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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Raquel Meyer Alexander, Andrew Gross, G. Ryan Huston and Vernon J. Richardson

We investigate the interaction of debt covenants and tax accounting on the adoption of Financial Interpretation No. 48 (FIN 48). We examine how firms respond to the…

Abstract

We investigate the interaction of debt covenants and tax accounting on the adoption of Financial Interpretation No. 48 (FIN 48). We examine how firms respond to the potential tightening of covenant slack upon FIN 48 adoption and whether these actions are penalized by creditors and anticipated by equity markets. We find that upon FIN 48 adoption, the majority of sample corporate borrowers increase their tax reserves and reduce equity. Firms close to debt covenant violation were even more likely to increase tax reserves upon FIN 48 adoption; however, the size of the adjustment was relatively smaller, suggesting that the FIN 48 standards limited, but did not eliminate, firms use of discretion in reporting uncertain tax positions to avoid costly covenant violations. For firms near net worth debt covenant violation, the act of decreasing equity upon FIN 48 adoption imposes real economic costs, as the average cost of debt increased by 43 basis points. Finally, we extend prior research on the market response to FIN 48 by showing how the market response to FIN 48 adoption is a function of debt covenant slack and tax aggressiveness. Specifically, the cumulative abnormal return at the FIN 48 exposure draft release date is negative only for tax aggressive firms that are close to debt covenant violation.

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-524-5

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Paul N. Tanyi, J. Philipp Klaus and Hughlene Burton

We examine the relationship between tax-related accounting misstatements and changes in the uncertain tax benefits accrual account in the year of the disclosure of a…

Abstract

We examine the relationship between tax-related accounting misstatements and changes in the uncertain tax benefits accrual account in the year of the disclosure of a misstatement. We find that the disclosure of a tax-related misstatement is associated with an increase in unrecognized tax benefits during that year. We show that the increase in unrecognized tax benefits in the year of disclosure is from uncertain tax positions taken in prior periods. Overall, this finding is consistent with increase in financial reporting conservatism upon disclosure of tax-related accounting misstatement.

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2015

Robert Lee and Anthony P. Curatola

To better detect potential audit issues, since 2010, the Internal Revenue Service has required firms to file a separate schedule individually disclosing each of their…

Abstract

To better detect potential audit issues, since 2010, the Internal Revenue Service has required firms to file a separate schedule individually disclosing each of their uncertain tax positions (UTPs). This study uses an experiment to examine how this increase in detection risk from the newly created IRS schedule influences both a firm’s tax reporting and financial reporting concurrently. We find that corporate tax professionals were more likely to recommend an UTP when their firm had a strong UTP reporting quality, regardless of the detection risk level of the reporting environment. However, we find an interaction effect for the recording of the tax reserve. In a low detection risk environment, corporate tax professionals recorded a higher (lower) tax reserve when their firm had a weak (strong) UTP reporting quality. However, in a high detection risk environment, corporate tax professionals recorded a lower (higher) tax reserve when their firm had a weak (strong) UTP reporting quality. Overall, the results provide insight into the dual nature of UTP reporting and the determinants that influence each reporting behavior.

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-277-1

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Yair Holtzman and Paul Nagel

This paper aims to describe the SFAS 109/Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification 740.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the SFAS 109/Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification 740.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is an overview of a topic.

Findings

SFAS 109 establishes the financial accounting and reporting standards for the effects of federal, state and foreign income taxes.

Originality/value

The paper is a good discussion for non‐tax financial executives. It is a valuable read for anyone looking for an introductory paper on the subject.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Abstract

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-524-5

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Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2010

Anthony H. Catanach and Shelley C. Rhoades-Catanach

Forty-five years ago, psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted a series of famous experiments on obedience and authority that tested individuals' willingness to administer…

Abstract

Forty-five years ago, psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted a series of famous experiments on obedience and authority that tested individuals' willingness to administer electric shocks to a test subject under the direction of an authority figure. This paper discusses how Milgram's work on human psychological tendencies can be used to address subordination of judgment and other ethical issues in financial accounting and reporting, including accounting for income taxes. The teaching approach described relies on readings, videos, and mini-cases to give students an appreciation for the role of organizational influences on ethical decision making in today's accounting world. This teaching approach is innovative in its use of social psychological theories to address accounting ethical dilemmas, and its incorporation of contemporary international financial reporting standards and tax reporting issues into the ethics debate.

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Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-722-6

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Article
Publication date: 22 April 2009

Brad Cripe and Brian McAllister

This study examines companies that separated or integrated the tax and audit functions subsequent to the passage of the Sarbanes‐Oxley Act (SARBOX). While the provision of…

Abstract

This study examines companies that separated or integrated the tax and audit functions subsequent to the passage of the Sarbanes‐Oxley Act (SARBOX). While the provision of tax services is not currently prohibited by SARBOX, some companies have separated these two functions. An examination of the relationship between tax function separation (integration) and proxies for audit quality, tax advocacy and audit fee is performed for a matched sample of companies that made the decision to separate or integrate during the period following the passage of SARBOX. In addition, we survey CFOs of both types of companies to determine the motivations behind the separation/integration decision. Our results indicate separation firm CFOs perceive benefits associated with auditor independence as their main reason for separating, while integration firm CFOs perceive cost savings and knowledge spillover as benefits of integration. The matched‐pair analysis suggests that both cost‐savings and tax‐savings are present in the year the tax and audit function is integrated, a benefit not enjoyed by their separation firm peers.

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American Journal of Business, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Henry Huang, Li Sun and Joseph Zhang

This paper examines the relationship between environmental uncertainty and tax avoidance at the firm level. We posit that managers faced with more uncertain environments…

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between environmental uncertainty and tax avoidance at the firm level. We posit that managers faced with more uncertain environments are likely to engage in more tax avoidance activities. We find a significant and negative relationship between environmental uncertainty and effective tax rates, and our results persist through a battery of robust checks. We further find that managerial ability mitigates the above relationship. Moreover, we find that small, highly leveraged, and innovative firms operating in uncertain environments engage in more tax avoidance.

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Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-524-5

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Abstract

This research note investigates the relationship between the constructs of professional skepticism and client advocacy as they relate to accountants’ roles as auditors and tax professionals. Although Pinsker, Pennington, and Schafer (2009) implicitly treat advocacy and professional skepticism as opposing constructs, the purpose of this research note is to explicitly examine whether an accounting professional can be both a professional skeptic and a client advocate. Two hundred and six experienced accounting professionals with a mixture of accounting and tax backgrounds responded to a client advocacy scale (Pinsker et al., 2009) and a professional skepticism scale (Hurtt, 2010). Results indicate that while tax professionals have higher levels of client advocacy than auditors, both groups have similar levels of professional skepticism. Moreover, no correlation emerges between participants’ responses to the advocacy and the full professional skepticism scale or five of its six sub-scales. These results provide evidence that client advocacy is a separate and distinct construct from professional skepticism. These findings have implications for behavioral accounting researchers by demonstrating that these two constructs are not related; thus, it is important to separately measure client advocacy and professional skepticism when they are relevant to a research question.

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Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-445-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2016

Cary Christian and John S. Zdanowicz

This paper examines the state corporate tax implications of abnormal transfer-pricing by U.S. companies involved in international trade. The state corporate tax cost of…

Abstract

This paper examines the state corporate tax implications of abnormal transfer-pricing by U.S. companies involved in international trade. The state corporate tax cost of improperly priced imports and exports is estimated through analysis of every import and export transaction for the years 2005 through 2009 using the interquartile range methodology provided in regulations to Internal Revenue Code Section 482. Calculation of the interquartile range using the entire population of international transactions addresses interpretive issues related to abnormal prices that occur with the smaller samples normally used in such analyses. A policy recommendation is made for improving tax compliance through more rigorous state involvement in transfer pricing enforcement and greater formal collaboration with the Internal Revenue Service with respect to transfer pricing.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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