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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1970

Long before calories and joules were used to indicate energy values in relation to food, popular belief had it that some foods could increase man's output of labour, his physical…

Abstract

Long before calories and joules were used to indicate energy values in relation to food, popular belief had it that some foods could increase man's output of labour, his physical strength and endurance, even his fertility. The nature of the foods varied over the years. From earliest times, flesh foods have inspired men to “gird their loins” and “put on armour”, but too long at the feasting tables produced sloth of body and spirit. Hunger sharpens the wit, which makes one wonder if that oft‐quoted statement of poverty and hunger before the Great War—“children too hungry learn”—was quite true; it is now so long ago for most of us to remember. Thetruism “An army marches on its stomach” related to food in general and relating feats of strength to individual foods is something more difficult to prove. The brawny Scot owes little to his porridge; the toiling Irish labourer moves mountains of earth, not from the beef steaks he claims to consume, but for the size of the pay‐packet at the end of the week!

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 72 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2013

Russell Lacey and Angeline G Close

Given the strong interest among services marketing practitioners in sponsoring events, this study illustrates how events and sponsorships synergistically facilitate and deepen…

Abstract

Given the strong interest among services marketing practitioners in sponsoring events, this study illustrates how events and sponsorships synergistically facilitate and deepen consumer relationships by connecting service brands with consumers' passions. Structural equation modeling is used to test a congruity theory-based framework via a field study conducted at a professional cycling event. The tested model holds for two service brands operating at different levels of sponsorship. The results demonstrate how the combination of consumers' attitudes toward the event, knowledge of the sponsor brand and their level of activity in the event domain influence their assessments of event-sponsor fit. Interestingly, the findings indicate that, in the context of a community-based sports event, the title sponsor did not experience any discernable advantage of sponsorship, despite its elevated position as a sponsor and higher brand equity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2023

Daas Samia and Innal Fares

This study aims to improve the reliability of emergency safety barriers by using the subjective safety analysis based on evidential reasoning theory in order to develop on a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to improve the reliability of emergency safety barriers by using the subjective safety analysis based on evidential reasoning theory in order to develop on a framework for optimizing the reliability of emergency safety barriers.

Design/methodology/approach

The emergency event tree analysis is combined with an interval type-2 fuzzy-set and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. In order to the quantitative data is not available, this study based on interval type2 fuzzy set theory, trapezoidal fuzzy numbers describe the expert's imprecise uncertainty about the fuzzy failure probability of emergency safety barriers related to the liquefied petroleum gas storage prevent. Fuzzy fault tree analysis and fuzzy ordered weighted average aggregation are used to address uncertainties in emergency safety barrier reliability assessment. In addition, a critical analysis and some corrective actions are suggested to identify weak points in emergency safety barriers. Therefore, a framework decisions are proposed to optimize and improve safety barrier reliability. Decision-making in this framework uses evidential reasoning theory to identify corrective actions that can optimize reliability based on subjective safety analysis.

Findings

A real case study of a liquefied petroleum gas storage in Algeria is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The results show that the proposed methodology provides the possibility to evaluate the values of the fuzzy failure probability of emergency safety barriers. In addition, the fuzzy failure probabilities using the fuzzy type-2 AHP method are the most reliable and accurate. As a result, the improved fault tree analysis can estimate uncertain expert opinion weights, identify and evaluate failure probability values for critical basic event. Therefore, suggestions for corrective measures to reduce the failure probability of the fire-fighting system are provided. The obtained results show that of the ten proposed corrective actions, the corrective action “use of periodic maintenance tests” prioritizes reliability, optimization and improvement of safety procedures.

Research limitations/implications

This study helps to determine the safest and most reliable corrective measures to improve the reliability of safety barriers. In addition, it also helps to protect people inside and outside the company from all kinds of major industrial accidents. Among the limitations of this study is that the cost of corrective actions is not taken into account.

Originality/value

Our contribution is to propose an integrated approach that uses interval type-2 fuzzy sets and AHP method and emergency event tree analysis to handle uncertainty in the failure probability assessment of emergency safety barriers. In addition, the integration of fault tree analysis and fuzzy ordered averaging aggregation helps to improve the reliability of the fire-fighting system and optimize the corrective actions that can improve the safety practices in liquefied petroleum gas storage tanks.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1917

The Daily Dispatch publishes a letter from “ One of the Guard” at a war camp, who writes as follows:—

Abstract

The Daily Dispatch publishes a letter from “ One of the Guard” at a war camp, who writes as follows:—

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1964

These substances, resulting from the constant building‐up and breaking‐down of living tissues, have most friendly relations with their host, although…

Abstract

These substances, resulting from the constant building‐up and breaking‐down of living tissues, have most friendly relations with their host, although antagonists—antimetabolites—appear now and then and disrupt their functions. In some of the inborn errors of metabolism, the antagonism is permanent and unless replacement therapy occurs at a very early stage, it interferes with physical and/or mental development. That metabolites from other sources introduced into a host could be extremely toxic was amply illustrated when a metabolite of certain strains of Aspergillus flavus, a fungus commonly found in peanuts and other vegetable seeds, caused severe losses to turkey breeders a few years ago. In 1960, it was discovered that the toxic principle was aflatoxin, which had a number of components and that all farm and laboratory animals, with the exception of sheep, were sensitive to it. Now, it has been confirmed that pure aflatoxin added to a normal laboratory diet is carcinogenic. (J. H. Butler and J. M. Barnes, 1963, Brit. J. Cancer, 17, 699.) Cows fed on highly toxic meal secreted a milk factor which proved to be toxic to ducklings. (H. de Iongh, R. O. Vles, and J. G. van Pelt, 1964, Nature, 202, 466.)

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 66 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

T.P. Coultate, S. Sumar and F.G. Davies

Provides an overview of the analytical methods used to quantifymicronutrients (metals, non‐metals and vitamins) present in food.Considers the principles of the methods of analysis…

831

Abstract

Provides an overview of the analytical methods used to quantify micronutrients (metals, non‐metals and vitamins) present in food. Considers the principles of the methods of analysis employed.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 95 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1965

The London County Council has now passed into history. Often accused of being an overloaded bureaucracy, which it probably was, and a stage for demagogues, of political bias and…

Abstract

The London County Council has now passed into history. Often accused of being an overloaded bureaucracy, which it probably was, and a stage for demagogues, of political bias and Socialist waste, it may go unmourned by many, but because of its great influence on local government development in this country and its achievements, it should not be allowed to go unsung. When created by the Local Government Act, 1888, from parts of the counties of Middlesex, Surrey and Kent, it must have seemed at the time something of an administrative anachronism, just as the welding of the remnants of power of the Council with that of Middlesex into a Greater London Council seems so now. Its powers were much greater than those of other county councils and its relations with metropolitan borough councils, constituted by the Local Government Act, 1899, more powerful, the division of functions and authority strongly favouring the L.C.C., especially since 1948 when the National Health Service Act, 1946, transferred the personal health services from the Boroughs. Decentralisation was practised, the area of the L.C.C. being divided into nine divisions, but Greater London long ago outgrew its administrative boundaries, outside which were densely populated areas indistinguishable from London itself, so that re‐organisation was inevitable.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

D.R. Davies, J.H. Davies, O. Hassan, K. Morgan and P. Nithiarasu

The purpose of this paper is to present an adaptive finite element procedure that improves the quality of convection dominated mid‐ocean ridge (MOR) and subduction zone (SZ…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an adaptive finite element procedure that improves the quality of convection dominated mid‐ocean ridge (MOR) and subduction zone (SZ) simulations in geodynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

The method adapts the mesh automatically around regions of high‐solution gradient, yielding enhanced resolution of the associated flow features. The approach utilizes an automatic, unstructured mesh generator and a finite element flow solver. Mesh adaptation is accomplished through mesh regeneration, employing information provided by an interpolation‐based local error indicator, obtained from the computed solution on an existing mesh.

Findings

The proposed methodology works remarkably well at improving solution accuracy for both MOR and SZ simulations. Furthermore, the method is computationally highly efficient.

Originality/value

To date, successful goal‐orientated/error‐guided grid adaptation techniques have, to the knowledge, not been utilized within the field of geodynamics. This paper presents the first true geodynamical application of such methods.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 18 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Kannika Leelapanyalert

Internationalisation leads to a radical process of change through which an organisation modifies the focus of its operations, value system and cognitive framework so as to achieve…

Abstract

Internationalisation leads to a radical process of change through which an organisation modifies the focus of its operations, value system and cognitive framework so as to achieve a more internationally responsive structure (Whitehead, 1992). Earlier studies have investigated the internationalisation process considering the internal and external factors of the company and its market (Cavusgil et al., 2002; McGoldrick, 1998, 2002; McGoldrick & Davies, 1995; Treadgold & Davies, 1988). The internationalisation literature based on Uppsala studies about the internationalisation process of Swedish firms, (Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975; Johanson & Vahlne, 1977) identified four different internationalisation stages called the “establishment chain”, which also applied to the retail context (Davies & Fergusson, 1995, p. 99). The results show that different stages demand different resource commitment from the company (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977). It is assumed that a company initially lacks knowledge of the local market. The level of local market knowledge affects the company's commitment decisions and its activities. The network approach (Johanson & Mattsson, 1988) could be applied to the study of vertical international relationships. It is, therefore, useful for the international sourcing activities of retailers (Dawson, 1994, p. 270) and provides a competitive advantage as well as flexibility, in which each of the organisations in the network is working towards a common objective (McGoldrick, 2002, p. 571). In the past 20 years, many researchers have paid more attention to network relationships, which have become the main marketing strategy. They agree that the study of network relationships between companies, suppliers and customers is more important than the marketing mix (Ghauri, 1999).

Details

New Challenges to International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-469-6

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1945

The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research has released an account of the preparation of emergency rations in the form of dehydrated foodstuffs. These rations were…

Abstract

The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research has released an account of the preparation of emergency rations in the form of dehydrated foodstuffs. These rations were designed and made when the result of a forced landing of an aircraft flying over polar regions may have to be faced. Having regard to the special circumstances for which the method described by the Department was designed it is perhaps not too much to say that it introduces as great a change in feeding the crews of airships as did Appert in feeding the crews of sailing ships a hundred and thirty‐five years ago. Appert's method did much to eliminate scurvy. This to prevent starvation and loss of life which the accounts of Polar expeditions have too often recorded. Dried fruits and dried vegetables have long been known and used. Milk powder and egg powder are now as well known. If these and tinned foods be regarded as ordinary rations they are too heavy and too bulky to be of use in an emergency such as may arise when a Polar flight ends in an unpremeditated grounding and the crew are left in a Polar desert to make the best they can of the conditions. It will be remembered that in May last the “Aries,” a British Lancaster airship, made a trip of some 17,000 miles. Much of this trip was in the Polar regions. The g eographical North Pole was visited and in the return journey the true position of the magnetic North Pole was ascertained in a 4,000 mile non‐stop return journey from White Horse, Yukon, to Shrewsbury. In view of possibilities an emergency ration had to be designed in which most of the food was in the form of hydrostatically compressed blocks of compounded and dehydrated foods. The compression reducing bulk; dehydration, weight; compounding ensuring variety. The rations so prepared had to be sufficient to feed nine men for twenty‐eight days. An account of the rations so prepared forms the subject of the report issued by the Department. These blocks consist of mixtures of dehydrated foods with added sweetening and flavouring materials where appropriate, so that each is a ready‐made meal requiring only the addition of water. They are fabricated into tablets of standard size (usually 2in. by 2in. by 0·9in.). They need only to be wrapped in high grade waxed films or papers and their standard size facilitates the assembly of mixed rations whilst very little space is wasted as compared for instance with circular cans. They are made by one of two processes—those containing dried foods of large particle size such as dehydrated meat or vegetables are made by compressing the mixture in a hydraulic press. The pressed block can be broken down easily in the hand. Where the particle size of the material is much finer, as with spray dried powders such as milk or egg, such compressed blocks would be very difficult to crumble, and furthermore lumps escaping crumbling would remain as unreconstituted lumps and mar the smoothness of the product. Thus they are prepared by casting the mixture hot into moulds with added molten fat. The block can be dissolved by boiling water. Many of the blocks containing milk powder may be eaten as sweets. Four kinds of menus from these blocks were prepared to relieve monotony of diet. Details of these are given in the report for four days. The total number of calories for each day ranges from 3,550 to 3,380. The weight of food per man in grammes from 715 to 704. Fat in grammes 213 to 177. Percentage of fat 30 to 25. The computed total nett weight was 393 lbs. Rations for two days can be packed in a standard four‐gallon can—gas packed if necessary—as a master container. Fourteen such cans would be necessary. These, together with immediate wrappings, would make a gross weight of 435 lbs. A most important consideration is weight. It is pointed out that the water extracted during the dehydration process would fill another seventeen cans! If light metal alloys instead of tin plate were used for the master cans a reduction of weight would be possible, but even a total weight of 435 lbs. is “very modest” compared with the weight of most emergency rations, even when the weight of master containers is excluded for the rations as drawn up provide for each man three normal meals per day. The Department refers to the theoretical aspect of the provision of a calorific level of 3,400 per day, with a total weight of 704 gms. per man. If the diet were made up of pure carbohydrate, pure fat and pure protein alone, then, using the factors 4·9 and 4 respectively as the number of calories derived from each gramme of food, a diet containing 25 per cent. fat would have an overall calorific value of 5·25 Cals/gm. a diet giving 3,400 calories, as in Day 3, would therefore weigh 647 gms. This is an absolute minimum below which it would be impossible to go. This figure takes no account of the residual water content of dehydrated foods of salt or minerals or roughage. The weight of 715 gms. achieved in practice includes, in addition to water and roughage, some 8 gms. of salt and 13 gms. of tea. It is therefore considered that, for a ration which gives three normal meals a day, it would be virtually impossible with the materials available at present to reduce the weight of the ration further. It may be added that a stove has been designed to burn motor spirit should it be possible to salvage any after a forced landing. It is considered that this type of food may be of great value for future polar expeditions. This is undoubtedly true whether aeroplanes be used as part of the equipment or not. It may be permissible to suggest that rations such as these would prove useful in land expeditions at a pinch. While in the case of a ship having to be abandoned in mid ocean the crew's chance of survival would obviously be bettered by having a supply of such concentrated rations in the ship's boats.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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