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An analysis of radioactivity in organisms inhabiting the intertidalregion of the Island of Skye revealed accumulation of gammaradioactivity by specific organisms, such as…
An analysis of radioactivity in organisms inhabiting the intertidal region of the Island of Skye revealed accumulation of gamma radioactivity by specific organisms, such as lichens, to be markedly enhanced as compared with other autotrophs. The movement of radioactivity through trophic levels culminating in organisms such as the predator Nucella lapillus is described. A comparison with previous work indicates a marked decrease in the gamma count in these organisms due to a variety of factors as discussed. The importance of the position of the organism on the shore during the post‐Chernobyl contaminated rainfall is reiterated.
This paper compares the gamma‐radioactivity values determined in an intertidal ecosystem on the Atlantic island of Barra in the Western Isles of Scotland in 1989 and 1994…
This paper compares the gamma‐radioactivity values determined in an intertidal ecosystem on the Atlantic island of Barra in the Western Isles of Scotland in 1989 and 1994. Distinct differences in the accumulation values in different trophic levels were detected on each occasion, but, in the intervening five years between surveys, there have also been marked reductions in the gamma counts in many different organisms of each trophic level. Gamma‐radioactivity has continued to move through the sandy soils of the machair coastal dunes system, and hence away from the rooting zone of the vegetation. The decreasing gamma‐radioactivities noted point to a shoreline ecosystem that is recovering from the input of Chernobyl fallout.
Large metalliferous spoil and smelting tip sites, generated during the Nabatean, Roman and Byzantine periods, continue to exist in southern Jordan and still exert…
Large metalliferous spoil and smelting tip sites, generated during the Nabatean, Roman and Byzantine periods, continue to exist in southern Jordan and still exert important effects on both plants and animals (including humans) inhabiting the area. Humans are exposed to both copper and lead pollution as a consequence of the inhalation and ingestion of heavy metals, which often involves significant bio‐accumulation through trophic levels. This paper explores aspects of an important source of severe dietary contamination which has potential public health implications in terms of effects on the health of exposed individuals.
Specimens of the bracket fungus (Ganoderma applanatum) werecollected from highly polluted sites in Czechoslovakia and also fromEngland. The bracket fungus was found to be…
Specimens of the bracket fungus (Ganoderma applanatum) were collected from highly polluted sites in Czechoslovakia and also from England. The bracket fungus was found to be an excellent long‐term monitor/accumulator of atmospheric pollutants and collected material arriving by impaction and sedimentation from the atmospheric environment.
Investigates the effects of acid precipitation on nutrientmobilization in vegetation, in the Nottingham (UK) area near a largecoal‐fired power station. In stem flow and…
Investigates the effects of acid precipitation on nutrient mobilization in vegetation, in the Nottingham (UK) area near a large coal‐fired power station. In stem flow and canopy throughfall samples, from holly, yew and a grass, mobilization of Ca, K and Na was enhanced. Examines the importance of leaf presentation and foliar stratification. Loss of elements as a result of mobilization by acid precipitation is deleterious to autotrophs and may affect the populations of heterotrophs.
Longitudinal data are required to characterise and measure the dynamics of income-related health inequalities (IRHI). This chapter develops a framework to evaluate the…
Longitudinal data are required to characterise and measure the dynamics of income-related health inequalities (IRHI). This chapter develops a framework to evaluate the impact of population changes on the level of cross-sectional IRHI over time and thereby provides further insight into how health inequalities develop or perpetuate themselves in a society. The approach is illustrated by an empirical analysis of the increase in IRHI in Great Britain between 1999 and 2004 using the British Household Panel Survey. The results imply that levels of IRHI would have been even higher in 2004 but for the entry of youths into the adult population and deaths, with these natural processes of population turnover serving to partially mask the increase in IRHI among the resident adult population over the five-year period. We conclude that a failure to take demographic changes into account may lead to erroneous conclusions on the effectiveness of policies designed to tackle health inequalities.
This paper devises a new method for using the information contained in income-generating equations to “account for” or “decompose” the level of income inequality in a…
This paper devises a new method for using the information contained in income-generating equations to “account for” or “decompose” the level of income inequality in a country and its change over time. In the levels decomposition, the shares attributed to each explanatory factor are independent of the particular inequality measure used. In the change decomposition, methods are presented to break down the contribution of each explanatory factor into a coefficients effect, a correlation effect, and a standard deviation effect. In an application to rising earnings inequality in the United States, it is found that schooling is the single most explanatory variable, only one other variable (occupation) has any appreciable role to play, and all of schooling’s effect was a coefficients effect.
It has been held not infrequently that of the influences which together mould the individual and determine his or her value as a social unit those of heredity are so prepotent as to leave little room for those of the environment. By others this view has seemed to involve unjustifiable pessimism. You will, I think, admit that in the past when there was little objective knowledge to bear on such questions, current views were largely decided by that ingrained difference in social outlook which has divided and still divides human opinion on so many other fundamental questions. Those who are naturally inclined to justify privilege, and who have felt instinctively that class distinctions are a social necessity founded on nature, have been tempted perhaps to emphasise too exclusively the unmistakable influence of heredity; those to whom a different outlook is natural have wished to believe, not, of course, that all are born equal as the eighteenth century philosophers declaimed, but that in favourable environments individuals tend to display greater equality of capacity.