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Article

Tadashi Nakasu, Yuichi Ono and Wiraporn Pothisiri

Using the forensic investigation (FORIN) approach, the purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that exacerbated the loss of human life in one of the most…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the forensic investigation (FORIN) approach, the purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that exacerbated the loss of human life in one of the most devastated local municipalities on the coast by 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (GEJET) disaster.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper begins by reviewing the extent of damage to the local municipalities along the Sanriku ria coast, which has a long history of tsunami disasters. Second, the paper compares previous major tsunami events by using a human vulnerability index, and applies this index to detect the city of Rikuzentakata. Third, the paper identifies the root causes of the GEJET disaster in the city. Interview records with disaster victims were used to elucidate the main factors that exacerbated the number of deaths.

Findings

The study indicates that the FORIN approach can be effectively applied to identify the target city for this case study and to point to those factors the most exacerbated human sufferings, and also provides many lessons based on research findings and methodologies to support building resilient societies in the future.

Originality/value

This paper indicates FORIN approach as an effective research template by investigating the GEJET disaster.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article

Qinglan Li, Jonathan Beaver, Ahmed Amer, Panos K. Chrysanthis, Alexandros Labrinidis and Ganesh Santhanakrishnan

Wireless sensor networks are expected to be an integral part of any pervasive computing environment. This implies an ever‐increasing need for efficient energy and resource…

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks are expected to be an integral part of any pervasive computing environment. This implies an ever‐increasing need for efficient energy and resource management of both the sensor nodes, as well as the overall sensor network, in order to meet the expected quality of data and service requirements. There have been numerous studies that have looked at the routing of data in sensor networks with the sole intention of reducing communication power consumption. However, there has been comparatively little prior art in the area of multi‐criteria based routing that exploit both the semantics of queries and the state of sensor nodes to improve network service longevity. In this paper, we look at routing in sensor networks from this perspective and propose an adaptive multi‐criteria routing protocol. Our algorithm offers automated reconfiguration of the routing tree as demanded by variations in the network state to meet application service requirements. Our experimental results show that our approach consistently outperforms, in terms of Network Lifetime and Coverage, the leading semantic‐based routing algorithm which reconfigures the routing tree at fixed periods.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Book part

Ioannis Stamatopoulos, Stamatina Hadjidema and Konstantinos Eleftheriou

This paper examines the corporate income tax compliance costs and their determinants by analyzing survey and financial statements data from firms operating in Greece. We…

Abstract

This paper examines the corporate income tax compliance costs and their determinants by analyzing survey and financial statements data from firms operating in Greece. We find that corporate tax compliance costs are of considerable size and vary with several firm-specific characteristics, including the firm’s size, its age, the sector in which it operates, its location, and its legal form. The paper intends to raise awareness regarding the impact of tax compliance costs, especially for countries, such as Greece, that were significantly affected by the economic and financial crisis.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-524-5

Keywords

Abstract

Details

An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Environmental Policy: Issues in Institutional Design
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-888-0

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Article

James A. Eckert

Working from the expanded model of adaptive selling behavior offered by Eckert and Plank (2004), this paper attempts to add greater depth and specificity to the adaptive…

Abstract

Working from the expanded model of adaptive selling behavior offered by Eckert and Plank (2004), this paper attempts to add greater depth and specificity to the adaptive output categories making them more useful for research advancement and for both the teaching and execution of an adaptive selling approach. Relevant literature is identified, organized, and offered as theory sources to support and expand the adaptive selling model.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article

Colin C. Williams and Olga Onoshchenko

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which the practice of using personal networks to obtain goods and services or to circumvent formal procedures, known…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which the practice of using personal networks to obtain goods and services or to circumvent formal procedures, known as blat in the Soviet era, persists in post-Soviet societies and whether its character has altered.

Design/methodology/approach

To do this, the prevalence and nature of blat in the education sector in the city of Mykolayiv in Ukraine is analysed using 200 face-to-face structured interviews with a spatially stratified sample of Mykolayiv residents and 30 follow-up semi-structured in-depth interviews.

Findings

The finding is that blat is widely used to gain places in kindergarten, schools and universities. However, unlike Soviet era blat which took the form of non-monetised friendly help in the market-oriented society of post-Soviet Ukraine, both possessing control over access to assets such as education, as well as possessing personal connections to those with control over access to these assets, is increasingly viewed as a commodity to be bought and sold, and illicit informal monetary payments are now commonplace. The result is that nepotism, cronyism, bribery and corruption hinder meritocratic processes.

Research limitations/implications

This paper examines the prevalence and nature of blat in just one sector in one post-Soviet country. An analysis across a wider range of sectors in various post-Soviet societies is now required to develop a more context-bound and nuanced understanding of blat in post-Soviet societies.

Originality/value

This is the first in-depth empirical evaluation of the prevalence and nature of blat in contemporary post-Soviet societies.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article

James Lewis and Sarah A.V. Lewis

The purpose of this paper is to emphasise how vulnerability is not only “place-based” and to explore by example how vulnerability to hazards in England may comprise…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to emphasise how vulnerability is not only “place-based” and to explore by example how vulnerability to hazards in England may comprise additional economic, social and psychological contributors to poverty. The mutuality of poverty and vulnerability is demonstrated, as are examples of susceptibility of the vulnerable to stigmatic disregard and cruelty.

Design/methodology/approach

“Place-based” vulnerability is exemplified by coastal vulnerabilities and causes of their increase. Poverty and its causes are explained, followed by examples of possible contributors, indicators and consequences in incomes, living costs and debt; housing welfare and homelessness; food, nutrition, health and mental ill-health. Susceptibility to stigmatic behaviours exacerbate personal vulnerabilities.

Findings

Dynamics of mutual inter-relationships between poverty and vulnerability are demonstrated. Behavioural responses to either condition by individuals and by society at large, to which those who are vulnerable or in poverty are susceptible, are described in the present and from history.

Research limitations/implications

Findings form a “theoretical reality” upon which some measures may follow. An additional need is identified for long-term social field research to follow adults’ and childrens’ experiences, and consequences of poverty in vulnerable situations.

Practical implications

Vulnerability accrues irrevocably between disasters, the results of which may be exposed by disaster impacts.

Social implications

Recognition of linkages between economic and social vulnerability and disasters is essential for subsequent action to reduce the impact of disasters upon society.

Originality/value

Though vulnerability has been explored for many years, the dynamics of its contributing processes require further explanation before their wider comprehension is achieved.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article

Michael L. Birzer and Delores E. Craig

Studies a large midwestern police agency to find out whether female applicants failed the physical ability test more often than male applicants, whether the tasks were job…

Abstract

Studies a large midwestern police agency to find out whether female applicants failed the physical ability test more often than male applicants, whether the tasks were job related or whether there was violation of the “four‐fifths” rule of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and whether the test measured critical tasks. Finds that the test has an adverse effect on women and is not job related.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

Keywords

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Article

Anna Ribas, Jorge Olcina and David Sauri

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of high intensity precipitation events in increasing the vulnerability to floods in Mediterranean Spain. Precipitation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of high intensity precipitation events in increasing the vulnerability to floods in Mediterranean Spain. Precipitation intensity in this area appears to have augmented in the last two decades in association with warming trends of the Mediterranean Sea. At the same time, intense urbanization processes, occupying and transforming flood prone land, have produced an important increase in exposure. The main objective is to assess whether higher intensity precipitation and changing patterns in exposure aggravate vulnerability to floods.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, vulnerability is understood as the result of the interrelationships between exposure, sensitivity, impacts and adaptive capacity. Consequently, methods used involved the compilation and analysis of published and unpublished precipitation data, population and land use data, data on insurance claims, and media sources related to those variables.

Findings

Changes toward episodes of more intense precipitation in the expanding urban areas of Mediterranean Spain increase exposure but not necessarily vulnerability, at least in terms of human deaths. However, adaptative capacity needs to be formulated. Actions that attempt to absorb and eventually reuse flood flows (as the flood park in Alicante) appear to be more effective than traditional hydraulic solutions (as in Majorca).

Originality/value

The paper provides a systematic and coherent approach to vulnerability analysis taking into account the changing dynamics of its components. Especially, it signals the limits of current adaptive approaches to flooding and advocates for changes toward a more circular and less linear approach to urban drainage.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Article

Victor Meyer Jr, Miguel Piña e Cunha, Diórgenes Falcão Mamédio and Danillo Prado Nogueira

The focus of this study was to analyze crisis management in a context of high-reliability organizations (HRO) evidenced in two cases of Brazilian air disasters. Aspects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The focus of this study was to analyze crisis management in a context of high-reliability organizations (HRO) evidenced in two cases of Brazilian air disasters. Aspects of human and technological natures were examined, addressing the complex sociotechnical system.

Design/methodology/approach

This in-depth case study addressed the two most serious air disasters on Brazilian territory. The first case involved a midair collision between Gol Flight 1907 and the Legacy jet. In the second case, TAM flight 3054 had difficulty braking when landing at the airport and crashed into a building. Data were collected from official disaster documents.

Findings

The results revealed that the management and operational activities aimed to maintain the necessary conditions that prioritize a high level of reliability. High reliability mainly involves concern over failure, reluctance to accept simplified interpretations, sensitivity to operations, commitment to resilience and detailed structure specifications.

Practical implications

The implications are based on alerting highly reliable organizations, emphasizing the focus on managing more reliably, resiliently and conscientiously. Changes will be required in the operations of organizations seeking to learn to manage unexpected events and respond quickly to continually improve the responsiveness of their services.

Originality/value

In the perspective of an intrinsic case study for crisis management in a context of HRO and disaster risk management, the originality of this study lies in its examination of the paradoxical nature of control within the systems of dangerous operations in complex organizations, as well as their contradictions in a high-reliability system.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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