This paper seeks to explore the applicability and implications of Bourdieu's field‐capital theory for marketing using original research with a typical European society. Bourdieu's…
This paper seeks to explore the applicability and implications of Bourdieu's field‐capital theory for marketing using original research with a typical European society. Bourdieu's field‐capital theory proposes that people acquire economic, social and cultural capital which they deploy in social arenas known as “fields” in order to compete for positions of distinction and status. This exploratory study aims to examine how Bourdieu's theory may explain competitive behavior in fields of interest to marketers.
A total of 61 in‐depth interviews were completed with respondents that were representative of each of 61 geodemographic “types” – clusters that enable marketers to segment an entire population.
The findings suggest that examining human behaviour through the lens of field and capital theory highlights the importance of the competition motive in explaining consumers' behaviour. New “fields” were identified which seem to have assumed primary importance, particularly in middle‐class people's lives.
Viewing consumer behaviour as social competition implies that new segmentation approaches may yield successful marketing outcomes, and opens consumer psychology and behaviour itself to new interpretations.
Very few research papers that apply field‐capital theory to marketing are present in the literature. It is hoped that this work addresses an important area, and one that is particularly prevalent in twenty‐first century consumerism.
The National Transportation Safety Board (US) has warned pilots not to become complacent about the threat from airframe and engine icing because of the speed and sophistication of modern aircraft.
Widely varying rates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorder have been reported in the previous published literature. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of…
Widely varying rates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorder have been reported in the previous published literature. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a random sample of adults with moderate to profound learning disabilities living in the community, and to explore the socio‐clinical factors associated with psychiatric disorders.A process of active case finding was undertaken to identify adults with learning disabilities. A random sample of 240 was taken of whom 121 were found to have moderate to profound learning disabilities at interview. Information was collected on socio‐demographics, service use, physical health, medication use, and life events. Standardised instruments were used to assess psychiatric symptoms, problem behaviour, and severity of learning disabilities. Diagnoses were generated using four diagnostic systems: clinical, DC‐LD, DCR‐10 and DSM‐IV.Higher rates of psychiatric disorder are reported than in previous published studies in the general population and in studies with people with learning disabilities living in the community. Further investigation of the effect of diagnostic system on prevalence rates, and associations of psychiatric disorder are warranted.
The relevance of the research topic is due to the high importance of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) for increasing the presence of China in the markets of the countries of the…
The relevance of the research topic is due to the high importance of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) for increasing the presence of China in the markets of the countries of the New Silk Road. The topic becomes more relevant due to the ambiguous results of the BRI, although it was launched in 2013. On the one hand, the effect for China is growing. On the other hand, the effect for the participating countries has not yet reached the level initially declared.
The chapter aims to identify the main challenges and advantages of the BRI based on the involvement of countries and their markets in the trade and economic system formed by China.
The research novelty lies in studying the economic goals and objectives of the People's Republic of China (PRC) under the BRI and the possibilities of using the trade and economic system created by the PRC for developing the PRC and the BRI member countries.
The authors found that the initiative is designed to better integrate the economy of China at the regional and global level, promote the socio-economic progress of the less developed western territories of the country and stabilize foreign trade and domestic socio-economic processes in conditions of global instability. The authors justify that this initiative, uniting more than 80 countries in Asia, Africa and Oceania, will strengthen China's role in the world economy and trade, form a specific international trade and economic platform under the leadership of China and provide the country a leading position in at least three parts of the world.
The authors use traditional economic research methods, such as scientific abstraction, deduction, analysis and synthesis. Additionally, the authors use the method of visualization based on the application of the statistical method.
Oil price shocks greatly impact the global economy, but the effects vary among countries. While higher oil prices benefit oil-exporting countries, they harm the economic…
Oil price shocks greatly impact the global economy, but the effects vary among countries. While higher oil prices benefit oil-exporting countries, they harm the economic performance of oil-importing nations, and vice versa for lower oil prices. However, economic relations, such as trade, can mitigate the impacts of oil price shocks on both groups. In this paper, the authors aim at estimating the effects of oil price shocks on the major net oil-exporting and net oil-importing countries while accounting for international trade.
The authors derive a reduced form of a macro model and set up a Panel VAR model to estimate the direct and indirect impacts of oil price shocks on economic growth. The sample includes data on macroeconomic variables from 30 oil-exporting and oil-importing countries that comprise more than 73 percent of the world's economy. The authors construct the spillover variables using bilateral trade matrix. To control for institutional and structural variations across the countries, they are divided into four groups of developed and developing oil-exporting and oil-importing countries.
The results reveal that all oil-exporting countries have significantly benefited from oil price shocks, although trade has dampened the effect. The positive growth effect has been more pronounced in oil-exporting developing countries. The impact of oil price shocks on oil-importing countries has been negative with a one-year delay, but not statistically significant, and trade has only had a small effect. The effect has been more substantial in oil-importing developing countries.
One of the limitations of this study is the focus on trade as the main spillover channel. Given the data availability, other channels such as foreign investment and financial markets can also be included in future studies.
Removing trade restrictions would help both oil-exporting and oil-importing countries to mitigate the negative impacts of the oil price shocks. However, the asymmetric oil-macroeconomy relationship across oil-exporting and oil-importing countries puts oil-exporting countries in a more vulnerable position as they cannot rely on trade with oil-importing countries to reduce the negative impacts of lower oil prices on their growth. Therefore, it is crucial for oil-exporting countries to reassess their oil-dependent development plans and invest their oil revenues in non-oil sectors to diversity their economies and prepare for a future with reduced dependence on oil.
The recent technological advances, structural changes, and increasing energy efficiency suggest that major oil-importing countries will become less dependent on oil in near future. As a result, oil-exporting countries will also need to undergo structural changes in order to sustain their income level. These significant changes will have important social implications, particularly in the labor market, during the transition, for which preparation will be necessary.
While the literature on the total impact of oil price shocks on either oil-exporting or oil-importing countries is rich, studies on their spillover impacts are limited. Recent research has shown that trade and migration can affect the impact of oil price shock on the economy in federated countries such as Canada. However, the trade effect on oil price shocks in the international level, where countries are subject to different regulations/restrictions and institutional variations, remains scarce. By considering the trade relationship between different groups of oil-exporting and oil-importing countries, the authors aim to contribute to the literature of the global impacts of oil price shocks on the world economy.
This chapter attempts to investigate and analyze the worldwide long-run dynamics among foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow, international trade, and economic growth empirically…
This chapter attempts to investigate and analyze the worldwide long-run dynamics among foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow, international trade, and economic growth empirically in the era of globalization. Impact of FDI on economic performances has been a burning topic during the current age. Different theoretical studies viewed both positive and negative impacts of inflow of foreign capital in terms of FDI. We empirically test the relationships among FDI and trade, gross domestic product by using the data for top 20 FDI-hosting countries sourced from UNCTAD in a dynamic panel frame over the period of 1991–2016. The stochastic properties are looked into by carrying out panel data unit root tests developed by Levin, Lin, and Chu (2002) and Im, Pesaran, and Shin (2003). We carry out the generalized method of moments estimates. Empirical findings suggest that inflows of FDI significantly promote economic growth in selected economies.
Greek economic adjustment and memoranda austerity lasted for 10 years followed by intense academic and political debate over their impact on Greek society. Macroeconomic…
Greek economic adjustment and memoranda austerity lasted for 10 years followed by intense academic and political debate over their impact on Greek society. Macroeconomic stabilization succeeded in nominal terms but to the detriment of growth drivers and social welfare involving asymmetrical and high social cost.
The article presents the key growth challenges after March 2020, taking into account the COVID-19 disastrous impact. From an institutional point of view, transaction cost reduction, attainment of market credibility, trust and confidence, and improvement of economic and social cohesion, remain doubtful in the long term if macroeconomic stabilization not collides with export-oriented growth and structural reforms.