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Article

Amalia Juneström

By exploring the social features of contemporary fact-checking this study aims to increase our understanding of fact-checking as a genre and shed light on some of the…

Abstract

Purpose

By exploring the social features of contemporary fact-checking this study aims to increase our understanding of fact-checking as a genre and shed light on some of the aspects that underpin the communication that fact-checkers engage in.

Design/methodology/approach

By analyzing one snapshot of early COVID-19 coverage by three well-known fact-checkers and another one six months later, this study explores fact-checking as a genre. The material was examined for recurrent characteristics and the findings were categorized into corresponding themes that emerged through an open coding process.

Findings

Three aspects were found to underpin a contemporary fact-checking genre. Firstly, the fact-checkers strive to facilitate accessibility. Secondly, the notion of building trust underlies the way fact-checkers promote themselves. Thirdly, fact-checking is underpinned by a pedagogical aspect. While the values and beliefs that are known to characterize traditional news media discourses are predominant in the construction of a fact-checking genre, fact-checkers also draw on conceptions typically found within academia to enact professional practices.

Originality/value

Contemporary fact-checking is still a fairly unexplored topic of research. This is particularly the case outside the field of journalism and media studies. This study complements earlier research from the perspective of information studies by exploring how fact-checking practices impact the communication and production of news in society.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part

Philip S. Gorski

What is the relationship between the descriptive and the normative? The usual answer, in the social sciences, is based on a sharp distinction between facts and values…

Abstract

What is the relationship between the descriptive and the normative? The usual answer, in the social sciences, is based on a sharp distinction between facts and values. This chapter reprises and radicalizes long-standing critiques of the fact/value distinction, proposes an alternative theory of ontic webs in its stead, and then uses it to delineate six different forms of public sociology. It argues that facts are value-laden and values fact-laden; that facts and values are entangled in webs of belief and practice; and that attributions of causation and moral responsibility are connected via ontological assumptions. Effective public sociology therefore requires a combination of ontological extension and moral translation.

Details

Religion, Humility, and Democracy in a Divided America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-949-7

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Article

Michael Seadle

The purpose of this column is to look at how US copyright law deals with facts and what can reasonably be considered as a fact.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this column is to look at how US copyright law deals with facts and what can reasonably be considered as a fact.

Design/methodology/approach

The US statutes and case law are examined, as well as standard practices within academic settings for the use and analysis of facts.

Findings

Using facts may require a risk assessment under certain circumstances. Although facts cannot be protected under US law, compilations of facts can have protection under the European Database Directive, and certain apparent facts, such as normal human body temperature, represent judgments based on extensive research and analysis. It is not always clear when a research result achieves the status of a fact and is therefore exempt from copyright protection.

Originality/value

The use of facts is an essential part of scholarly work and factual compilations are important tools for many scholarly communities. Understanding how far facts may be used and manipulated helps researchers and teachers who have grown anxious about copyright infringement.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Abstract

Details

Financial Derivatives: A Blessing or a Curse?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-245-0

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Book part

Paul J. Kaplan

Recent trends against capital punishment raise the question of whether or when the U.S. is going to abolish the death penalty. One way of investigating this possibility is…

Abstract

Recent trends against capital punishment raise the question of whether or when the U.S. is going to abolish the death penalty. One way of investigating this possibility is to study the work of capital prosecutors. In this chapter I analyze California capital prosecutors through a close reading of trial transcripts and interviews. The results show that prosecutor discourses evince a paradox – while instantiating powerful ideological themes that may underlie state killing, prosecutors also assert the primacy of ‘facts’ and ‘law.’ While this tension does not represent a strict measure of capital punishment's lifespan, its presence suggests that these types of tensions are not enough to change the law, thereby hinting that while the death penalty may be weakened in the United States, it is not close to dying.

Details

Special Issue: Is the Death Penalty Dying?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1467-6

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Article

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and…

Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the…

Abstract

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Rita Marcella, Graeme Baxter and Agnieszka Walicka

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study that explored human behaviour in response to political “facts” presented online by political parties in Scotland.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study that explored human behaviour in response to political “facts” presented online by political parties in Scotland.

Design/methodology/approach

The study consisted of interactive online interviews with 23 citizens in North-East Scotland, in the run-up to the 2017 UK General Election.

Findings

Participants demonstrated cognitive and critical responses to facts but little affective reaction. They judged facts swiftly and largely intuitively, providing evidence that facts are frequently consumed, accepted or rejected without further verification processes. Users demonstrated varying levels of engagement with the information they consume, and subject knowledge may influence the extent to which respondents trust facts, in previously unanticipated ways. Users tended to notice facts with which they disagreed and, in terms of prominence, particularly noted and responded to facts which painted extremely negative or positive pictures. Most acknowledged limitations in capacity to interrogate facts, but some were delusionally confident.

Originality/value

Relatively little empirical research has been conducted exploring the perceived credibility of political or government information online. It is believed that this and a companion study are the first to have specifically investigated the Scottish political arena. This paper presents a new, exploratory fact interrogation model, alongside an expanded information quality awareness model.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 75 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Sekharan Sreejith and Sishaj P. Simon

The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of static VAR compensator (SVC) and unified power flow controller (UPFC) in dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of static VAR compensator (SVC) and unified power flow controller (UPFC) in dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem. DED schedules the online generator outputs with the predicted load demands over a certain period so that the electric power system is operated most economically. During last decade, flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) devices are broadly used for maximizing the loadability of existing power system transmission networks. However, based on the literature survey, the performance of SVC and UPFC incorporated in the DED problem and its cost–benefit analysis are not discussed earlier in any of the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Here, the DED problem is solved applying ABC algorithm incorporating SVC and UPFC. The following conditions are investigated with the incorporation of SVC and UPFC into DED problem: the role of SVC and UPFC for improving the power flow and voltage profile and the approximate analysis on cost recovery and payback period with SVC and UPFC in DED problem.

Findings

The incorporation of FACTS devices reduces the generation cost and improves the stability of the system. The percentage cost recovered with FACTS devices is estimated approximately using equated monthly installment (EMI) and non-EMI scheme. It is clear from the illustrations that the installation of FACTS devices is profitable after a certain period.

Research limitations/implications

In this research work, the generation cost with FACTS devices is only taken into account while calculating the profit. The other benefits like congestion management, cost gained due to land and cost due to stability issues are not considered. For future work, these things can be considered while calculating the benefit.

Originality/value

The originality of the work is incorporation of FACTS devices in DED problem and approximate estimation of recovery cost with FACTS devices in DED problem.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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