Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Abdulazeez Y.H. Saif-Alyousfi

This paper aims to examine and compare the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows on bank deposits in aggregate as well as at the level of conventional and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine and compare the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows on bank deposits in aggregate as well as at the level of conventional and Islamic banks in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. The study also tests hypotheses of direct and indirect impacts of FDI flow and FDI stock on bank deposits.

Design/methodology/approach

Static and dynamic panel generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation techniques are applied to analyze a large data set of 491 commercial banks (422 conventional banks and 69 Islamic banks) across 18 MENA countries between 1993 and 2017 (12,275 year observations).

Findings

Empirical results indicate that inflowing FDI flow and FDI stock have a significant negative direct impact on deposits of MENA banks. The results lend support for the direct channel hypothesis for the effect of FDI on bank deposits and find no evidence in support of the indirect channel hypothesis. FDI inflows affect bank deposits directly via increased FDI-related excessive competition in the banking market. Deposits from conventional banks appear to be more affected than those from Islamic banks. The variation may due to the fact that Islamic banks have fewer multinational corporations (MNC) customers than conventional banks and therefore are less sensitive to fluctuations in FDI.

Practical implications

From this analysis, this study concludes that foreign investments have a higher productivity than local investments in MENA region. Attracting more FDI is aimed at increasing overall national productivity through competition. However, governments would be wise to enact such a policy to maximize benefits and minimize potential harm to local industry. Furthermore, FDI policy should encourage small to medium-size banks and firms (SMEs)’ participation and linkage with multinational banks and MNCs, while upgrading research and development institutions and innovation activities to help SMEs to benefit from potential spillovers from foreign presence in the industry. In addition, the linkage and connection between SMEs and foreign firms should be strengthened and promoted by government policy.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to examine the effect of FDI inflows on bank deposits. It also provides an in-depth quantitative analysis of the impact of FDI flow and FDI stock, separately, on bank deposits for both conventional and Islamic banks. It distinguishes between direct and indirect channels through which FDI inflows may affect bank deposits. The study analyzes 25 years of panel data for 491 banks (12,275 year observations) and uses both static and dynamic panel GMM estimation techniques to analyze the data.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Fatma Taşdemir

This paper investigates the main drivers of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows for a balanced panel of 11 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economies over the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the main drivers of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows for a balanced panel of 11 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economies over the 1995–2017 annual period. The author postulates that the impacts of the main pull (growth) and push (global financial conditions, GFC) factors may not be invariant to endogenously estimated thresholds for structural domestic conditions (SDCs) including trade and capital account openness, financial development, human capital (HC) and natural resource endowments.

Design/methodology/approach

The author investigates whether the main SDC provide endogenous thresholds for the impacts of basic pull and push factors on FDI inflows for the MENA sample by employing panel fixed effects threshold procedure of Hansen (1999). As a robustness check, the author also present the results of the dynamic panel data two-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation, which explicitly consider the potential endogeneity of SDC along with main pull factor for the evolution of FDI inflows.

Findings

Growth, GFC and SDC are important drivers of FDI inflows. The impacts of SDC tend to be higher in countries with higher financial depth, openness to international trade and finance and lower natural resource and HC endowments. The sensitivities of FDI inflows to GFC are substantially higher in the countries which are more open to international trade and capital flows and higher levels of financial depth. FDI inflows are found to be pro-cyclical and this pro-cyclicality tends to be much higher for the episodes exceeding the SDC thresholds.

Practical implications

Improving SDC including higher openness to international trade and finance and financial development may be effective in encouraging FDI inflows. The findings support an argument that, better SDC are crucially important not only for attracting FDI but also achieving the growth benefits of FDI inflows. Therefore, improving SDC appears to be an important growth-oriented policy agenda for emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) including MENA.

Originality/value

The impacts of the main push and pull factors on FDI (and capital) inflows may be nonlinear. The literature often tackles the nonlinearity issue either by some interaction specifications or imposing exogenous thresholds. The literature, however, is yet to comprehensively investigate whether the main SDC provide endogenous thresholds for the impacts of basic pull and push factors. The author aims to contribute to the literature by estimating endogenous SDC threshold levels for the impacts of the main determinants of FDI flows for MENA.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Abdulazeez Y.H. Saif-Alyousfi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare the impact of FDI inflows on bank loans in aggregate as well as at the level of conventional and Islamic banks in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare the impact of FDI inflows on bank loans in aggregate as well as at the level of conventional and Islamic banks in GCC countries. The paper also tests hypotheses of direct and indirect impacts of FDI inflow and FDI stock on bank loans.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprises a total of 70 banks (45 conventional and 25 Islamic banks). The period under consideration is 1995–2017. Static panel and dynamic panel GMM estimation techniques are applied.

Findings

Empirical results indicate that inflowing FDI and FDI stock have a significant negative direct impact on loans of GCC banks. The results lend support to the direct channel hypothesis for the effect of FDI on bank loans and find no evidence in support of the indirect channel hypothesis. FDI inflows affect bank loans directly via increased FDI-related liquidity, business activity or excessive competition in the banking market; they are not channeled through macro variables. Loans from conventional banks appear to be more affected than those from Islamic banks.

Practical implications

Given the attractiveness of the GCC economies to foreign investment, the potential volatility of investment-induced instability to the financial system in these economies should be on the radar of the central banks. Attracting more FDI is expected to increase overall national productivity through competition. However, government would be wise to enact a policy to maximize benefits and minimize potential harm to local industry. In addition, to achieve the goal of the new economic model, in turning the GCC economies into high-income and knowledge-driven economies by 2030, enhancement of efficiency and the quality of the workforce will contribute to creating productivity-driven economies.

Originality/value

It is widely recognized that FDI inflows are of great importance to the financial performance development of emerging and developing countries. However, their impact on bank loans has so far not been subject to accurate empirical assessment. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing an in-depth quantitative analysis of the impact of FDI inflow and FDI stock, separately, on bank loans for both conventional and Islamic banks in GCC countries. It distinguishes between direct and indirect channels through which FDI inflows may affect bank loans. The study uses both static and dynamic panel GMM estimation techniques to analyze the data.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2020

Muhammad Tahir and Md Badrul Alam

This paper empirically examines the perceived relationship between banking sector performance and FDI inflows, thereby highlighting an underexplored area in the existing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper empirically examines the perceived relationship between banking sector performance and FDI inflows, thereby highlighting an underexplored area in the existing literature.

Design/methodology/approach

To provide evidence from the South Asian context, this study selected five economies of the same region based on the data availability. A panel dataset, collected from the internationally reliable sources for the period 1998–2017, is analyzed with the help of different econometric techniques, including pooled least squares, fixed effects, generalized least square and two stages least squares.

Findings

The results indicate a significant negative relationship between banking sector performance and FDI inflows while demonstrating a significant positive association of inflation and trade openness with FDI inflows Moreover, higher per capita income, which is one of the indicators of a growing economy, exerts a statistically significant positive impact on FDI inflows. Finally, institutional factors have not played a significant role in attracting FDI in the sampled countries.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate a unique outcome from the perspective of the relationship between banking sector performance and FDI inflows, and hence policymakers of the developing countries in general and South Asian countries in particular would benefit from the current study significantly.

Originality/value

The obtained results are original as we have provided comprehensive evidence on the relationship between FDI and banking sector performance in the SAARC context for the first time.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Xinzhong Li and Seung-Rok Park

The purpose of this paper is to indicate trade characteristics of Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in China and examine the dynamic interaction between FDI inflows

1345

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to indicate trade characteristics of Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in China and examine the dynamic interaction between FDI inflows and China’s international trade through empirical analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

At first, this paper builds the probability distribution model (Poisson and negative binomial (NB)) to capture the characteristics of spatial distribution of all kinds of FDI firms in Chinese cities and provinces based on count data, so as to indicate the potentials for further introducing FDI inflows in China; Second, this paper investigates the effects of trade on FDI firms inflows based on probability regress model (Binary Logit, Tobit, NB, Poisson, zero inflated negative binomial) and shows how international trade accelerates the different kinds of FDI firms to agglomerate in Eastern, Middle and Western region by the endowments of factors; third, this paper empirically examines the magnitude and characteristics of trade effects generated by FDI inflows by building dynamic panel model based on continuous data.

Findings

First, statistical tests of probability distribution model based on count data show that there are characteristics of spatial agglomeration of FDI firms such as manufacture firm, R & D firm, managing and marketing firm and total sectors, which obey NB distribution as whole; Second, this study indicate that FDI inflows have strong positive effects on the international trade in China’s provinces and on China’s regional trade, and that most of foreign firms in China are export oriented being strongly characterized as labor-intensive industries, especially, contributions of FDI to imports are greater than the contributions of FDI to exports in China’s Middle and Western trade, and the growth of FDI trade in China’s trade volume has been strong over the past years; third, the empirical results of models based on count data and continuous data indicate that FDI inflows have significantly positive relationship with international trade, that is, the relationship between FDI and international trade in the case of China is the characteristics with complement and imports substituting relationship.

Research limitations/implications

Because of mixed data set for FDI inflows of processing and assembling trade and production-oriented FDI, efficiency-seeking and knowledge or technology – intensive FDI inflows in the past 36 years, the paper only investigate characteristics of FDI inflows in China before the turning point of financial crisis, but it is important for capturing the whole picture of trade characteristics of FDI inflows in China.

Practical implications

The derived quantitative results imply that there are still greater potentials for further introducing FDI inflows in China, and decision-maker should make policy of introducing FDI inflows which are favorable to supporting innovative activities and economic agglomeration, and preferably encourage efficiency-seeking and export-oriented FDI inflows so as enhance quality and efficiency of economic growth, which are also helpful to accelerate upgrade of Chinese industry and gradually shorten gap of growth among Eastern, Middle and Western region.

Social implications

FDI inflows in China not only stimulate the remarkable growth of bilateral trade between host country and home country, but also promote the growth of international trade between China and the rest of the world. Thus, policies of bilateral or multilateral free-trade and investment area should be encouraged, which will be also favorable to promote the growth and welfare in all the regions.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that spatial distributions of FDI firms in Chinese cities and provinces obey NB probability distribution pattern, and puts forward the methodology of model based on count data and continuous data. Besides, this paper quantitatively indicates trade characteristics of FDI inflows in China as well as the dynamic interaction between FDI inflows and China’s international trade.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Cheshta Kapuria and Neha Singh

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to explore the interrelationships between FDI with growth and sustainability dimension; and to empirically analyze the four…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to explore the interrelationships between FDI with growth and sustainability dimension; and to empirically analyze the four dimensions, namely, environmental, economic, social and governance of sustainable FDI for South Asia and West Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

The data utilized in the paper is sourced from the World Development Indicators and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, covering South and West Asian region over the period 2011–2017. The paper employed both static and dynamic panel (two-step difference generalized methods of moments) estimation methods.

Findings

The results established a significant and robust relationship of past year FDI inflows with the current year’s value of FDI inflows for both the regions. Further, some variances in the relationships such as control of corruption, long-run carbon emissions, research and development, number of trademark applications as per the contextual factors have been detected.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusions related to gender and governance found in this paper will be of interest to both researchers and policy makers for substantially reorienting the sustainability attributes to the foreign investment.

Originality/value

The authors’ main contributions are: to encapsulate the conceptual framework into an empirical model by combining all the four dimensions, namely, environmental, economic, social and governance; to have analyzed the possible differences and similarities in the study based on South and West Asia; to have explored the relationship between gender and FDI.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Chunlai Chen

Large foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow is one of the most important features of China's economic reform and opening up to the outside world. Over the past 30 years…

Abstract

Large foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow is one of the most important features of China's economic reform and opening up to the outside world. Over the past 30 years, China has attracted over US$940 billion FDI inflows, making it the largest FDI recipient among the all developing countries. This chapter argues that FDI inflows into China have mostly come from developing economies, concentrated in China's east and southeast coastal regions, and biased toward the manufacturing sector. The large FDI inflows have greatly contributed to China's economic development. FDI has been playing an increasingly important role in China's economy in terms of capital formation, employment creation, export promotion, and integrating with the world economy. The global financial and economic crisis has had negative impact on FDI inflows into China. However, as compared to the large decline in FDI globally, FDI inflows into China have been resilient. China will continue to be one of the most attractive destinations for FDI in the future.

Details

The Evolving Role of Asia in Global Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-745-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Seyed Reza Zeytoonnejad Mousavian, Seyyed Mehdi Mirdamadi, Seyed Jamal Farajallah Hosseini and Maryam Omidi NajafAbadi

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is an important means of boosting the agricultural sectors of developing economies. The first necessary step to formulate effective public…

Abstract

Purpose

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is an important means of boosting the agricultural sectors of developing economies. The first necessary step to formulate effective public policies to encourage agricultural FDI inflow to a host country is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the main determinants of FDI inflow to the agricultural sector, which is the main objective of the present study.

Design/methodology/approach

In view of this, we take a comprehensive approach to exploring the macroeconomic and institutional determinants of FDI inflow to the agricultural sector by examining a large panel data set on agricultural FDI inflows of 37 countries, investigating both groups of developed and developing countries, incorporating a large list of potentially relevant macroeconomic and institutional variables, and applying panel-data econometric models and estimation structures, including pooled, fixed-effects and random-effects regression models.

Findings

The general pattern of our findings implies that the degree of openness of an economy has a negative effect on FDI inflows to agricultural sectors, suggesting that the higher the degree of openness in an economy, the lower the level of agricultural protection against foreign trade and imports, and thus the less incentive for FDI to inflow to the agricultural sector of the economy. Additionally, our results show that economic growth (as an indicator of the rate of market-size growth in the host economy) and per-capita real GDP (as an indicator of the standard of living in the host country) are both positively related to FDI inflows to agricultural sectors. Our other results suggest that agricultural FDI tends to flow more to developing countries in general and more to those with higher standards of living and income levels in particular.

Originality/value

FDI inflow has not received much attention with respect to the identification of its main determinants in the context of agricultural sectors. Additionally, there are very few panel-data studies on the determinants of FDI, and even more surprisingly, there are no such studies on the main determinants of FDI inflow to the agricultural sector. We have taken a comprehensive approach by studying FDI inflow variations across countries as well as over time.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Mustapha Immurana

Ghana is one of the countries instituting several measures toward attracting more Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows. This is because, FDI is largely viewed as…

Abstract

Purpose

Ghana is one of the countries instituting several measures toward attracting more Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows. This is because, FDI is largely viewed as essential to socioeconomic development. However, while population health can influence FDI inflows, it has received very little attention. This study, therefore, investigates empirically, as to focusing on population health could be a useful tool in Ghana’s attempt to attract more FDI inflows.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses time series data on Ghana from 1980 to 2018 to achieve its objective. Life expectancy, death rate, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate and incidence of malaria are used as proxies for population health, while the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and the Instrumental Variable Two-Stage Least Square (IV2SLS) regressions are employed as empirical estimation techniques.

Findings

Using the OLS regression, except the incidence of malaria, the study finds all the other population health indicators to significantly influence FDI inflows. However, after controlling for endogeneity using the IV2SLS regression, all population health indicators are found to be significant as regards their effects on FDI inflows.

Practical implications

Paying attention to population health could be an effective strategy that can be employed by policymakers in the quest to get more FDI inflows into Ghana.

Originality/value

This study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first study solely devoted to Ghana, which doing so helps in devising country-specific policies with regard to the effect of population health on FDI inflows. Further, this study becomes the first to use death rate, infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate in examining the effect of population health on FDI inflows. Thus, since there are various causes of deaths, using indicators that capture deaths from all factors helps in giving a much broader picture with regard to the FDI population health nexus. Also, this study is the first to use up to five different population health indicators in examining the effect of population health on FDI inflows, which aids in revealing whether FDI is sensitive to the population health indicator used.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Youcef Mameche and Abdullah Masood

The present paper seeks to investigate the impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption on the foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Gulf…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper seeks to investigate the impact of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption on the foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region for the period 1980–2017. This study relies on the information asymmetry theory, according to which IFRS adoption, as a positive signal for investors, should attract more FDI. This research is crucial and presents an interesting framework for providing a major motivation for empirical insights since the macroeconomic evidence on the impact of IFRS adoption on FDI is still unclear in the GCC region and no empirical evidence has been provided in the existing related literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis was conducted based on panel data from GCC countries over the period 1980–2017 and using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) modeling approach and the pooled mean group (PMG) estimation method.

Findings

The findings indicate that the decision of adopting IFRS in GCC countries has a positive impact of 3% on FDI inflows in the short run. However, the adoption of IFRS in the region leads to a decrease of 10.4 % in FDI inflows in the long run.

Practical implications

These findings should be of a major interest to regulators and policymakers in GCC countries, practitioners and academic researchers, international investors, managers and any other interested groups about the accounting environment in GCC countries and other developing countries having an interest in the economic consequences of IFRS adoption, as a driver of FDI, in developing countries.

Originality/value

This investigation provides original empirical evidence on the effect of IFRS adoption on FDI inflows within the context of the GCC area. In fact, the current international literature is lacking empirical evidence on the effect of IFRS adoption on FDI inflows for the GCC countries as a whole. Furthermore, this study offers an original methodological contribution to the macroeconomic impact of IFRS adoption literature by using the PMG estimator since there has been no research works to date that has used this method of estimation.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000