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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2007

David Shinar

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Jaroslav Mackerle

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…

Abstract

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applications of FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore aims to give the reader an encyclopaedic view on the subject. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 2,025 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1992‐1995.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1901

The Sanitary Committee of a certain County Council, strong with the strength of recent creation, have lately been animated by a desire to distinguish themselves in some…

Abstract

The Sanitary Committee of a certain County Council, strong with the strength of recent creation, have lately been animated by a desire to distinguish themselves in some way, and, proceeding along the lines of least resistance, they appear to have selected the Public Analyst as the most suitable object for attack. The charge against this unfortunate official was not that he is incompetent, or that he had been in any way negligent of his duties as prescribed by Act of Parliament, but simply and solely that he has the temerity to reside in London, which city is distant by a certain number of miles from the much favoured district controlled by the County Council aforesaid. The committee were favoured in their deliberations by the assistance of no less an authority than the “Principal” of a local “Technical School”;—and who could be more capable than he to express an opinion upon so simple a matter? This eminent exponent of scientific truths, after due and proper consideration, is reported to have delivered himself of the opinion that “scientifically it would be desirable that the analyst should reside in the district, as the delay occasioned by the sending of samples of water to London is liable to produce a misleading effect upon an analysis.” Apparently appalled by the contemplation of such possibilities, and strengthened by another expression of opinion to the effect that there were as “good men” in the district as in London, the committee resolved to recommend the County Council to determine the existing arrangement with the Public Analyst, and to appoint a “local analyst for all purposes.” Thus, the only objection which could be urged to the employment of a Public Analyst resident in London was the ridiculous one that the composition of a sample of water was likely to seriously alter during the period of its transit to London, and this contention becomes still more absurd when it is remembered that the examination of water samples is no part of the official duty of a Public Analyst. The employment of local scientific talent may be very proper when the object to be attained is simply the more or less imperfect instruction of the rising generation in the rudiments of what passes in this country for “technical education”; but the work of the Public Analyst is serious and responsible, and cannot be lightly undertaken by every person who may be acquainted with some of the uses of a test‐tube. The worthy members of this committee may find to their cost, as other committees have found before them, that persons possessing the requisite knowledge and experience are not necessarily indigenous to their district. Supposing that the County Council adopts the recommendation, the aspirations of the committee may even then be strangled in their infancy, as the Local Government Board will want to know all about the matter, and the committee will have to give serious and valid reasons in support of their case.

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British Food Journal, vol. 3 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Si Yuan, Kangsheng Ye, Yongliang Wang, David Kennedy and Frederic W. Williams

The purpose of this paper is to present a numerically adaptive finite element (FE) method for accurate, efficient and reliable eigensolutions of regular second- and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a numerically adaptive finite element (FE) method for accurate, efficient and reliable eigensolutions of regular second- and fourth-order Sturm–Liouville (SL) problems with variable coefficients.

Design/methodology/approach

After the conventional FE solution for an eigenpair (i.e. eigenvalue and eigenfunction) of a particular order has been obtained on a given mesh, a novel strategy is introduced, in which the FE solution of the eigenproblem is equivalently viewed as the FE solution of an associated linear problem. This strategy allows the element energy projection (EEP) technique for linear problems to calculate the super-convergent FE solutions for eigenfunctions anywhere on any element. These EEP super-convergent solutions are used to estimate the FE solution errors and to guide mesh refinements, until the accuracy matches user-preset error tolerance on both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions.

Findings

Numerical results for a number of representative and challenging SL problems are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency, accuracy and reliability of the proposed method.

Research limitations/implications

The method is limited to regular SL problems, but it can also solve some singular SL problems in an indirect way.

Originality/value

Comprehensive utilization of the EEP technique yields a simple, efficient and reliable adaptive FE procedure that finds sufficiently fine meshes for preset error tolerances on eigenvalues and eigenfunctions to be achieved, even on problems which proved troublesome to competing methods. The method can readily be extended to vector SL problems.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

S.A.M. Ghannadpour and H.R. Ovesy

The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply an exact finite strip (F‐a FSM) for the buckling and initial post‐buckling analyses of box section struts.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply an exact finite strip (F‐a FSM) for the buckling and initial post‐buckling analyses of box section struts.

Design/methodology/approach

The Von‐Karman's equilibrium equation is solved exactly to obtain the buckling loads and deflection modes for the struts. The investigation is then extended to an initial post‐buckling study with the assumption that the deflected form immediately after the buckling is the same as that obtained for the buckling. Through the solution of the Von‐Karman's compatibility equation, the in‐plane displacement functions are developed in terms of the unknown coefficient. These in‐plane and out‐of‐plane deflected functions are then substituted in the total strain energy expressions and the theorem of minimum total potential energy is applied to solve for the unknown coefficient.

Findings

The F‐a FSM is applied to analyze the buckling and initial post‐buckling behavior of some representative box sections for which the results were also obtained through the application of a semi‐energy finite strip method (S‐e FSM). For a given degree of accuracy in the results, however, the F‐a FSM analysis requires less computational effort.

Research limitations/implications

In the present F‐a FSM, only one of the calculated deflection modes is used for the initial post‐buckling study.

Practical implications

A very useful and computationally economical methodology is developed for the initial design of struts which encounter post‐buckling.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper is the fact that by incorporating a rigorous buckling solution into the Von‐Karman's compatibility equation, and solving it, a fairly efficient method for post‐buckling stiffness calculation is achieved.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1899

In its passage through the Grand Committee the Food Bill is being amended in a number of important particulars, and it is in the highest degree satisfactory that so much…

Abstract

In its passage through the Grand Committee the Food Bill is being amended in a number of important particulars, and it is in the highest degree satisfactory that so much interest has been taken in the measure by members on both sides of the House as to lead to full and free discussion. Sir Charles Cameron, Mr. Kearley, Mr. Strachey, and other members have rendered excellent service by the introduction of various amendments; and Sir Charles Cameron is especially to be congratulated upon the success which has attended his efforts to induce the Committee to accept a number of alterations the wisdom of which cannot be doubted. The provision whereby local authorities will be compelled to appoint Public Analysts, and compelled to put the Acts in force in a proper manner, and the requirement that analysts shall furnish proofs of competence of a satisfactory character to the Local Government Board, will, it cannot be doubted, be productive of good results. The fact that the Local Government Board is to be given joint authority with the Board of Agriculture in insuring that the Acts are enforced is also an amendment of considerable importance, while other amendments upon what may perhaps be regarded as secondary points unquestionably trend in the right direction. It is, however, a matter for regret that the Government have not seen their way to introduce a decisive provision with regard to the use of preservatives, or to accept an effective amendment on this point. Under existing circumstances it should be plain that the right course to follow in regard to preservatives is to insist on full and adequate disclosure of their presence and of the amounts in which they are present. It is also a matter for regret that the Government have declined to give effect to the recommendation of the Food Products Committee as to the formation of an independent and representative Court of Reference. It is true that the Board of Agriculture are to make regulations in reference to standards, after consultation with experts or such inquiry as they think fit, and that such inquiries as the Board may make will be in the nature of consultations of some kind with a committee to be appointed by the Board. There is little doubt, however, that such a committee would probably be controlled by the Somerset House Department; and as we have already pointed out, however conscientious the personnel of this Department may be—and its conscientiousness cannot be doubted—it is not desirable in the public interest that any single purely analytical institution should exercise a controlling influence in the administration of the Acts. What is required is a Court of Reference which shall be so constituted as to command the confidence of the traders who are affected by the law as well as of all those who are concerned in its application. Further comment upon the proposed legislation must be reserved until the amended Bill is laid before the House.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 1 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1914

With reference to the report of the Annual General Meeting of the Pure Food and Health Society of Great Britain, which was published in the February issue of THE BRITISH…

Abstract

With reference to the report of the Annual General Meeting of the Pure Food and Health Society of Great Britain, which was published in the February issue of THE BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, and to the speech delivered by MR. GOSLIN upon the proper handling and purveying of meat, an article which has subsequently appeared in The Standard is of considerable interest. It is pointed out that no one who gives the matter serious consideration can approve of the present methods. “Many years ago Oxford made its protest against carcasses or joints being exposed in open‐fronted shops. It is just possible that when the powers that were objected to and forbade this proceeding they thought more of the æsthetics than the science of it, but they most certainly did a good thing when they took flesh foods away from the contamination of street dust and the variations of temperature that are dependent on every gust of wind or every moment of sunlight or shadow.”

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British Food Journal, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1913

The question of the best commercial method of retailing milk requires to be dealt with from the various standpoints of the different classes of milk vendors.

Abstract

The question of the best commercial method of retailing milk requires to be dealt with from the various standpoints of the different classes of milk vendors.

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British Food Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

LIN JIAHAO and F.W. WILLIAMS

Because of the extensive use of long‐span structures in modern engineering, much attention has been given to the extent to which ground motion phase‐lags affect the…

Abstract

Because of the extensive use of long‐span structures in modern engineering, much attention has been given to the extent to which ground motion phase‐lags affect the internal forces of such structures. In this paper, this problem is studied from the aspect of random seismic analysis, i.e. the random seismic responses of long‐span structures are explored with the phase‐lags of the ground joints of the structures taken into account. The earthquake is regarded as a stationary random process. Formulae for calculating the random responses of the structural displacements and internal forces are derived. Numerical examples are presented which illustrate some basic features of such random response, and also show that the ground motion phase‐lags have considerable effects on structural safety analysis.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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