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N.M. Davey and F.W. Wiese
Silver‐glass die attach materials represent a significant advance in silicon packaging technology and are expected to displace gold‐silicon eutectic bonding as the…
Silver‐glass die attach materials represent a significant advance in silicon packaging technology and are expected to displace gold‐silicon eutectic bonding as the preferred method of die attachment for high reliability applications. In this paper the rle of the glass in the adhesion mechanism of silver‐glass to gold and chromium/gold backed die has been determined using thermal analysis and X‐ray diffraction in addition to scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis of the sintered film. An adhesion mechanism is proposed in which the glass of the silver‐glass system migrates to the die interface during the firing cycle and chemically bonds to the silicon which is present at the surface of the gold‐silicon eutectic. Adhesion between the die back and the silver of the die attach material is by means of a simple mechanical bond between ‘fingers’ of glass and the sintered silver matrix. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations suggest that insufficient silicon dioxide may be formed using chromium/gold backed die for acceptable adhesion. Processing changes are proposed which resolve this adhesion problem.
Michael Geis and Martin Middendorf
The purpose of this paper is to present a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm called HelixPSO for finding ribonucleic acid (RNA) secondary structures that have…
The purpose of this paper is to present a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm called HelixPSO for finding ribonucleic acid (RNA) secondary structures that have a low energy and are similar to the native structure.
Two variants of HelixPSO are described and compared to the recent algorithms Rna‐Predict, SARNA‐Predict, SetPSO and RNAfold. Furthermore, a parallel version of the HelixPSO is proposed.
For a set of standard RNA test sequences it is shown experimentally that HelixPSO obtains a better average sensitivity than SARNA‐Predict and SetPSO and is as good as RNA‐Predict and RNAfold. When best values for different measures (e.g. number of correctly predicted base pairs, false positives and sensitivity) over several runs are compared, HelixPSO performs better than RNAfold, similar to RNA‐Predict, and is outperformed by SARNA‐Predict. It is shown that HelixPSO complements RNA‐Predict and SARNA‐Predict well since the algorithms show often very different behavior on the same sequence. For the parallel version of HelixPSO it is shown that good speedup values can be obtained for small to medium size PC clusters.
The new PSO algorithm HelixPSO for finding RNA secondary structures uses different algorithmic ideas than the other existing PSO algorithm SetPSO. HelixPSO uses thermodynamic information as well as the centroid as a reference structure and is based on a multiple swarm approach.
Alain Thierstein and Anne Wiese
In the context of the European city, the regeneration of former industrial sites is a unique opportunity to actively steer urban development. These plots of land gain…
In the context of the European city, the regeneration of former industrial sites is a unique opportunity to actively steer urban development. These plots of land gain strategic importance in actively triggering development on the city scale. Ideally, these interventions radiate beyond the individual site and contribute to the strengthening of the location as a whole. International competition between locations is rising and prosperous development a precondition for wealth and wellbeing. This approach to the regeneration of inner city plots makes high demands on all those involved. Our framework suggests a stronger focus of the conceptualization and analysis of idiosyncratic resources, to enable innovative approaches in planning. On the one hand, we are discussing spatially restrained urban plots, which have the capacity and need to be reset. On the other hand, each plot is a knot in the web of relations on a multiplicity of scales. The material city is nested into a set of interrelated scale levels – the plot, the quarter, the city, the region, potentially even the polycentric megacity region. The immaterial relations however span a multicity of scale levels. The challenge is to combine these two perspectives for their mutual benefit. The underlying processes are constitutive to urban space diversity, as urban form shapes urban life and vice versa.
Prof. and Karl Socher
Unter intelligentem Tourismus soll hier ein Tourismus verstanden werden, der möglichst wenig negative Wirkungen auf die Umwelt (vor allem die Landschaft, aber auch Wasser…
Unter intelligentem Tourismus soll hier ein Tourismus verstanden werden, der möglichst wenig negative Wirkungen auf die Umwelt (vor allem die Landschaft, aber auch Wasser, Luft usw.), die Wirtschaft und die Gesellschaft hat. Im folgenden soll primär auf die Umweltwirkungen des Tourismus eingegangen werden, während seine Wirkungen auf die Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft vernachlässigt werden.
Discrimination law has evolved from litigating or prosecuting overt, individual cases of egregious behavior solely by means of anecdotal evidence and eyewitness testimony…
Discrimination law has evolved from litigating or prosecuting overt, individual cases of egregious behavior solely by means of anecdotal evidence and eyewitness testimony. Statistical evidence came to bear the imprimatur of the United States Supreme Court in the Seventies as a probative means of discerning guilt or liability, and has been used to shore up patterns of prejudice at a systemic level since. Courtrooms of the Twenty-First Century have struggled to define discrimination through a quantitative lens, nonetheless relying on qualitative evidence to assist the factfinder in rendering a verdict. Some definitions carry more precision and accuracy than others. Consider the inflammatory National Law Journal's indictment of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (‘EPA’) as an example of the latter. In 1992, the National Law Journal ran a Special Investigation of the EPA, claiming that the federal government had fostered a racist imbalance in hazardous site cleanup and its pursuit of polluters. Kudos to the columnists for bringing environmental equity into the spotlight of public debate and for forewarning and encouraging the EPA to conduct its enforcements reflectively, in order to avoid being on the receiving end of a Title VI lawsuit. Nonetheless, the methodology used by the National Law Journal belies a total understanding of the bureaucratic structure that pursued these actions and of the notion of statistical significance. This Article confines itself to Region X's actions between 1995 and 1999, applying linear regression and other statistical tests to determine whether biases, found using the National Law Journal's naive methodology, stand after due consideration of chance. The NLJ approach finds evidence of bias, but the author also conducts more complicated and appropriate analyses, such as those contemplated by the National Guidance. After issuing some provisos, the author dismisses charges of racism or classism. While the National Guidance represents a positive first step in identifying environmental justice communities, those with an above-average proportion of lower-class or non-Caucasian inhabitants, it lacks statistical sophistication and econometric depth. This Article concludes by recommending the use of normalized racial distributions, Gini coefficients, and Social Welfare Functions to the EPA and to other organizations conducting environmental justice analysis.
Şahnaz Ekşioğlu and Tülin Ural
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to test the effect of consumers’ readiness level to use new technology on their intention to use mobile payment applications…
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to test the effect of consumers’ readiness level to use new technology on their intention to use mobile payment applications based on the technology readiness and acceptance model (TRAM). In detail, it examines how the dimensions of TR as ‘optimism, innovativeness, discomfort, and insecurity’ affect consumers’ intention to utilise mobile payment applications. Moreover, the effect of the technology-accepting behaviour measured by two major factors as ‘perceived usefulness’ and ‘perceived ease of use’ on the intention to use mobile payment applications is also examined.
Need for the study: The existence of a mobile system alone is not enough to attract consumers with no user experience to these applications. The user-centred attribute in the usage of these applications, which involves the influence of technology readiness (TR), has been largely ignored especially in developing countries. By focussing on this area, it is expected to fill the gap that has not been sufficiently handled in the developing country settings and, particularly in Turkey.
Methodology: The study population consists of the consumers who live in İstanbul who is aged 18 and over and use mobile payment technology at least once. After collecting data, confirmatory factor analysis was applied to validate the measurement model. Afterward, the structural model was tested by the Maximum Likelihood-MI estimation method, and the bootstrap samples were stated as 5,000.
Findings: When the results of the study are examined, it is seen that optimism has a significant influence on the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use dimensions of the technology acceptance model, while innovativeness is significant only on the perceived ease of use. This study results also show that discomfort and insecurity don’t significantly influence the perception of usefulness and easy-to-use mobile payment applications as perceived by individuals. Perceived ease of use is to positively affect the perceived usefulness. Additionally, the perceived ease of use and the perceived usefulness are strong predictors of intention to use mobile payment applications.
Practical implications: Findings of this study demonstrate the validity of the technology readiness and acceptance model for explaining the intention of using mobile payment applications in Turkey. To improve consumers’ intent in the usage of m-payment apps, their level of technological readiness towards technology should be determined and the factors that affect the formation of insecurity and discomfort attitudes of individuals should be emphasised.
Jill E. Ellingson and Kristina B. Tirol-Carmody
Self-report questionnaires are the predominant method used in human resource management (HRM) research to assess employees’ work-related psychological constructs (e.g.…
Self-report questionnaires are the predominant method used in human resource management (HRM) research to assess employees’ work-related psychological constructs (e.g., processes, states, and attributes). However, this method is associated with significant shortcomings, including the introduction of self-serving bias and common method variance when used exclusively. In this chapter, the authors challenge the assumption that individuals themselves are the only accurate source of the self-focused information collected in HRM research. Instead, the authors propose that other-ratings – ratings of a target individual that are provided by a workplace observer, such as a coworker, supervisor, or subordinate – can accurately assess commonly measured work-related psychological constructs. The authors begin by explaining the advantages of other-ratings for HRM research and practice, reviewing the history of other-ratings and how they emerged in the personality and person-perception literature, and outlining how they have been used in HRM research to date. Then, the authors build upon Funder’s (1995) realistic accuracy model to develop a theoretical argument detailing why workplace others should be able to accurately judge how another employee thinks and feels about work. Next, the authors highlight existing evidence in the literature on the accuracy of other-ratings and present the results of a preliminary meta-analysis on the ability of other-ratings to predict self-ratings of work-related psychological constructs. Finally, the authors discuss potential moderators of other-rating accuracy and reflect on a number of practical considerations for researchers looking to use other-ratings in their own work. The authors intend for this chapter to meaningfully contribute to the larger conversation on HRM research methods. Other-ratings are a simple, yet powerful, addition to the methodological toolkit of HRM researchers that can increase flexibility in research design and improve the overall quality of research.