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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2008

Richard C. Hoffman, Joel F. Kincaid and John F. Preble

Consistent with traditional internationalization theory, we argue that, when a firm chooses franchising to achieve market penetration, market propinquity/similarity…

Abstract

Consistent with traditional internationalization theory, we argue that, when a firm chooses franchising to achieve market penetration, market propinquity/similarity matters. Using a modified gravity model, we examine six country characteristics believed to enhance the flow of franchise activity among 39 nations. Our findings support the notion that market propinquity facilitates the flow of franchises between nations. Franchise expansion is greatest when the home and host nations are similar in terms of geography, culture, media availability, and political risk. The management implications of these findings are discussed in detail.

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Multinational Business Review, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2006

Ilan Alon

Master international franchising is among the fastest growing methods for international franchisors to expand abroad because this method involves minimal financial risk…

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784

Abstract

Master international franchising is among the fastest growing methods for international franchisors to expand abroad because this method involves minimal financial risk and a quick go‐to‐market strategy. This article reviews the extant literature and develops propositions relating specific environmental factors to the propensity of franchisors to use master international franchising. We propose that master international franchising is more likely when the economic potential and level of corruption are low; and when the competitive intensity, demand variability, franchise knowledge, masculinity and individualism in society, geographical and cultural distance, country risk, and level of legal protection are high

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Multinational Business Review, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Richard C. Hoffman, Frank M. Shipper, Jeanette A. Davy and Denise M. Rotondo

– The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.

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1428

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 7,606 managers in 5 countries from a large multinational firm were analyzed using structural equation modeling to assess all relationships simultaneously and reduce error effects.

Findings

The results support the cross-cultural validity of the model of managerial skills-effectiveness. Few cross-cultural differences were found. Interactive skills had greater positive impact on attitudes than initiating skills. Pressuring skills had a negative impact on attitudes. None of the skill sets were related to job performance.

Research limitations/implications

Using a single firm and industry to control for other cultural levels may limit the generalizability of the results. Only three skill sets were assessed and one coarse-grained measure of culture was used. These factors may account for the few cultural differences observed.

Practical implications

Training programs for managers going overseas should develop both interactive and initiating skills sets, as both had a positive impact on attitudes across cultures.

Originality/value

The model of managerial skills and effectiveness was validated across five cultures. The use of structural equation modeling ensures that the results are not an artifact of the measures and represents a more direct test for cross-cultural differences. Managing successfully across cultures may require fewer unique skills, with more emphasis placed on using basic management skills having positive impact.

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International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1944

F.C. Hoffman

THE first and foremost problem in aircraft production is one of proper design and rapid production of sheet metal forming tools. A full understanding of forming properties…

Abstract

THE first and foremost problem in aircraft production is one of proper design and rapid production of sheet metal forming tools. A full understanding of forming properties of various aircraft materials, the limits of each method of forming, and die design and construction, are of vital importance to every tool designer and tool planner. In view of the great variety of parts to be produced, the expensive and time‐consuming trial and error method of die development should be reduced to a minimum. The problems of production, particularly forming problems, will be greatly simplified by the use of this same knowledge and information in the design of sheet metal parts. If the limits to which parts can be formed by the common methods are known and applied, a very large percentage of parts can be designed so that they may be formed readily and economically using as few operations as possible. If parts are designed so that they take advantage of new simplified methods, it is important that tools be made with close cooperation between the pre‐planned, tool planners, and tool designers.

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Peterson K. Ozili

Purpose: This chapter discusses the need for climate change risk mitigation and why it is not the responsibility of Central Banks to mitigate climate change risk.…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter discusses the need for climate change risk mitigation and why it is not the responsibility of Central Banks to mitigate climate change risk.

Methodology: This chapter uses critical discourse analysis to explain why central banks should not have the responsibility for climate change risk mitigation.

Findings: This chapter argues that the responsibility for managing climate change risk should lie with elected officials, other groups and institutions but not Central Banks. Elected officials, or politicians, should be held responsible to deal with the consequence of climate change events. Also, international organizations and everybody can take responsibility for climate change while the Central Bank can provide assistance – but Central Banks should not lead the climate policy making or mitigation agenda.

Implication: The policy implication is that the responsibility for climate change risk mitigation should be shifted to politicians who are elected officials of the people. Also, international climate change organizations or groups can take responsibility for mitigating the climate change risk of member countries. Finally, citizens in a country or region should have equal responsibility for climate change. Climate information should be provided to every citizen to help them prepare for future climatic conditions.

Originality: This chapter propagates the idea that Central Banks should take a lead role in dealing with the problems of climate change. This chapter is the first chapter to contest a Central Bank-led climate change risk mitigation agenda.

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Deborah Agostino and Yulia Sidorova

The purpose of this paper is to focus on measuring the contribution generated by social media when used for business purposes, distinguishing between metrics and methods…

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2472

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on measuring the contribution generated by social media when used for business purposes, distinguishing between metrics and methods for data collection and data analysis. Organizations worldwide have widely endorsed social media, but available studies on the contribution generated by these technologies for organizations are fragmented. A performance measurement system (PMS) framework to monitor social media is theoretically derived, highlighting the methods for data collection and data analysis and metrics to quantify social media impacts in terms of financials, network structure, interactions, conversations and users’ opinion.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative research based on a literature review of papers in management, information technology, marketing and public relations.

Findings

A PMS framework to quantify the contribution of social media is theoretically derived, distinguishing between metrics and methods. PMS metrics support the measurement of the financial and relational impact of social media, as well as the impact of social media conversations and users’ opinions. PMS methods comprise different approaches for data collection and data analysis that range from manual to automated data collection and from content to sentiment analysis techniques.

Originality/value

The PMS framework contributes to the academic literature by integrating a unique model of the available approaches for social media measurement that can serve as a basis for future research directions. The framework also supports practitioners that face necessity to quantify financial and relational contributions of social media as well as the contribution of social media conversation and users’ opinion.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Belle Rose Ragins

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) employees constitute one of the largest, but least studied, minority groups in the workforce. This article examines what we know, and what…

Abstract

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) employees constitute one of the largest, but least studied, minority groups in the workforce. This article examines what we know, and what we need to know, about the career and workplace experiences of this understudied population. The construct of sexual identity is defined, followed by a review of the research on sexual orientation in the workplace. Then an analysis of the differences between LGB employees and other stigmatized groups is presented. Three unique challenges facing LGB employees are identified, and conceptual models are developed that explain underlying processes. Finally, career theories are critically analyzed, and an identity-based longitudinal theory of LGB careers is presented.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-103-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Pankaj and Khalid Moin

Plane strain constitutive behaviour of von Mises and isotropic Hoffman materials is examined using single element tests. Two kinds of tests are conducted – (a) prescribed…

Abstract

Plane strain constitutive behaviour of von Mises and isotropic Hoffman materials is examined using single element tests. Two kinds of tests are conducted – (a) prescribed displacement tests; and (b) tests with a mixture of displacements and boundary tractions prescribed. While (a) are used to understand the manner of stress traversal on the yield surface in principal stress space, (b) are employed to study the load displacement response and the possibility of ensuing localization. Associated plasticity is assumed throughout. The tests are conducted using perfect and strain softening plasticity. It is found that for the von Mises criterion limited exact solutions can be evolved even under softening (or hardening) conditions. For isotropic Hoffman materials the nature of the stress traversal, load deflection response and the satisfaction of the localization conditions are strongly influenced by the ratio and difference of uniaxial yield strengths, in tension and compression, as well as by the softening parameters.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Farveh Farivar, Roslyn Cameron and Mohsen Yaghoubi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cultural dimensions and the roots of work-family balance issues in a developing non-Western cultural…

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2694

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cultural dimensions and the roots of work-family balance issues in a developing non-Western cultural context. Drawing upon Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, the study suggests national cultural dimensions can shape the roots of work-family balance.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was distributed among employees of 12 companies operating in the health industry. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data through two separate approaches: seven-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. The data were analyzed via thematic exploratory analysis and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis.

Findings

The quantitative data confirms the extant literature in relation to the negative effects of moonlighting, economic hardship and the absence of a comprehensive work-family balance strategy on employee work-family balance. The qualitative data proposes a new variable, weak social interaction, which becomes the most important roots of work-family imbalance at both work and family domain.

Practical implications

The present study suggests certain cultural dimensions such as high power distance hinders social interactions in the work and family domains, thereby increasing levels of work conflict, family conflict, and stress. Findings suggest organizations, especially multinationals, need to be cognizant of the role of cultural dimensions on human resource management practices related to work-family balance.

Originality/value

Very little literature addresses the impact of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions on work-family balance issues. The present study has contributed to the existing body of literature by introducing a new variable (weak social interaction) as an antecedent of work-family imbalance. Further, the study is the first in Iran that has collected qualitative data to investigate work-family balance issues.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Nina Hellqvist

Whilst performance management (PM) is one human resource practice that is of importance for the company, research in international setting is still in its infancy. This…

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6457

Abstract

Purpose

Whilst performance management (PM) is one human resource practice that is of importance for the company, research in international setting is still in its infancy. This paper focuses on global PM (GPM) in multinational enterprises. The aim is to present advances in the PM research framework, give managerial suggestions and find out future needs and trends for research.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is to analyze the literature in the research field. Will the transfer of PM be localized or standardized? Diffusion deals with how social institutions are spread from one society to another through certain channels over time and among members of a social system. In this paper, the framework is drawn on institutional theory, the institutional impact of the degree of success or barriers to GPM.

Findings

In the findings of GPM research, the following perspectives were found: tool and process perspective, expatriates (a specific target group perspective), cultural perspective, standardization perspective and comparative perspective.

Practical implications

GPM enables the evaluation and development of the individual as well as organizational effectiveness for multinational companies. Balance between local responsiveness and global integration in subsidiaries is needed.

Originality/value

There is a need to study GPM further. The PM process is similar for domestic and international market, but the difference is in the implementation because it is far more complex in global companies with more issues to consider.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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