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THE rapid growth and development of the aircraft industry has necessitated prompt decision and action in handling the many problems in connexion with the erection and equipment of aerodrome buildings, hangars, workshops and factories. In the urgency of providing the industry with all its varied requirements, it is not surprising that lire insurance planning has to a very large extent been crowded out. There are, no doubt, several reasons for this and in the welter of plans and designs that have been drawn and re‐drawn, the necessity of complying with the clients' requirements, numerous rules and regulations of local authorities and Acts of Parliament, etc., the benefits which accrue to wise planning from a fire insurance point of view have not always been fully appreciated. The need for increased output has in many cases pressed very heavily on those making the necessary preparations, and frequently no serious thought has been given to fire insurance planning. There are some persons who are under the impression that, having conformed with the numerous rules and requirements, they have carried out all that can be done in this direction.
IN the previous article an attempt was made to convey in general terms the background upon which fire insurance matters function, and deal with the salient points which attract the Fire Surveyor's special attention. It is intended in the present article to continue on more practical lines and deal with such matters as the isolation or restriction of “danger” spots, in order to avoid the fire insurance rating applicable to such points being used as the rating for other occupations or processes which in themselves would have been subject to a lower rating had the lay‐out of the premises enabled the more hazardous sections to be cut off by structural means and separately rated. In other words, if fire insurance experience was called in before final decisions were taken on a lay‐out, then the practical experience of experts gained, not only from experience of fires but from practical tests of the habits of various building materials when subject to fire conditions, assistance would be available in avoiding the many errors which cannot be remedied when the premises are finished, except at high cost. The alternative to this is to pay premiums higher than otherwise would have been necessary and, what is worse, the whole premises may be subject to the highest inception of fire hazard where freely communicating buildings obtain, which could have been avoided. No two premises are of course identical in size or use, but nevertheless it is hoped to convey the necessary considerations which can be generally applied.
Purpose – This chapter provides a roadmap for future research and evaluation on violent extremist risk analysis.Methodology/Approach – The authors synthesize the lessons…
Purpose – This chapter provides a roadmap for future research and evaluation on violent extremist risk analysis.
Methodology/Approach – The authors synthesize the lessons learned from process evaluations of general violence risk assessment, bias research, survey designs, linguistic analyses, and spatial analyses, and apply them to the problem of violent extremist risk assessment and management.
Findings – The next generation of violent extremist risk assessment research will necessitate a focus upon process, barriers to effective implementation and taking the human element of decision-making into account. Furthermore, the development of putative risk factors for violent extremist attitudes and behaviors necessitates a movement toward more survey-based research designs. Future risk assessment processes may additionally take language and spatial components into account for a more holistic understanding.
Originality/Value – Based on existing literature, there is a paucity of research conducting process evaluations, survey designs, linguistic analyses, and spatial analyses in this area. The authors provide several roadmaps, assessments of respective strengths and weaknesses, and highlight some initial promising results.
An adaptable frontline employee (FLE) would be an asset for the organization, customer and to other constituents, external to the organization. Previous research by the…
An adaptable frontline employee (FLE) would be an asset for the organization, customer and to other constituents, external to the organization. Previous research by the same authors conceptualizes FLE adaptability in the power sector, using grounded theory as a multidimensional construct (Sony and Nandakumar, 2014). The purpose of this study is to explore this concept by developing a new scale to measure the FLE adaptability.
The research is conducted in various phases to build up a new 41-item self-reported scale to measure adaptability of FLEs using structural equation modelling on data obtained from FLE ' s working in the power sector in India.
The finding of the paper is a valid FLEADAPT scale which can be used for measuring adaptability of FLEs.
Although this study has provided relevant and interesting insights into the understanding of FLE adaptability, it is important to recognize its limitations. First, data in this study were obtained from firms in Western India. Although it can be said that the two samples represent a cross-section of a large number of businesses, it would be useful to obtain a broader and wider sampling frame from other countries. Because respondents’ perceptions, attitudes and behaviour are influenced by their cultures, it would be useful to test whether the existing FLE adaptability scale can be generalized to situations in other countries.
FLE adaptability is identified as a key process in job performance, and hence, the scale will become an important managerial assessment tool.
This scale has a dimension to measure the social aspect of frontline adaptability, thus giving organizations a new tool to measure adaptability among the front lines.
Despite the increasing research attention paid to the concept of FLEs, to date, there has been no valid and comprehensive operational measure of FLE adaptability. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to provide a comprehensive, psychometrically sound and operationally valid measure of an FLE’s adaptability.
WE all scan the advertisements for librarians in The Times Literary Supplement and other journals every week, and we might be forgiven for inferring from them that there is a dearth of those who, by a curious inversion, are asked for as “A.L.A's or F.L.A's.” In contradiction, it would appear that about 1,500 youngsters are trying to enter the profession by way of the Entrance Examination every year. Youngsters beginning life, especially girls, do usually prefer or are constrained by their parents, the cost of living, and the scarcity of lodgings, to start in their home towns and still to live at home.. Higher in the scale the whole position is tangled in various ways. Many of the entrants fall by the way; commercial pay exceeds municipal and other library pay; more find the work uncongenial, as library work certainly is except to those who are book‐lovers, have a strong social sense, and, in the best cases, a flair for publicity and business administration. Others marry and leave, although some stay on with the ring on the third finger of their left hand. Thus, when maturity is reached, only a relatively few, even amongst the mature, have become chartered librarians and, fewer still, Fellows—as is natural seeing that the fellowship is a much more severe test nowadays and only much love and industry can achieve it. This position is even worse in some other branches of the municipal service; our salaries do not draw the best of the young folk permanently and many a Treasurer's office, to take one branch only, is complaining of want of good recruits. Those of our good ones who do remain do so because of the work and not the pay. Authority has always known this, from the day when Gladstone opined that working in the British Museum was so delightful that it was incredible that the workers wanted any pay at all. Chief librarians today have been most unfairly neglected by the salary negotiating bodies who have dealt generously with several other kinds of chief officers in the local services.
We learn from various sources that the Cambridge Conference arrangements are well in hand. It is many years since the Library Association gathered in body at either Oxford or Cambridge and the event should therefore be of universal interest. On one point it has a special interest, for the President will be Mr. Jast, the first municipal librarian to hold our highest office for many years past; and no one will do otherwise than rejoice at the somewhat tardy honour thus to be paid him. Cambridge itself is making first‐class history in that it is about to build a new University Library, the elevation of which—and it is a most imposing one—has been published in The Observer and probably elsewhere. Moreover, the university city with its colleges, halls, libraries and quite glamorous history from the literary point of view, offers librarians more than most people the ideal place of meeting.
ANOTHER Annual Meeting has come and gone. It was scarcely to be expected that the meeting at Bradford would be a record in the number of members attending, seeing that it is only three years ago since the Association met in the neighbouring city of Leeds, and that Bradford cannot boast either the historical associations or the architectural and scenic setting of many other towns. For the most part therefore the members who did attend, attended because they were interested in the serious rather than the entertainment or excursion side of the gathering, which was so far perhaps to the advantage of the meetings and discussions. Nevertheless, the actual number of those present—about two hundred—was quite satisfactory, and none, we are assured, even if the local functions were the main or an equal element of attraction, could possibly have regretted their visit to the metropolis of the worsted trade. Fortunately the weather was all that could be desired, and under the bright sunshine Bradford looked its best, many members, who expected doubtless to find a grey, depressing city of factories, being pleasingly disappointed with the fine views and width of open and green country quite close at hand.
THE London and Home Counties Branch is fortunate in having close at hand watering places which can house its Autumn or other Conferences conveniently. Hove in fair weather in October is a place of considerable charm; it has many varieties of hotel, from the very expensive to the modest; it is used to conferences and the hospitality of the Town Hall is widely known. This year's conference was focused in the main on problems of book‐selection which, as one writer truly says, is the main purpose of the librarian because all his possibilities hang upon it. The papers read are valuable because they appear to be quite unvarnished accounts of the individual practice of their writers. Of its kind that of Mr. Frank M. Gardner is a model and a careful study of it by the library worker who is in actual contact with the public might be useful. For his methods the paper must be read; they are a clever up‐to‐minute expansion of those laid down in Brown's Manual with several local checks and variations. Their defects are explained most usefully; there is no examination of actual books before purchase and bookshops are not visited, both of which defects are due to the absence in Luton of well‐stocked bookshops; a defect which many sizeable towns share. We find this remark significant: “The librarian of Luton in 1911 had a book‐fund of £280 a year for 30,000 people. I have nearly £9,000 for 110,000. But the Librarian in 1911 was a better book‐selector than we are. He had to be, to give a library service at all. Every possible purchase had to be looked at, every doubt eliminated.” We deprecate the word “better”; in 1911 book‐selection was not always well done, but Brown's methods could be carried out if it was thought expedient to do the work as well as it could be done. The modern librarian and his employers seem to have determined that the whole of the people shall be served by the library; that books shall be made available hot from the press, with as few exclusions as possible. No librarian willingly buys rubbish; but only in the largest libraries can a completely comprehensive selection practice be maintained. Few librarians can be quite satisfied to acquire their books from lists made by other people although they may use them for suggestions. How difficult is the problem Mr. Gardner demonstrates in connexion with books on Bridge; a shelf of apparently authoritative books might possibly contain not one that actually met the conditions of today. If this could be so in one very small subject, what might be the condition of a collection covering, or intended to cover, all subjects? Librarians have to be realists; orthodox methods do not always avail to deal with the cataract of modern books; but gradually, by cooperative methods, mechanical aids and an ever‐increasing staff devoted to this, the principal library job, much more may be done than is now possible.
The burgeoning practice of peer-to-peer breastmilk sharing in the United States conflicts with public health concerns about the safety of the milk. In-depth interviews…
The burgeoning practice of peer-to-peer breastmilk sharing in the United States conflicts with public health concerns about the safety of the milk. In-depth interviews with 58 breastmilk sharers highlight the ways in which these respondents counter widespread risk narratives. These caregivers deploy existing social values such as self-reliance, good citizenship, and “crunchy,” or natural, mothering to validate their milk-sharing practices. However, because of stratified reproduction, in which society encourages White motherhood while it disparages motherhood among poor women and women of color, these discourses are more accessible to milk sharers who are White and from middle-class. Black and Latinx milk donors and recipients offer additional rationale for milk sharing that includes reclaiming their legacies as worthy mothers and elevating milk sharing to justice work. In rejecting and reframing risk, all of these milk sharers work toward flattening the good mother/bad mother binary.
WHETHER the political pendulum is to swing in the direction of the Right or not in the coming year we do not know. Local electors are not the only key to national ones whatever politicians may argue. That there will be a move towards that direction is probable as our people tire of the monotonies of any government. Any change will not affect libraries greatly at present as the world problems are too pressing to allow any practical discussion of domestic ones. Our only fear is that “economy” may become a cry, which means, of course, the lopping of things which are educational, cultural and otherwise not money‐making and it is only too probable that public libraries and indeed other libraries might suffer from the modern equivalent of the Geddes axe which some are hopefully expecting. On the other hand the strength of the organizations which control wages from below is such that the disastrous “cuts” of the first Geddes experiment are not likely to be repeated. And on wages the whole of our financial tructure rests. Moreover libraries have now assumed the right to exist in adequate condition and to displace them may not be so easy as it was thirty years ago; but, nevertheless on vigilance our safety still depends. The conditions are not likely at present to be propitious to any real advance. The much‐desired new Library Bill is being drafted—and should be—but its hearing does not seem imminent; the chances of building new libraries are bleak, and even repairs are to some librarians a nightmare. Confronting all these conditions is the greatly increased use of libraries which is reflected in every kind of public, university, national and commercial library. This strengthens faith in the future in spite of the immediate prospect.