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This chapter examines the origins and institutionalization of sport sociology in Germany and Switzerland and provides an overview of the current state of research. It…
This chapter examines the origins and institutionalization of sport sociology in Germany and Switzerland and provides an overview of the current state of research. It shows how academic chairs and research committees were established and how the first textbooks, anthologies, and journals appeared from the 1970s onwards. The institutionalization process of German-speaking sport sociology proceeded parallel to the establishment of sport science. With regard to its theoretical and empirical basis, German-speaking sport sociology is rooted in theories and concepts of general sociology. Studies using a system theory perspective, conceptualizing sport as a societal sub-system and examining its linkage with and dependence on economy, media, or politics are particularly common in the German-speaking region. In addition, actor theoretic perspectives are very popular, and French sociologists such as Bourdieu and Foucault have had a marked influence on German-speaking sport sociology. A large number of sport sociology studies are concerned with the changes in leisure and elite sports. In this context, the emergence of new trends in risk sports as well as the fitness boom and its implications on body perception are of special interest. Further areas of research refer to sport participation and the impact of social inequality, particularly with respect to gender differences and social integration. Finally, organization research focusing on change at the level of sport associations and clubs has a long tradition. Major challenges for the future of German-speaking sport sociology include its internationalization and an enhanced international linkage in order to improve the visibility of research results.
The objective of this paper is to provide insight into how the practice of sports, commonly known as a pastime or leisure activity, highlights the human agent as an…
The objective of this paper is to provide insight into how the practice of sports, commonly known as a pastime or leisure activity, highlights the human agent as an organisational resource and pulling force, and how it can lie within the framework of general employee management policies. But which functions can sport fulfil?
In order to answer this question, qualitative surveys were conducted at ten company sites in France (Adidas France, Apple, 3M, Caisse d'Epargne, Crédit Immobilier de France, Lilly France, Lohr Industrie, Nestlé France, Steelcase International, Würth France). A total of 14 interviews with decision makers on company sport policies were conducted. The empirical data were then cross‐examined in two competitor observations: Steelcase and 3M France.
The study illustrates that sport at companies can take on multiple functions and forms: structures in situ, events, company sporting associations, sponsorship, and so forth. Its functions are often interrelated and integrated into human resources management (as training and motivational tools) and both internal and external communication policies. Furthermore, they contribute to the social policy of the company. Therefore, sport in business is a contributor to defining a company's identity by highlighting intangible and human resources.
This research, completed in large manufacturing and service companies, does not mention the range of sports actions carried out within the framework of intercultural management of multinationals. It could be extended to cover small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) to verify the findings. The research does not deal with the effectiveness of sports actions on employees. Only an employee investigation on accepting management practices would permit the verbalization their feeling of belonging to a company and their job involvement.
This paper describes possibilities to evolve human relations through a sporting means. Collective mobilizing around sports attracts just as much top management as “secondary executives”. It creates network relations outside traditional work circuits and helps develop governance methods, management and human resources management practices, and the nature of human relations.
This paper shows how companies – although obsessed by economic performance – give the opportunity to empower staff through the means of sporting leisure activities for the purpose of a managerial target. This study unveils the uses and functions of sport in companies, and its associated attributes. It furthermore reveals contemporary transformations in the entrepreneurial world: new management styles and re‐enchantment of the company by diffusing the image of an entrepreneurial employee. Henceforth, the man or woman in the company is more than ever considered as a social being endowed with assets in the form of available resources for the purpose of management practices.