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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Daria Varenova, Martin Samy and Alan Combs

An abundance of academic studies have been devoted to the investigation of corporate social responsibilities, and although the business world seems to have accepted the…

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Abstract

Purpose

An abundance of academic studies have been devoted to the investigation of corporate social responsibilities, and although the business world seems to have accepted the general idea that it should be socially responsible, it has never been asked what executives perceive their social responsibilities to be. Additionally, extensive research in an attempt to identify the relationship between corporate social and financial performance by investigating companies' annual and financial reports has shown largely inconclusive results. This paper therefore aims to investigate the insights of corporate executives on both the issues of the social responsibilities of business and the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and financial performance. With respect to corporate executives, the authors investigated if there are differences between the perceptions of executives of FTSE 100 and FTSE All‐Share.

Design/methodology/approach

The data was collected via online survey and semi‐structured interviews with the executives of FTSE All‐Share companies. Out of 531 executives, the authors received 82 responses of a response rate of 17 per cent. They contacted 178 executives representing FTSE 100 companies and received 29 responses of a response rate of 17.6 per cent. In order to build a phenomenological approach to this study, the authors interviewed four executives to document their opinions and thoughts.

Findings

The results indicate that the business world holds a narrow view of its social responsibilities whilst maintaining that it is possible to be both profitable and respectful to its stakeholders. The analysis also reveals that socially responsible businesses employ CSR in pursuit of their commercial interests and consider it to be their competitive advantage. Moreover, the business seems to have integrated CSR into all its operations and activities and considers it as a necessity rather than luxury, which suggests that CSR and financial performance are in synergy.

Originality/value

One major contribution of this study is the difference analysed between perceptions of executives of FTSE 100 and other FTSE All‐Share companies on whether CSR policies and activities are implemented only when extra financial resources are available. This might suggest that FTSE 100 companies are more likely to have already integrated CSR into their business strategy and therefore devote financial resources to their CSR programs. Other FTSE All‐Share companies, in contrast, might still be regarding CSR as an add‐on and therefore spend monies on CSR only when they have extra financial resources available. The similar explanation can be offered for the difference between perceptions of executives of FTSE 100 and other FTSE All‐Share companies as to whether implementation of CSR policies and activities will increase overheads, increase share prices in the following years and help raise new capital.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Francesca Culasso, Elisa Giacosa, Laura Broccardo and Luca Maria Manzi

The purpose of this study is to underscore the impact of the family variable on performance. The authors were interested in understanding whether the differences between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to underscore the impact of the family variable on performance. The authors were interested in understanding whether the differences between Family Firms (FFs) and Non-Family Firms (NFFs), on the one hand, and between large FFs and medium-sized FFs, on the other, were reflected in the performance achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper a sample of 80 industrial companies listed on the Italian Stock Market (FTSE MIB and STAR indexes) were considered, and mixed criteria to distinguish FFs and NFFs (Smyrnios-Romano et al., 1998) were used. The empirical method allowed the development of some research hypotheses by exploiting the Pearson correlation.

Findings

There are two main categories of FFs, which correspond to two different strategic and organizational categories, namely, the FFs listed on the large capitalized companies index (FTSE MIB) and the FFs listed on the medium-capitalized companies index (STAR). Each kind of FFs (large FFs and medium-sized FFs) has a specific effect on profitability and financial performance. Specifically, if a company is medium sized, family presence is a relevant variable in achieving better profitability and financial performance than NFFs of the same size; on the other hand, if the company expands to become a large one, the family presence is an irrelevant variable in terms of both profitability and financial leverage (debt ratio).

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study concern the definition of the sample, as this paper focused on the industrial sector and the method adopted, as it could be integrated with some econometrical models. The implications of this paper are relevant for families and regulatory bodies because it helps them better understand the effects of governance and company size both on short- and long-term performance. Moreover, the findings of the study can influence the decision-making process of investors to identify the long-term outperformers listed on the Italian Stock Exchange.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on FFs by defining two different categories of FFs, namely, large and medium-sized. It seems that larger companies record a weaker family influence on short-term profitability.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Nuha Ceesay, Moade Shubita and Fiona Robertson

Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to establish the sustainability reporting practices of FTSE 100 companies using integrated reporting (IR), corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to establish the sustainability reporting practices of FTSE 100 companies using integrated reporting (IR), corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance (CG) as proxies. Our study has adopted a holistic approach by combining dimensions of each factor in one variable.

Design/Methodological Approach: The study data cover all FTSE 100 companies over five years, thereby generating 505 company-year observations for each variable of the study. Authors have collected the data from Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) reports filed with Thomson Reuters and International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC).

Findings: Results indicate the practice of sustainability reporting in FTSE 100 companies both per variables and dimensions levels. It shows, for example, 89% of the companies reported on their charitable donations. The study also found that 79% of the FTSE 100 companies reported on their sustainability committees whilst 86% and 85% reported on their emission reduction and waste reduction policies, respectively. Results show that the CSR impact is higher than CG regarding IR adoption. The Logistic Model manages to explain a high percentage of IR adoption while controlling for other misspecification issues such as multicollinearity.

Practical Implication: The study highlights practice of substantiality reporting for public shareholding companies listed on FTSE 100 Index along with interaction among proxies. These will be of interest to companies not only in the FTSE 100 Index but also those outside. Companies can rely on these factors to strengthen their governance, social responsibility and reporting policies in consideration of all stakeholders and not just a few. We believe that we shed a quantitative explanation on IR adoption by CSR and CG factors, and we expect an impact on practices following results of our study.

Social Implication: Results have indicated that at least 60% of companies in the FTSE 100 Index have imbedded social responsibility activities, such as charitable giving, waste reduction initiatives, emissions reduction policy and sustainability committees.

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Ghassan H. Mardini and Sameh Ammar

This study aims to explore the impact of international financial reporting standard no. 8 (IFRS 8) on segmental information reporting (SIR) after the post-implementation…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the impact of international financial reporting standard no. 8 (IFRS 8) on segmental information reporting (SIR) after the post-implementation review (PIR) issued by international accounting standards board (IASB). This impact is examined in relation to quality and quantity as SIR dimensions represent, respectively, the level of reported items and segments. As a complement to this, the chief operating decision maker (CODM) identity is considered to understand the patterns of SIR dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

The SIR of the UK financial times stock exchange 100 (FTSE-100) listed companies over the period 2013-2016 is the research’s scope. Several criteria were developed to ensure a representative research sample. A disclosure index approach was used facilitating the use of content analysis for data collection, which pertained to the dimensions of SIR published by the FTSE-100 following IFRS 8 PIR.

Findings

The IFRS 8 PIR has had several implications shaping the growing trend that is underpinned by the SIR dimensions published by FTSE-100 companies. First, the SIR quantity dimension positively corresponds over 2013-2016, but it still does not meet IASB’s demands. This, secondly, also applies to the quality dimension of SIR to uncover inconsistency with the existing knowledge being held regarding the introduction of IFRS 8. More specifically, the response of the FTSE-100 to mandatory and voluntary items seems to be in transition of substitution. Third, CODM’s identity was an insightful dimension in rationalising the understanding through the aforementioned dimensions. It is undertaken by boards of directors or executive committees and the case of the latter is associated with more disclose in relation to the CODM’s identity.

Practical implications

These findings reveal implications to: academics undertaking further research about IFRS 8 PIR to challenge or endorse this conclusion, using similar or alternative approaches; the stakeholders’ decision-making process; and policymakers to re-think the structure of mandatory and voluntary items.

Originality/value

This paper provides empirical evidence on the quality and quantity of SIR published by FTSE-100 companies following IFRS 8 PIR.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2003

Val Singh and Susan Vinnicombe

The stagnation in the position of female directorships in the UK’s FTSE 100 companies appears to be very slowly changing. After a review of previous research on women…

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3096

Abstract

The stagnation in the position of female directorships in the UK’s FTSE 100 companies appears to be very slowly changing. After a review of previous research on women directors, this paper reports the statistics on women directors in the top 100 listed companies. The paper comments on the findings regarding companies with women directors, female directorships and the women holding those directorships. It reviews the backgrounds (demographic profiles including age, education, marital status and children; corporate experience, international experience, etc.) of the top women executive directors. The paper also examines the minority of top companies with women executive directors, to see how their particular characteristics and contingencies (e.g. sector, chairmen, CEO and board demographics) may have influenced the environment as incubators for these successful women. The paper considers the findings through several theoretical lenses for explanations of the results, and conclude by commenting on the progress being made in other European countries.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Abstract

Details

The Theory and Practice of Directors’ Remuneration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-683-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Catriona Paisey and Nicholas J. Paisey

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which pension accounting represents an enabling or emancipatory accounting.

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2768

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which pension accounting represents an enabling or emancipatory accounting.

Design/methodology/approach

Many countries are facing a so‐called “pensions crisis” which is reflected in and arguably, to some extent at least, is precipitated by accounting. Occupational pensions in the UK are focused upon and their role in the pension crisis discussed. The enabling or emancipatory potential of the internet for accounting for occupational pension schemes is explored. The contents of the web sites of the 100 largest companies listed on the London Stock Exchange (FTSE 100) are examined in terms of the elements of an enabling accounting, as set out by Gallhofer and Haslam in 1997. Alternative forms of accounting for pensions, including accounts by trade unions and others, are also examined.

Findings

The full possibilities of the internet have not yet been mobilised in respect of accounting for occupational pension schemes and companies' actions appear to be driven by the hegemony of the market rather than a concern for the social wellbeing of pensioners. A number of inequalities are evident.

Research limitations/implications

The majority of UK employees have no occupational pension. The paper therefore only addresses one aspect of the pension crisis.

Practical implications

Suggests how corporate web sites could be improved through the provision of dedicated pensions sections and increased pensions' disclosures. Argues that alternative accounts provided by trade unions, organisations associated with the elderly and others are required to provide counter accounts. Calls for more education about the importance of saving from an early age.

Originality/value

Applies elements of an enabling accounting to a specific accounting problem, accounting for pensions.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Christopher Pass

UK plcs use option schemes and increasingly long‐term incentive plans (LTIP’s) to reward their executive directors in order to improve corporate performance and align…

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5338

Abstract

UK plcs use option schemes and increasingly long‐term incentive plans (LTIP’s) to reward their executive directors in order to improve corporate performance and align their interests more closely with those of the shareholders of the company. This paper presents a study of the option and LTIP arrangements used by a sample of 51 large UK companies over the period 1994‐2001. The general finding is that a substantial proportion of the schemes are “undemanding” rewarding average rather than exceptional performance.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Lynn Avison and Christopher J. Cowton

The audit committee is one of the most prominent board sub‐committees, having a potentially important role to play in ensuring sound corporate governance. This paper aims

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1984

Abstract

Purpose

The audit committee is one of the most prominent board sub‐committees, having a potentially important role to play in ensuring sound corporate governance. This paper aims to examine and discuss the behaviour of companies following revisions to the UK's Revised Code.

Design/methodology/approach

A variety of annual report data from a sample of 50 UK companies, stratified according to size, is collected and analysed.

Findings

General compliance with many provisions of the Revised Code was found. All but one company had an audit committee comprising solely non‐executive directors. However, in about a quarter of cases the chairman was a member, and in some cases directors were not “independent” according to the Code's definition. Nevertheless, many companies exceeded the minimum stipulated requirements, for example the number of non‐executive directors on the audit committee or the number of meetings held. Some companies, though, did not follow recommended practice, particularly regarding the disclosure of information, and some explanations for non‐compliance were weak.

Research limitations/implications

Compliance with disclosure demands regarding audit committees could be improved, as could the quality of explanations when the recommendations of the Code are not followed. It would be sensible for regulators to monitor this, provide more detailed guidance and highlight examples of good practice. Given the resistance of many companies to corporate governance regulation and accusations of “box ticking”, future research should probe why many companies do more than is required or recommended. The research should be repeated when further revisions to the Code are made in respect of audit committees, and practice in countries other than the UK should be researched to provide comparative insights.

Originality/value

This paper provides useful information on the behaviour of companies following revisions to the UK's Revised Code.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Christopher Pass

The Article seeks to identify the configuration of executive directors conditional option and LTIP arrangements used to align the interest of the company’s directors and…

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993

Abstract

Purpose

The Article seeks to identify the configuration of executive directors conditional option and LTIP arrangements used to align the interest of the company’s directors and shareholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The article presents an empirical study of the option and LTIP arrangements (current and previous) of 51 major UK companies. The article focuses on the configuration of option schemes and LTIPs in respect of three critical elements: the performance target selected, the comparator used to benchmark performance and the quantitative performance target level requirement to be achieved to trigger rewards. The period 1989‐2002, covered by the research indicates a substantial degree of “experimentation” with many companies amending their original option schemes and LTIPs and a larger number of other companies introducing new arrangements. A substantial number of schemes can be characterised as being “undemanding” rewarding average rather than excellent performance.

Research limitations/implications

It is It is proposed (in a follow up paper) to econometrically test for associations between particular configurations (identified in this article) and actual corporate financial performance, i.e. which configurations have the most robust impact on performance.

Practical implications

The author makes a number of recommendations aimed at making option schemes and LTIP, more “stretching”, rewarding only excellent rather than average performance.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to explicitly look at the components of option schemes and LTIPs in a detailed way, questioning the merits/demerits of the targets and comparators commonly used to evaluate performance.

Details

Handbook of Business Strategy, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1077-5730

Keywords

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