Search results

1 – 10 of 23
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1967

LEONARD CHAFFEE, DONALD J. McCARTY, HARRY RANDLES and FRANCIS M. TRUSTY

The State University of New York at Buffalo, Cornell University, The University of Rochester, and Syracuse University joined forces with Ford Foundation support to provide…

Abstract

The State University of New York at Buffalo, Cornell University, The University of Rochester, and Syracuse University joined forces with Ford Foundation support to provide a summer experience for administrative interns. The program's central focus was the development of educational leaders. Interns from each of the four universities were brought to Cornell University. Interns and professors from each university in the program were viewed as a social system, providing an opportunity for participants to diagnose their own social behavior. Two factors contributed to the process: the creation of an “open” climate to foster inquiry and a high degree of cooperation among staff and interns. The first two weeks of the summer experience were devoted to sensitivity training which accomplished several related objectives: more accurate perceptions of self; increased accuracy in perceiving the effect and affect of one's behavior on others; greater understanding of interaction between groups and inductively derived understanding of social and behavioral theories. An instrument for evaluation was prepared by the interns. Among the “high points” they identified, two items were most frequently and about evenly mentioned: sensitivity training and day‐to‐day relationships. The reactions of the interns as a whole was an affirmation of the experience as a meaningful contribution to their personal and professional growth.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 1901

The Board of Agriculture, by virtue of the powers conferred upon them by the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1899, have made regulations whereby it may be presumed, until the…

Abstract

The Board of Agriculture, by virtue of the powers conferred upon them by the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, 1899, have made regulations whereby it may be presumed, until the contrary is proved, that milk containing less than 8·5 per cent. of solids‐not‐fat, or less than 3 per cent of fat, is adulterated within the meaning of the Act. The suggested limit for fat in milk recommended by the special committee appointed by the Board of Agriculture was 3·per cent., and it will therefore be observed that the new regulations have fixed a standard for milk‐fat which is even lower than the low limit recommended by the committee. There are even rumours that a further lowering of this standard is to bo urged upon the authorities. Although from the point of view of Public Analysts and the officials responsible for the enforcement of the Food and Drugs Acts it is satisfactory that an official standard for the composition of milk has at last been set up, it is idle to suppose that the fixing of such a limit will materially improve the character of the milk‐supply as a whole. It should be remembered that milk which contains only 3 per cent of fat, although under the new regulations legally “genuine,” is, as a matter of fact, of the poorest quality, and is only produced by a cow when in bad condition, or by a particular breed of cow which is remarkable more for the quantity than for the quality of the fluid yielded. Producers and vendors of milk of good quality have been placed in a very unfortunate position by the new regulations, as the tendency of the trade will be to lower all milk to the official limits, with the result that those dealers who are still desirous of maintaining a high standard of quality will have to compete in the matter of price with less conscientious traders, who, taking advantage of the protection afforded by the regulations, will be enabled to sell to the public “genuine” milk, from which all “superfluous” fat has been removed. Gradation of quality in an article of food cannot, of course, be provided for by official regulation, and for the purpose of legal classification it is only possible to differentiate between legally “genuine” and adulterated articles. Therefore, in a legal sense, and also in a popular sense, a milk containing 4 per cent. of fat is no more “ genuine ” than one containing 3 per cent., although the former is, of course, a superior article. Competition in the dairy trade, which has of late years become very keen, will, as the result of the fixing of this standard, become more acute than before, and to keep their position it will be necessary for those milk‐vendors who are desirous of maintaining their reputation as vendors of milk of good quality to give to their customers some guarantee that their product is indeed superior to the legalised article. Any statements of the traders themselves upon this point will naturally be received by customers with reserve, as proceeding from an interested source, and the guarantee, to be effective, must therefore be given by an authority whose statements are above suspicion. It is hero that the system of Control will be found to be a necessity both to the milk dealer and milk consumer.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 3 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Sustainability Assessment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-481-3

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Alex Mintz and Eldad Tal-Shir

Understanding how leaders make foreign policy and national security decisions is of paramount importance for the policy community and academia. It is our assertion that…

Abstract

Understanding how leaders make foreign policy and national security decisions is of paramount importance for the policy community and academia. It is our assertion that decisions in these domains can be explained best by tracing the cognitive process leaders go through in formulating and arriving at their decisions, using the Applied Decision Analysis (ADA) method (Mintz, 2005; Mintz & DeRouen, 2010).

Consequently, this chapter summarizes the Applied Decision Analysis method which is utilized throughout the chapters comprising this volume. We then discuss the findings presented in this volume, while demonstrating the merit of both ADA and the poliheuristic theory of decision (Mintz, 2004), in the robust analyses of decisions made by Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Benjamin Netanyahu, Winston Churchill, Mao Zedong, Barack Obama, Saddam Hussein, Khaled Mashal, Muammar Gaddafi, Pieter Botha, and Frederik de Klerk. We conclude by providing a brief summary of the case studies which are included in this volume.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1942

IN their schemes of after‐the‐war library work those who prepare them would do well to confine themselves to a few cardinal principles. A London scheme that we have seen…

Abstract

IN their schemes of after‐the‐war library work those who prepare them would do well to confine themselves to a few cardinal principles. A London scheme that we have seen appears to concern itself with areas to be covered, actually picking out certain cross‐roads as centres to which traffic runs as suitable centres from which area activity might radiate. All this, as the scheme‐makers themselves rather suggest, seems to be premature and much of it, ingenious as it is, is extremely debatable local topography. We would not discourage such scheme‐making so long as its speculative character is recognized. Yet it might be better if the factors of an adequate library service were first determined. They may not be new; they may indeed be mere affirmations of approved good practice. These considerations, we are sure, have not been overlooked by those who plan, nor by Mr. McColvin in drafting his report on our needs.

Details

New Library World, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Monica Adya and Kate M. Kaiser

To develop a testable model for girls' career choices in technology fields based on past research and hypotheses about the future of the information technology (IT) workforce.

Abstract

Purpose

To develop a testable model for girls' career choices in technology fields based on past research and hypotheses about the future of the information technology (IT) workforce.

Design/methodology/approach

Review and assimilation of literature from education, psychology, sociology, computer science, IT, and business in a model that identifies factors that can potentially influence a girl's choice towards or against IT careers. The factors are categorized into social factors (family, peers, and media), structural factors (computer use, teacher/counselor influence, same sex versus coeducational schools), and individual differences. The impact of culture on these various factors is also explored.

Findings

The model indicates that parents, particularly fathers, are the key influencers of girls' choice of IT careers. Teachers and counselors provide little or no career direction. Hypotheses propose that early access to computers may reduce intimidation with technology and that same‐sex education may serve to reduce career bias against IT.

Research limitations/implications

While the model is multidisciplinary, much of research from which it draws is five to eight years old. Patterns of career choices, availability of technology, increased independence of women and girls, offshore/nearshore outsourcings of IT jobs are just some of the factors that may be insufficiently addressed in this study.

Practical implications

A “Recommendations” section provides some practical steps to increase the involvement of girls in IT‐related careers and activities at an early age. The article identifies cultural research as a limitation and ways to address this.

Originality/value

The paper is an assimilation of literature from diverse fields and provides a testable model for research on gender and IT.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Urvashi Tandon, Ravi Kiran and Ash Sah

This study aims to identify and analyse the key determinants influencing customer satisfaction towards online shopping in India.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify and analyse the key determinants influencing customer satisfaction towards online shopping in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature concerning major attributes of website functionality, perceived usability, perceived usefulness and customer satisfaction in online retailing were reviewed. Data were collected from 365 respondents active in online shopping for examining the constructs. The model was empirically tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The findings of the study reveal that perceived usefulness and website functionality have a positive impact on customer satisfaction, whereas perceived usability had a significant but negative impact on customer satisfaction.

Practical implications

This research will help online retailers to attract and motivate new customers for online shopping and existing customers to extend it in their daily purchase. Online retailers can improve post purchase satisfaction and eventually increase online customers.

Originality/value

This is one of the preliminary study dealing with customer satisfaction towards online retailing in India. The scale has been extended to include items like satisfaction with cash on delivery mode of payment not included in previous scales. The scale of perceived usefulness has also been deepened by adding time performance, product performance and promotional performance.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 1908

THE catalogue, as a library appliance of importance, has had more attention devoted to it than, perhaps, any other method or factor of librarianship. Its construction…

Abstract

THE catalogue, as a library appliance of importance, has had more attention devoted to it than, perhaps, any other method or factor of librarianship. Its construction, materials, rules for compilation and other aspects have all been considered at great length, and in every conceivable manner, so that little remains for exposition save some points in the policy of the catalogue, and its effects on progress and methods. In the early days of the municipal library movement, when methods were somewhat crude, and hedged round with restrictions of many kinds, the catalogue, even in the primitive form it then assumed, was the only key to the book‐wealth of a library, and as such its value was duly recognized. As time went on, and the vogue of the printed catalogue was consolidated, its importance as an appliance became more and more established, and when the first Newcastle catalogue appeared and received such an unusual amount of journalistic notice, the idea of the printed catalogue as the indispensable library tool was enormously enhanced from that time till quite recently. One undoubted result of this devotion to the catalogue has been to stereotype methods to a great extent, leading in the end to stagnation, and there are places even now where every department of the library is made to revolve round the catalogue. Whether it is altogether wise to subordinate everything in library work to the cult of the catalogue has been questioned by several librarians during the past few years, and it is because there is so much to be said against this policy that the following reflections are submitted.

Details

New Library World, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 1916

Signs are not wanting that the policy we have so often urged in these pages, that the present is the appropriate time for all public libraries to pay strict and systematic…

Abstract

Signs are not wanting that the policy we have so often urged in these pages, that the present is the appropriate time for all public libraries to pay strict and systematic attention to their collections upon science and its technological and industrial applications, is being adopted by several libraries. An interesting example is that of Richmond, where a special “trades” section is to be formed having as its purpose the collecting and segregating of industrial literature, and Aberdeen has formed a sub‐committee to revise its collections similarly. No librarian believes there is anything novel in either case, since the competent librarian is continually reviewing his collections with the object of replacing obsolete works; but the public particularising of the technology sections is at the moment a policy the wisdom of which cannot be gainsaid. Moreover, numbers of books on important, but little understood, industries are coming from the press at present, and an unusual alertness is necessary to prevent them passing out of notice. Further, definite advertising of the books was never more desirable. In this connexion we have not seen any recent lists more calculated to serve the purpose than those issued by the Coventry Public Libraries, and not their least virtue is their unpretentious character— they are single leaflets with brief library information, a carefully selected set of titles, and an invitation to manufacturers, artisans and other readers to use the telephone in their search for information. We do not suppose that a very great number will avail themselves of the privileges these collections and bulletins offer; but it is all‐important that they should exist. A keen publicity spirit, which is not ashamed of or deterred by lack of visible results, is required now in order to reach the employer and the young worker in particular. Many methods suggest themselves: Lists posted at workshops, special catalogues such as that issued by Gateshead, bulletins such as those at Coventry, even visits from the librarian to the various factories, workshops, business houses and schools. Some of these have been tried, we know, but the circumstances of two years ago are not those of to‐day; and, if results were discouraging in the past, they need not be so now; and, in any case, new efforts should be made.

Details

New Library World, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1908

Future legislation relating to the control of the national milk supply formed the subject of discussion in the House of Commons on the 5th March. Although no new points…

Abstract

Future legislation relating to the control of the national milk supply formed the subject of discussion in the House of Commons on the 5th March. Although no new points were brought out, the need for fresh legislation was emphasised in this discussion, especially the need for a general Act that would, while giving the central authority increased powers, do away “with the piecemeal, voluntary, and local enactments at present in existence. It is evident that if any radical change in the present system is to be effective it must not only be general as regards this country, but it must also be imperial” and international; inasmuch as it must deal both with the supplies that are produced at home and with those imported from abroad. It would obviously be in the highest degree unfair to the English farmer to make his stock, workpeople, and premises liable to the frequent expert inspection demanded, and, at the same time, to allow milk to enter this country from abroad without the application of an equally rigorous inspection on this side, and without some form of guarantee from the government of the country of origin. In all matters connected with food supply improved methods of preserving and sterilising as well as increased facilities for international commerce have resulted, as time has gone on, in a large number of food preparations of all kinds being thrown upon the markets. The trade in cheese and butter substitutes as well as that in canned and otherwise preserved meats, and the supply of cereal preparations, afford well known instances, and the milk trade is not singular in the circumstance that a considerable and increasing amount of, milk is treated in various ways, both at home and abroad, for consumption in this country.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

1 – 10 of 23