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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2010

Edward W. Miles

Implicitly, the negotiation literature has generally assumed that, if economic gains are sufficient, individuals will negotiate. However, recent research has begun to…

Abstract

Purpose

Implicitly, the negotiation literature has generally assumed that, if economic gains are sufficient, individuals will negotiate. However, recent research has begun to consider the social costs incurred by negotiating. This paper aims to develop a conceptual model of the role of one of those social costs – threat to face – in the decision of whether to negotiate or not to negotiate.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach was to combine relevant literature from face theory and from negotiation to develop and support a model of the role of face in the decision to negotiate or not to negotiate.

Findings

A model was developed which proposed that, if people believe that negotiating will result in a loss of face, they are less likely to negotiate in situations that they recognize are potentially negotiable. Six variables are proposed to be antecedents to the belief that negotiating could result in loss of face. These six are divided into categories of social context (social roles and status), individual differences (face threat sensitivity and negotiation self‐efficacy), and knowledge (knowledge of negotiation scripts and knowledge of negotiation content).

Originality/value

The question of why some people do not negotiate when the potential for economic gains would suggest that they should negotiate has received very little attention in the negotiation literature. This model provides one theoretical approach for exploring this phenomenon.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

Stella Ting‐Toomey, Ge Gao, Paula Trubisky, Zhizhong Yang, Hak Soo Kim, Sung‐Ling Lin and Tsukasa Nishida

The objective of this study was to test Ting‐Toomey's (1988a) theory on conflict facenegotiation. More specifically, the study examined the relationship between face

Abstract

The objective of this study was to test Ting‐Toomey's (1988a) theory on conflict facenegotiation. More specifically, the study examined the relationship between face maintenance dimensions and conflict styles in Japan, China, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The results were summarized as follows: (1) Cultural variability of individualism‐collectivism influences two face maintenance dimensions—self‐face concern and other‐face concern; (2) Cultural variability influences conflict styles, with U.S. members using a higher degree of dominating conflict style than their Japanese and Korean cohorts, and the Chinese and Taiwanese members using a higher degree of obliging and avoiding conflict management styles than their U.S. counterparts; (3) Overall, face maintenance dimensions served as better predictors to conflict styles rather than conflict styles to face dimensions; (4) Self‐face maintenance was associated strongly with dominating conflict style, and other‐face maintenance was associated strongly with avoiding, integrating, and compromising styles of conflict management. Directions for future testing of the conflict facenegotiation theory were proffered.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Frances P. Brew, David and R. Cairns

Ting‐Toomey's (1988) facenegotiation theory of conflict predicts that choice of conflict style is closely associated with facenegotiation needs, which vary across…

Abstract

Ting‐Toomey's (1988) facenegotiation theory of conflict predicts that choice of conflict style is closely associated with facenegotiation needs, which vary across cultures. This study investigated this prediction in a workplace setting involving status and face‐concern with a sample of 163 Anglo‐Australian and 133 Chinese university students who were working full or part‐time. The association of type of communication (direct or cautious) according to type of face‐threat (self or other) and work status (subordinate, co‐worker or superior) with preferences for three conflict management styles (control, solution‐oriented, non‐confrontational) was examined for the two cultural groups. The results showed that: (1) as predicted by the individualist‐collectivist dimension, Anglo respondents rated assertive conflict styles higher and the non‐confrontational style lower than their Chinese counterparts; (2) overall, both Anglo and Chinese respondents preferred more direct communication strategies when self‐face was threatened compared with other‐face threat; (3) status moderated responses to self and other‐face threat for both Anglos and Chinese; (4) face‐threat was related to assertive and diplomatic conflict styles for Anglos and passive and solution‐oriented styles for Chinese. Support was shown for Ting‐Toomey's theory; however the results indicated that, in applied settings, simple predictions based on only cultural dichotomies might have reduced power due to workplace role perceptions having some influence. The findings were discussed in relation to areas of convergence and the two cultural groups; widening the definition of “face”; and providing a more flexible model of conflict management incorporating both Eastern and Western perspectives.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

John Oetzel, Adolfo J. Garcia and Stella Ting‐Toomey

Prior research demonstrates the importance of face in conflict situations. However, the direct relationship of face concerns to facework behaviors has limited empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research demonstrates the importance of face in conflict situations. However, the direct relationship of face concerns to facework behaviors has limited empirical support. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among self‐, other‐, and mutual‐face concern and 11 facework strategies within Chinese, Japanese, German, and USA national cultures in recalled conflict situations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted by administering a survey to 768 participants from China, Japan, Germany, and the USA who recalled a conflict situation. Participants completed a self‐report questionnaire about their attitudes and conflict behaviors during a recalled conflict. Regression analysis and comparisons of correlations were utilized to examine relationships between face concerns and facework across the four cultures.

Findings

The major findings are: other‐face is associated with remain calm, apologize, private discussion, giving in and pretend positively and express emotion negatively; self‐face is associated with defend positively; mutual‐face is associated with aggression negatively; associations among face concern and facework strategies have some cultural differences, but are largely consistent for the pan‐cultural relationships among face and facework.

Research limitations/implications

Provides evidence that many of the face/facework relationships are consistent across cultures; uses self‐report questionnaires to operationalize attitudes and behaviors about conflict which are subject to self‐serving bias.

Practical implications

The findings are useful for scholars and practitioners interested in intercultural communication, negotiation, and conflict. The findings suggest that training participants about face concerns and facework may be fruitful for improving conflict management. Such training needs to consider cultural differences.

Originality/value

The research endeavor directly identifies what relationships exist between face concern and facework. The link was assumed but has limited empirical support and none cross‐culturally.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2019

M. Afzalur Rahim and Jeffrey P. Katz

Previous studies examining the relationship between gender and conflict-management strategies have generally reported weak or inconsistent results. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies examining the relationship between gender and conflict-management strategies have generally reported weak or inconsistent results. This paper aims to study extends past research by examining the main and interactive effects of gender on conflict-management strategies over time. The authors propose that conflict-management strategies commonly employed in the workplace are impacted by worker gender as predicted by face negotiation theory and vary over time based on the “generation” of the worker.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the study hypotheses, a field study was conducted to assess main and interactive effects of gender and generation on the five strategies for conflict management: Integrating, obliging, dominating, avoiding and compromising. Questionnaire data were collected over four decades (1980s-2010s) from employed students (N = 6,613). Data analysis was performed using a multivariate analysis of covariance.

Findings

The results suggest female employees consistently use more noncompeting strategies (integrating, obliging, avoiding and compromising) than male employees and male employees consistently use more competing strategy (dominating) than female employees. All the main and interaction effects were significant.

Research limitations/implications

While this study involved primarily students in the USA studying management at two major public universities, there may be implications for a more global population of workers. However, the results support the notion advanced by face negotiation theory that men will generally seek to save face while women will generally avoid conflict in consideration of others.

Practical implications

This study demonstrates that workers employ different conflict-management strategies over time and the use of certain strategies varies by gender. An implication of this study is the need to regularly reassess selection, training and evaluation processes for managers. In addition, supervisors should encourage employees to enhance the effective use of cooperative (integrating, obliging and compromising) strategies and focus on specific situations when uncooperative strategies (dominating and avoiding) may be needed.

Originality/value

By using face negotiation theory as the organizing framework to examine changes in conflict-management strategies over time, this study contributes in a substantial way to the understanding of how gender and generation interact to influence the selection and use of conflict-management strategies in the workplace.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Laura E. Drake

This project focuses specifically on how intercultural negotiating differences are evidenced communicatively. Evidence suggests that negotiators deal differently with…

Abstract

This project focuses specifically on how intercultural negotiating differences are evidenced communicatively. Evidence suggests that negotiators deal differently with internationals than domestics. Therefore, it is important to move beyond within‐culture comparisons as a basis for predicting intercultural negotiation processes. This paper tests empirically the endurance of culturally‐associated negotiation styles in inter‐cultural negotiations between Americans and Taiwanese. Results suggest that culture does exert some global effects in face‐to‐face encounters with cultural outsiders. Other aspects of negotiation are managed locally, so that predicted cultural differences do not emerge in interaction.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2014

Tak Wing Yiu and Yuet Nog Chung

In construction, the involvement of complex human interactions and incompatible interests among negotiating parties would pose as an obstacle in any negotiation process…

Abstract

Purpose

In construction, the involvement of complex human interactions and incompatible interests among negotiating parties would pose as an obstacle in any negotiation process. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of face in governing the behaviour of negotiating parties.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper identified the generic types of face-saving tactics used by construction negotiators, investigated the tactic-outcome relationships and examined the effects of face-inducement factors on these relationships with the use of moderated multiple regression (MMR).

Findings

A taxonomy of face-saving tactics has been developed by employing the technique of principal component of factor analysis. The results suggest that the use of face-saving tactics in construction negotiation would statistically result in an achievement of mutual agreement, maintenance of harmony and avoidance of offending situations. The MMR models finally affirm that some tactic-outcome relationships would significantly depend on the face-inducement factors.

Research limitations/implications

This research highlights the usefulness of face-saving tactics in construction negotiation.

Practical implications

The findings revealed that these tactics can help facilitate the achievement of mutual agreement, maintain harmony and avoid offending situations. In this connection, an awareness of the proper use of face-saving tactics is worth-noticing in order to have successful dealings in negotiating project disputes.

Originality/value

In construction, there are some distinct features which may influence the use of face-saving tactics and the behaviour of project dispute negotiators. The findings of this research would provide an insight into promoting proactive and collaborative project dispute resolution.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Stephen M. Croucher, Stephanie Kelly, Hui Chen and Doug Ashwell

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between face concerns, articulated (upward) dissent and organizational assimilation. In this study, articulated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between face concerns, articulated (upward) dissent and organizational assimilation. In this study, articulated dissent was conceptualized as a type of dissent.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was distributed to 370 working adults in the USA via Qualtrics. The questionnaire measured five face concerns, namely, self, other and mutual-face, articulated dissent and organizational assimilation. Before hypothesis testing, each measure was subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis to ensure that the hypothesized factor structure held. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares estimation were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Conceptualizing dissent as a type of conflict, the findings of the current study are as follows: self-face and assimilation are positively correlated, other-face and assimilation are positively correlated, mutual-face and assimilation are positively correlated, assimilation and articulated dissent are positively correlated and organizational assimilation mediated the relationship between mutual-face and articulated dissent.

Research limitations/implications

Theoretically, the self-presentation process (face) is more critical as a person becomes part of an organization; it is through assimilating into an organization that members become familiar with the norms of an organization and more comfortable dissenting to their superiors (articulated dissent); and the more the authors integrate with the work colleagues the more the authors engage in mutual face-saving.

Practical implications

The results of this study demonstrate that self-presentation is critical as a person becomes part of an organization, particularly when it comes to managing conflict.

Originality/value

This is the first study to link facework with organizational dissent. The results add to the understanding of how face affects whether we choose to express this kind of conflict behavior.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2007

Yunxia Zhu, Bernard McKenna and Zhu Sun

Negotiating with the Chinese is an important topic in international business and cross‐cultural management since China is playing an increasingly active role in doing…

Abstract

Purpose

Negotiating with the Chinese is an important topic in international business and cross‐cultural management since China is playing an increasingly active role in doing business with the western countries. The purpose of this paper is to study initial meetings with the Chinese during business negotiation processes. In particular, it seeks to explore the processes of negotiation between the Chinese, Australian and American cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

The discussion is based on authentic cases collected from meetings which took place in both China and Australia, and the negotiation cases are analysed in the theoretical framework based on cross‐cultural negotiation processes and intercultural dimensions.

Findings

The findings indicate that success of initial meetings is an important key to determine success for business negotiations.

Originality/value

The paper is of value through highlighting the fact that initial meetings with the Chinese can be seen as essential to negotiation since the Chinese tend to develop relationship or guanxi first before the actual negotiation takes place.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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