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Begins with a summary of the limits to growth analysis of the global situation, identifying over‐production and over‐consumption as the basic causes of ecological damage…
Begins with a summary of the limits to growth analysis of the global situation, identifying over‐production and over‐consumption as the basic causes of ecological damage, resource depletion, Third World deprivation and social breakdown. Gives attention to the destructive effects of market relations on community and the social bond. States that if this analysis is valid some inescapable implications follow for the form that a sustainable society must take. Finally, outlines a general strategy for the building of sustainable communities and makes reference to the global ecovillage movement beginning to undertake this task.
Puts forward the limit to growth perspective, which is rarely mentioned in societies devoted to the increase of material living standards. Outlines the resources each…
Puts forward the limit to growth perspective, which is rarely mentioned in societies devoted to the increase of material living standards. Outlines the resources each individual in rich countries uses and extrapolates those figures to cover the rest of the world’s population, proving that it is clearly impossible to sustain such living standards. Criticizes profit maximization, market forces and the pursuit of business opportunities as inappropriate to the needs of the world’s poor majority. Explores how society could reduce its per capita resource use and environmental impact, particularly through the development of small scale self‐sufficient economies. Points out that most of the real economy would be in non‐cash areas. Hastens to mention that a simpler, less material and closer‐to‐nature lifestyle does not exclude information technology. Indicates that access to communal property and service needs to replace income as the means to a satisfying life. Summarizes how community gardens can be set up and the roles that community workers could play in saving towns.
Argues that two mistakes are evident in the critical literature on globalization. Cites the first as “globalization is a policy option that more humane or sensible leadership would have avoided”. States that it is the inevitable state to which capitalist development leads. Suggest that the other misconception is that “globalization could be acceptable if it took place in a socialist world society” and attempts to show that ecological considerations show that a sustainable world can not involve a globalized economy.
I. Introduction For over forty years, a model for Third World development has gained widespread acceptance. Three key premises underpin the traditional development model: (1) the identification of “development” with the maximization of the rate of national economic growth; (2) the quest to achieve Western living standards and levels of industrialization which require the transfer of labor from the agricultural to the industrial sector as well as increased consumerism; and (3) the integration into the interdependence of Third World nations in the global economy and the global marketplace. Increasing the demand for a Third World nation's exports (in other words, export‐led growth) is viewed as leading to the maximization of a nation's Gross National Product (GNP).
Thinking about poverty alleviation depends greatly on one’s underlying theory about the way the global economy works and, therefore, about the reasons for the existence of…
Thinking about poverty alleviation depends greatly on one’s underlying theory about the way the global economy works and, therefore, about the reasons for the existence of poverty. The development literature does not sufficiently acknowledge the contradictions that exist between the conventional or neo‐classical position on development and the critical or “appropriate development” perspective. The following discussion considers the main differences between these two positions and argues that the neo‐classical position must be abandoned. Implications for development practice in general and for the issue of poverty alleviation are then taken up.
Asserts that the world needs to integrate economic issues with social demands and discusses ideas on the unity of knowledge (including Islamic theories). Develops a string…
Asserts that the world needs to integrate economic issues with social demands and discusses ideas on the unity of knowledge (including Islamic theories). Develops a string model of the process of unification as seen by the Koran and applies it to the Islamic financing division of a Saudi Arabian bank to show how it can produce an “interactive financial index” encompassing social well‐being, economic development and financial profitability. Claims that this could not be achieved in any other way and contrasts the Islamic approach with mainstream economic ideas. Assesses how the Islamic approach works in practice by looking at the bank’s portfolio and relating it to social well‐being and policy.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons behind the apparent reluctance of UK residential developers to embrace microgeneration technology and adopt it…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons behind the apparent reluctance of UK residential developers to embrace microgeneration technology and adopt it large‐scale across their developments despite consumer demand for post‐construction microgeneration technologies. This paper explores residential developers’ attitudes towards these technologies, their perceptions of drivers and barriers to sustainability, supply and demand issues and perceptions of the potential contribution that microgeneration technologies could make towards sustainable construction across the UK.
This paper reports on the findings from 12 telephone interviews with UK residential developers which were carried out in May 2007.
The main driver towards sustainability was legislation. The most favoured microgeneration technology amongst developers was solar thermal, as it was perceived to be the most established microgeneration technology. Barriers towards adopting this technology were the initial cost to developers, the initial costs to occupiers, long payback periods, and the current market immaturity, reliability and liability of microgeneration products.
This represents a snapshot of developers views in 2007 and due to technological improvements, policy and changes to the economy opinions may have changed.
The results suggest that unless there are significant improvements in efficiency, reliability, reductions in purchase costs and, guarantees that they will be free from liability when things go wrong, developers will struggle to achieve the requirements of the code for sustainable homes Level Six “zero carbon” rating in 2016.
The study addresses microgeneration from the house‐builders’ perspective.
EACH September the eyes of the aeronautical World turn towards the S.B.A.C. Air Display and Exhibition with interest unequalled by any other event. It is fitting that the…
EACH September the eyes of the aeronautical World turn towards the S.B.A.C. Air Display and Exhibition with interest unequalled by any other event. It is fitting that the Display is now held each year at the airfield of the Royal Aircraft Establishment, one of the world's most prominent aeronautical research centres. This interest becomes increasingly keen too, as the preview day comes closer, because new prototypes of unorthodox designs often appear a short time before the Show to illustrate the results of years of careful planning, development and research of the particular company. These designs often mould the path of progress for smaller countries without the economic resources to forge the way ahead alone. Most British citizens are very proud of their country's place in aviation today, both in the military and civil fields. This is understood by most foreigners because it is clear that Britain has won a place in aeronautical development second to none.
Last month we looked at group discovery learning in action on trainers. We found that our trainers learned most, developed insight and skill most rapidly, made the most…
Last month we looked at group discovery learning in action on trainers. We found that our trainers learned most, developed insight and skill most rapidly, made the most exciting leaps forward, when: • information input was restricted, provided only in response to expressed need • interference and imposition were at a minimum • work was based on real situations, or, failing this, detailed simulations of real situations • problems increased in difficulty and used the learning obtained in solving preceding problems. Our students were usually able to identify why our approach had worked for them, and were able to apply similar principles to management training problems they encountered. From a somewhat mechanistic system came the idea of using only those specific techniques appropriate to your need — instead of slavish duplication of the whole package — and of developing and using an approach which can be transferred to a wide variety of working situations. The importance of changing behaviour through developing attitudes became clear. The key to this is involvement: trainers have to involve management, managers have to involve staff if they want their ideas to lead to action. We want to look now at some of the interactions involved in the development process; at what is required from the trainer or manager in getting improved performance in group situations.