of contemporary theoretical and policy issues in international trade. As technological…

Abstract

The collection of essays in this volume provides fairly comprehensive analyses of contemporary theoretical and policy issues in international trade. As technological revolution eliminates communications costs and the countries gear towards more open trade regimes through negotiations at the WTO, the world effectively gets smaller. The evolution of research in trade theory and policy has closely followed the trends in global economy. Issues such as how trade affects distribution of income across and within nations, generates resources for growth, leads to bilateral and multilateral cooperation and conflicts, and many others have been picked up and analyzed systematically in various chapters of this volume. Before we go into the details of the relevant sections and constituent chapters, it is worthwhile to emphasize two special features of this volume.

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Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2013

Rana Hasan, Devashish Mitra and Asha Sundaram

This study aims to focus on the role of labor regulation and credit market imperfections, in addition to that of factor endowments, in determining capital intensities in…

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1019

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the role of labor regulation and credit market imperfections, in addition to that of factor endowments, in determining capital intensities in Indian manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers an alternative approach to identifying the effects of India ' s labor regulations on industrial performance. In particular, the paper uses a measure of the stringency of labor regulations across countries – one that is completely independent of the India-specific measures used by earlier studies – and examines its relationship with capital intensities across manufacturing industries. Additionally, since labor regulations are unlikely to be the only reason for imperfections in factor markets, the paper also examines whether and to what extent capital market imperfections affect capital intensities across manufacturing industries. The paper then presents a case study that seeks to ascertain whether actual capital intensities prevailing in Indian manufacturing in major industry groups from 1989 to 1996 were larger than predicted capital intensities for these industry groups based on relative factor demand functions estimated for the USA (a country with relatively less restrictive labor laws and a more developed financial system) evaluated at Indian wages. Finally, the paper uses a recently available dataset to compare capital intensities in Indian and Chinese manufacturing to investigate the behavior of these two emerging Asian economies since 1980, when they started out with relatively similar socio-economic conditions.

Findings

The paper finds that India uses more capital-intensive techniques of production in manufacturing than countries at similar levels of development (and similar factor endowments), including China. For a majority of manufacturing industries, labor freedom and capital market development are, in addition to factor endowments, important determinants of capital intensity of production techniques used. Results reveal that, controlling for factor prices, India specializes in more capital-intensive varieties within broad industry groups relative to the USA, a more capital-abundant economy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors ' knowledge, such a study has not been done for any other country. The paper sheds light on the important issue regarding the use of capital-intensive techniques in manufacturing in India, which is a labor-abundant country. The role of labor regulation has been extensively debated and the paper also investigates its role along with the role played by credit market imperfections.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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