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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Kuan Cheng Lin, Tien‐Chi Huang, Jason C. Hung, Neil Y. Yen and Szu Ju Chen

This study aims to introduce an affective computing‐based method of identifying student understanding throughout a distance learning course.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to introduce an affective computing‐based method of identifying student understanding throughout a distance learning course.

Design/methodology/approach

The study proposed a learning emotion recognition model that included three phases: feature extraction and generation, feature subset selection and emotion recognition. Features are extracted from facial images and transform a given measument of facial expressions to a new set of features defining and computing by eigenvectors. Feature subset selection uses the immune memory clone algorithms to optimize the feature selection. Emotion recognition uses a classifier to build the connection between facial expression and learning emotion.

Findings

Experimental results using the basic expression of facial expression recognition research database, JAFFE, show that the proposed facial expression recognition method has high classification performance. The experiment results also show that the recognition of spontaneous facial expressions is effective in the synchronous distance learning courses.

Originality/value

The study shows that identifying student comprehension based on facial expression recognition in synchronous distance learning courses is feasible. This can help instrutors understand the student comprehension real time. So instructors can adapt their teaching materials and strategy to fit with the learning status of students.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2014

Kerstin Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Holger Hoffmann, Steffen Walter, Sascha Gruss, David Hrabal and Harald C. Traue

Emotion recognition and emotion expression/regulation are important aspects of emotional intelligence (EI). Although the construct of EI is widely used and its components…

Abstract

Emotion recognition and emotion expression/regulation are important aspects of emotional intelligence (EI). Although the construct of EI is widely used and its components are part of many investigations, there is still no sufficient picture set that can be used for systematic research of facial emotion recognition and practical applications of individual assessments. In this research we present a new Facial Action Coding System validated picture set consisting of six emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise). Basic principles of stimulus development and evaluation process are described. The PFA-U can be used for future studies in organization for the assessment of emotion recognition, emotion stimulation, and emotion management.

Details

Individual Sources, Dynamics, and Expressions of Emotion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-889-1

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Rosa Angela Fabio, Sonia Esposito, Cristina Carrozza, Gaetana Pino and Tindara Caprì

Various studies have examined the role of executive functions in autism, but there is a lack of research in the current literature on cognitive flexibility in autism…

Abstract

Purpose

Various studies have examined the role of executive functions in autism, but there is a lack of research in the current literature on cognitive flexibility in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether cognitive flexibility deficits could be related to facial emotion recognition deficits in ASD.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 20 children with ASD and 20 typically developing children, matched for intelligence quotient and gender, were examined both in facial emotion recognition tasks and in cognitive flexibility tasks through the dimensional change card sorting task.

Findings

Despite cognitive flexibility not being a core deficit in ASD, impaired cognitive flexibility is evident in the present research. Results show that cognitive flexibility is related to facial emotion recognition and support the hypothesis of an executive specific deficit in children with autism.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limit is the use of just one cognitive test to measure cognitive flexibility and facial recognition. This could be important to be taken into account in the new research. By increasing the number of common variables assessing cognitive flexibility, this will allow for a better comparison between studies to characterize impairment in cognitive flexibility in ASD.

Practical implications

Investigating impairment in cognitive flexibility may help to plan training intervention based on the induction of flexibility.

Social implications

If the authors implement cognitive flexibility people with ASD can have also an effect on their social behavior and overcome the typical and repetitive behaviors that are the hallmark of ASD.

Originality/value

The originality is to relate cognitive flexibility deficits to facial emotion.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Kevin J. Eschleman and Nathan A. Bowling

Theorists, such as Darwin and Aristotle, have long argued that facial expressions communicate information about a person's emotional state. Recently, validated coding…

Abstract

Theorists, such as Darwin and Aristotle, have long argued that facial expressions communicate information about a person's emotional state. Recently, validated coding strategies for facial expressions have been developed, which enable researchers to reliably assess a person's affect. Although social, health, and clinical psychologists have regularly employed these objective measures of facial expressions (OMFE), occupational stress and well-being researchers are yet to benefit from this method. The subsequent chapter integrates the facial expression and occupational well-being literature. Specifically, we discuss the advantages of OMFE over self-reports and implications of OMFE for future research on occupational well-being.

Details

New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Agnieszka Landowska

The purpose of this paper is to explore uncertainty inherent in emotion recognition technologies and the consequences resulting from that phenomenon.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore uncertainty inherent in emotion recognition technologies and the consequences resulting from that phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a general overview of the concept; however, it is based on a meta-analysis of multiple experimental and observational studies performed over the past couple of years.

Findings

The main finding of the paper might be summarized as follows: there is uncertainty inherent in emotion recognition technologies, and the phenomenon is not expressed enough, not addressed enough and unknown by the users of the technology.

Practical implications

Practical implications of the study are formulated as postulates for the developers, users and researchers dealing with the technologies of automatic emotion recognition.

Social implications

As technologies that recognize emotions are becoming more and more common, and perhaps more decisions influencing people lives are to come in the next decades, the trustworthiness of the technology is important from a scientific, practical and ethical point of view.

Originality/value

Studying uncertainty of emotion recognition technologies is a novel approach and is not explored from such a broad perspective before.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

Julia Babcock and Jared Michonski

The purpose of this paper is to examine the associations among psychopathic and borderline traits, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sensitivity to facial affect. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the associations among psychopathic and borderline traits, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sensitivity to facial affect. The authors hypothesized that IPV men high in psychopathic traits would exhibit reduced sensitivity to expressions of distress specifically (fear + sadness), while IPV men high in borderline traits would show heightened sensitivity to facial affect more generally.

Design/methodology/approach

A community sample of 79 IPV men in heterosexual relationships were exposed to slides of facial affect displays while psychophysiological reactions were recorded. Sensitivity to facial affect was operationalized as accuracy in recognizing and skin conductance responses (SCR) while viewing discrete facial expressions.

Findings

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) features were positively related to accuracy in labeling fear and surprise while primary psychopathy (Factor 1) was negatively related to accuracy in labeling disgust. Borderline traits were positively associated with SCR while primary psychopathy was negatively associated with SCR while viewing slides of facial affect. Secondary psychopathy (Factor 2) follows the same physiological patterns of BPD traits but the correlates are weaker. Results suggest that IPV men high in traits of primary psychopathy show hypoarousal whereas those high borderline features show hyperarousal to facial emotions.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include a small sample of heterosexual violent community couples. Women’s IPV was not analyzed. Findings suggest that BPD and primary psychopathy traits are diametrically opposite in SCR, making them powerful comparison groups for psychophysiological studies. Findings challenge Blair’s (1995) model of a specific deficit in processing distress cues for individuals high in psychopathic traits. Rather results suggest that IPV men high in traits of primary psychopathy show more pervasive hypoarousal to facial emotion. The hyperarousal of men high in BPD traits across facial expressions supports Linehan’s (1993) emotional vulnerability model of borderline personality disorder.

Practical implications

Differences in psychophysiological responding to emotions may be clinically relevant in the motivations for violence perpetration. The hypoarousal associated with primary psychopathy may facilitate the perpetration of proactive violence. The hyperarousal associated with BPD and secondary psychopathy may be fundamental in the perpetration of reactive violence. Treatment matching by IPV perpetrators’ personality traits may improve the efficacy of battering intervention programs. Perpetrators high in borderline personality features may benefit from emotional regulation therapies, such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy. IPV men high in traits of primary psychopathy may benefit from affective empathy and validation training.

Social implications

Currently, battering intervention programs show little efficacy in reducing intimate partner recidivism. Experimental psychopathology studies such as this one may inform advocates seeking to develop new, tailored treatment packages for partner violence offenders with different personality disorder traits.

Originality/value

Many treatment providers assume that men who batter women have deficits in empathy and emotional intelligence. However, this study suggests that rather than global deficits, deficits depend on personality traits. The current study is the first to assess psychophysiological reactivity in response to facial affect displays among IPV perpetrators. Examining SCR responding to photos of facial affect may be used in future studies of affect sensitivity.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Alastair G. Tombs, Rebekah Russell-Bennett and Neal M. Ashkanasy

– This study aims to test service providers’ ability to recognise non-verbal emotions in complaining customers of same and different cultures.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test service providers’ ability to recognise non-verbal emotions in complaining customers of same and different cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

In a laboratory study, using a between-subjects experimental design (n = 153), we tested the accuracy of service providers’ perceptions of the emotional expressions of anger, fear, shame and happiness of customers from varying cultural backgrounds. After viewing video vignettes of customers complaining (with the audio removed), participants (in the role of service providers) assessed the emotional state of the customers portrayed in the video.

Findings

Service providers in culturally mismatched dyads were prone to misreading anger, happiness and shame expressed by dissatisfied customers. Happiness was misread in the displayed emotions of both dyads. Anger was recognisable in the Anglo customers but not Confucian Asian, while Anglo service providers misread both shame and happiness in Confucian Asian customers.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in the laboratory and was based solely on participant’s perceptions of actors’ non-verbal facial expressions in a single encounter.

Practical implications

Given the level of ethnic differences in developed nations, a culturally sensitive workplace is needed to foster effective functioning of service employee teams. Ability to understand cultural display rules and to recognise and interpret emotions is an important skill for people working in direct contact with customers.

Originality/value

This research addresses the lack of empirical evidence for the recognition of customer emotions by service providers and the impact of cross-cultural differences.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Ong Chin Ann and Lau Bee Theng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate an idea of producing an assistive and augmentative communication (AAC) tool that uses natural human computer interfacing to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate an idea of producing an assistive and augmentative communication (AAC) tool that uses natural human computer interfacing to accommodate the disabilities of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and assist them in their daily communication.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed a prototype that recognizes the real time detected emotions display on the face and send alerts to the caretakers through Short Messaging System (SMS) or loud speaker.

Findings

The evaluation result shows that the proposed prototype recognizes real time facial expressions from the children with CP with an average of 79.4 per cent, and a maximum of 88.3 per cent (standard deviation of 7.4 per cent) on ten children with CP. Evaluations were also conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the prototype to deliver critical expression messages to their caretakers. The result showed that 98.5 per cent of SMS was sent successfully to the caretakers (pre‐defined mobile phone number) with an average waiting time of 8.3 seconds.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates the potential of the proposed prototype to assist children with CP to communicate with their caretakers in real time.

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Boyan Bontchev and Dessislava Vassileva

This paper aims to clarify how affect-based adaptation can improve implicit recognition of playing style of individuals during game sessions. This study presents the “Rush…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify how affect-based adaptation can improve implicit recognition of playing style of individuals during game sessions. This study presents the “Rush for Gold” game using dynamic difficulty adjustment of tasks based on both player performance and affectation inferred through electrodermal activity and facial expressions of the player. The game applies linear regression for calculating playing styles to be applied for achieving a style-based adaptation in other educational video games.

Design/methodology/approach

The experimental procedure included subject selection, demonstration, informed consent procedure, two game sessions in random order – one without and another with affective adaptation control – and post-game self-report. The experiment was conducted with participation of 30 master students and university lecturers in informatics.

Findings

This study presents experimental results concerning the impact of affective adaptation over playing style recognition, game session time, task’s effectiveness, efficiency and difficulty and, as well, player’s assessment of affectively adaptive gameplay obtained by an adaptation control panel embedded into the game and by post-game self-report.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed adaptive game limits recognised styles to such based on the Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory model. Another limitation of the study is the relatively small number of participants constrained by the extended experimental procedure and the desktop game version.

Originality/value

The paper presents an original research on the effect of affect-based adaptation on a novel approach for implicit recognition of playing styles.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2015

Jim A. McCleskey

This chapter examines EI, presents a history of EI including the various models, and a discussion of the three streams approach to classifying EI literature. The author…

Abstract

This chapter examines EI, presents a history of EI including the various models, and a discussion of the three streams approach to classifying EI literature. The author advocates for the efficacy of the Stream One Ability Model (SOAM) of EI citing previous authors and literature. The commonly used SOAM instruments are discussed in light of recent studies. The discussion turns to alternate tests of the SOAM of EI including Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs). Recommendations include an analysis of SOAM instruments, a new approach to measurement, and increased use of SJTs to capture the four-branch ability model of EI.

Details

New Ways of Studying Emotions in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-220-7

Keywords

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