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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

N.F. Lokman, F. Suja', H. Abdullah and A.A. Abu Bakar

This purpose of this study is to investigate the structural and morphology of hybrid silver-crosslinked chitosan thin films potentially for surface plasmon resonance (SPR…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this study is to investigate the structural and morphology of hybrid silver-crosslinked chitosan thin films potentially for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor application. Silver, silver-chitosan and silver-crosslinked chitosan (annealed) thin films also were prepared as controls for this study.

Design/methodology/approach

Silver was firstly coated on top of the glass substrate by magnetron sputtering method. Different chitosan solutions (with and without glutaraldehyde) were coated on top of the substrate by spin coating method. Annealing treatment was carried out for one of silver-crosslink chitosan sample. The structural and morphology of all the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SPR curves also were measured by the SPR sensor with air and deionised (DI) water as analytes.

Findings

The structure of silver-crosslinked chitosan thin film presented a monoclinic structure with high crystallinity of 131.71 nm at the prominent peak by XRD analysis. The FESEM and AFM analyses revealed the morphology to be rough in surface attributed to enhanced contact with analytes in SPR measurement compared to other thin films.

Research limitations/implications

In the present study, the glutaraldehyde used to crosslink the thin film increased hydrophobicity and allows for more binding capacity.

Originality/value

The proposed silver-crosslinked chitosan thin film may prove beneficial for biosensing such as in environmental applications by SPR sensor.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Guanzheng Wu, Siming Li, Jiayu Hu, Manchen Dong, Ke Dong, Xiuliang Hou and Xueliang Xiao

This paper aims to study the working principle of the capacitive pressure sensor and explore the distribution of pressure acting on the surface of the capacitor. Herein, a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the working principle of the capacitive pressure sensor and explore the distribution of pressure acting on the surface of the capacitor. Herein, a kind of high sensitivity capacitive pressure sensor was prepared by overlaying carbon fibers (CFs) on the surfaces of the thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), the TPE with high elasticity is a dielectric elastomer for the sensor and the CFs with excellent electrical conductivity were designed as the conductor.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the excellent mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of CFs, it was designed as the conductor layer for the TPE/CFs capacitive pressure sensor via laminating CFs on the surfaces of the columnar TPE. Then, a ‘#' type structure of the capacitive pressure sensor was designed and fabricated.

Findings

The ‘#' type of capacitive pressure sensor of TPE/CFs composite was obtained in high sensitivity with a gauge factor of 2.77. Furthermore, the change of gauge factor values of the sensor under 10 per cent of applied strains was repeated for 1,000 cycles, indicating its outstanding sensing stability. Moreover, the ‘#' type capacitive pressure sensor of TPE/CFs was consisted of several capacitor arrays via laminating CFs, which could detect the distribution of pressure.

Research limitations/implications

The TPE/CFs capacitive pressure sensor was easily fabricated with high sensitivity and quick responsiveness, which is desirably applied in wearable electronics, robots, medical devices, etc.

Originality/value

The outcome of this study will help to fabricate capacitive pressure sensors with high sensitivity and outstanding sensing stability.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Suraya Hamid, Mohamad Taha Ijab, Hidayah Sulaiman, Rina Md. Anwar and Azah Anir Norman

The explosion of social media use such as Facebook among higher education students is deemed to have great potential in widely disseminating environmental sustainability…

Abstract

Purpose

The explosion of social media use such as Facebook among higher education students is deemed to have great potential in widely disseminating environmental sustainability awareness. The paper aims to capture, summarise, synthesise and comment on the role of social media to garner interest of students and staff on environmental sustainability issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic literature review technique is adopted, and three selected online databases were searched for relevant papers for review. Specific data were extracted from each paper, and the discussion section was based on the developed research questions.

Findings

Higher education needs to fully leverage the ubiquity of social media to extend how environmental sustainability is viewed by the students and staff. Sustainability practices conducted at the university level such as recycling, reduction of electricity and water consumptions and paper reduction in classroom and used to engage students on environmental matters. For staff, social media can be leveraged as to convey the university policy and assist in their quest to become full-fledged green universities.

Research limitations/implications

Some of the limitations of this research include the lack of keyword search using synonyms or related terms equivalent to the term “awareness”, lack of forward and backward searches, and the papers were searched until end of 2013 only. Future research needs to take advantage of the current limitations to investigate this topic and be empirically supported by theories using quantitative, qualitative or mixed-method-based research. Future studies could also develop relevant frameworks to propose an effective use of social media for creating environmental sustainability awareness in higher education.

Practical implications

Propagations of environmental sustainability awareness in higher education would be more effective with the use of social media.

Social implications

In principle, the increase of environmental awareness level would increase the students’ good behavioural conduct on environmental sustainability.

Originality/value

While the broad topic of environmental sustainability in higher education is widely discussed, the role of social media in shaping environmental sustainability awareness is still under researched. This situation provides a significant potential for exploration by sustainability researchers to craft their investigation on the effective role of social media in creating environmental awareness in higher education.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Carla Denize Venzke, Marco Antônio Siqueira Rodrigues, Alexandre Giacobbo, Luciana Ely Bacher, Iona Souza Lemmertz, Cheila Viegas, Júlia Striving and Shaiane Pozzebon

The purpose of this paper is to apply reverse osmosis (RO) to the treatment of industrial wastewater from a large petrochemical complex in Southern Brazil, in order to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply reverse osmosis (RO) to the treatment of industrial wastewater from a large petrochemical complex in Southern Brazil, in order to verify the conditions of liquid effluent reuse and improve them, especially to reduce the consumption of natural water by some production structures such as boilers and cooling towers.

Design/methodology/approach

The petrochemical wastewater was submitted to pretreatment using a sand filter and activated carbon filters. Tests were conducted using RO equipment with a production capacity of 0.25 m3h−1 composed of a spiral membrane module with a membrane area of 7.2 m². Pressures of 8, 12 and 15 bar were applied with reject flow maintained constant at 10 Lm−1.

Findings

The experiment results indicated optimum RO performance since more than 90 percent extraction was obtained for most of the compounds present in the petrochemical wastewater.

Originality/value

By checking the aspects involved, as well as providing some relevant considerations about, this study promotes the application of RO to get a satisfactory water reuse in similar industries, thereby decreasing both the volume of water extracted from wellsprings and the amount of wastewater released into water bodies.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Jiaxin Li, Baogang Zhang, Ye Liu and Wenli Huang

Membrane biological reactor (MBR) is recognized as an efficient and steady wastewater treatment process. The purpose of this study is to reveal the research trends of…

Abstract

Purpose

Membrane biological reactor (MBR) is recognized as an efficient and steady wastewater treatment process. The purpose of this study is to reveal the research trends of scientific outputs on MBR for the past 32 years.

Design/methodology/approach

A method of bibliometric analysis was performed, based on the online version of the Science Citation Index Expanded, Web of Science, from 1982 to 2013. In total, 5,305 articles related to MBR were evaluated. A new method named “word cluster analysis” was also used for further analysis.

Findings

Results showed a rising trend of publications in this research field. English was the main language used in these articles. Journal of membrane science published the most articles, proving to be one of the most authoritative journals. China and Dalian University of Technology were the most productive country and institute, respectively. Except for “membrane bioreactor” and “MBR”, “membrane fouling” was the most cited keyword, indicating the research hotspot nowadays and future.

Originality/value

This study serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing the research trends in MBR research.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2017

Suja R. Nair

There is tremendous growth potential for food and grocery (F&G) retail in an emerging market like India. Bengaluru is the third most populous city of India. With a total…

Abstract

Purpose

There is tremendous growth potential for food and grocery (F&G) retail in an emerging market like India. Bengaluru is the third most populous city of India. With a total consumption expenditure of Rs 2,020 billion and per capita retail expenditure of Rs 67,289 (in 2015), Bengaluru has emerged as a sought-after retail market with many foreign and national brands opening stores here. The purpose of this paper is to use the sign of causality to determine the relationships between store attributes, satisfaction, patronage intention and lifestyles in F&G retailing in Bengaluru.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimentation framework using causal design was developed to establish relationships between variables: store attributes, satisfaction, patronage intention and lifestyle. A primary survey was conducted using a structured non-disguised questionnaire involving 346 F&G shoppers from Bengaluru. Hayes regression models were adapted and hypothesized relationships between the variables tested using correlation, multiple regression and Hayes regression/path analysis.

Findings

Satisfaction acts as a mediator in the relationship between store attributes and patronage intention. Lifestyle does not act as the moderator in the relationships between store attributes and patronage- intention; and, satisfaction and patronage intention.

Research limitations/implications

In experiments that test for causality a big limitation is lower internal validity in the absence of control mechanisms, unlike laboratory studies. Another limitation is that this study is limited to urban Bengaluru F&G shoppers, variations could occur if the study is extended to include rural shoppers.

Practical implications

With 100 percent foreign direct investment permitted in the F&G category in India, the research outcomes will be useful to all food retailers (prospective and current) interested in this retail market. Moreover, in the existing competitive scenario, understanding of associative influences between store attributes, satisfaction, patronage intention and lifestyle will enable retailers comprehend F&G shoppers retailing behavior. This information can be used for targeted marketing and operational strategies, which will deliver more success in marketing relationship management, building competitive advantage and enhancing marketing efforts profitably.

Originality/value

This paper is a new and original contribution to the existing literature on causal relationships among variables in retail marketing research. It is different from prior studies that analyzed shoppers F&G behavior, in that it extends the understanding of the role of “satisfaction” as a mediator and “lifestyle” not a moderator, when testing the causality of store attributes on patronage intention.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2020

Suja R. Nair and S.M. Riad Shams

In recent years, while the food and grocery retail in developed markets like Western Europe seem to be slowly facing saturation, it has been steadily growing in the…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, while the food and grocery retail in developed markets like Western Europe seem to be slowly facing saturation, it has been steadily growing in the Asia–Pacific region markets like India. This is mainly due to the emergence of modern retail and the changing consumer dynamics. This study purposes to assesses whether food and grocery (F&G) shoppers in India are strongly influenced by store-attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

Descriptive research design, a cross-sectional survey involving 346 respondents (households) from metropolitan Bengaluru, participated in the study. Data is analyzed with SPSS 21, involving descriptive analysis, 1-way Anova, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which appears useful to confirm the theoretical structure used for the study.

Findings

Store-attributes – atmosphere, promotion, convenience, facilities, merchandise, store personnel interaction and services affect F&G store choice decisions. Additionally, significant difference is found in the way respondents perceive the sub-constructs of store-attributes, based on age.

Practical implications

The study contributes to the theoretical knowledge on store-attributes and dynamic socio-demographic influences on store choices. It has managerial implications to encourage global retailers use knowledge on store-attributes influences to initiate effective communication and promotion strategies and work at customer relationship management (CRM) that earn profitably in the long run.

Originality/value

Today, connected consumers seek shopping experiences that blend physical stores-attributes with other retail formats offerings. This research paper provides insights on shopper expectations of store-attributes, which could be used by global retailers to create delightful shopping experiences and to build CRM, especially when “experience per square foot” is used to measure the retailer's performance.

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Heiner Evanschitzky, Arun Sharma and Catja Prykop

Previous research has emphasized the pivotal role that salespeople play in customer satisfaction. In this regard, the relationship between salespeople's attitudes, skills…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has emphasized the pivotal role that salespeople play in customer satisfaction. In this regard, the relationship between salespeople's attitudes, skills, and characteristics, and customer satisfaction remains an area of interest. The paper aims to make three contributions: first, it seeks to examine the impact of salespeople's satisfaction, adaptive selling, and dominance on customer satisfaction. Second, this research aims to use dyadic data, which is a better test of the relationships between constructs since it avoids common method variance. Finally, in contrast to previous research, it aims to test all of the customers of salespeople rather than customers selected by salespeople.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs multilevel analysis to examine the relationship between salespeople's satisfaction with the firm on customer satisfaction, using a dyadic, matched business‐to‐business sample of a large European financial service provider that comprises 188 customers and 18 employees.

Findings

The paper finds that customers' evaluation of service quality, product quality, and value influence customer satisfaction. The analysis at the selling firm's employee level shows that adaptive selling and employee satisfaction positively impact customer satisfaction, while dominance is negatively related to customer satisfaction.

Practical implications

Research shows that customer‐focus is a key driver in the success of service companies. Customer satisfaction is regarded as a prerequisite for establishing long‐term, profitable relations between company and customer, and customer contact employees are key to nurturing this relationship. The role of salespeople's attitudes, skills, and characteristics in the customer satisfaction process are highlighted in this paper.

Originality/value

The use of dyadic, multilevel studies to assess the nature of the relationship between employees and customers is, to date, surprisingly limited. The paper examines the link between employee attitudes, skills, and characteristics, and customer satisfaction in a business‐to‐business setting in the financial service sector, differentiating between customer‐ and employee‐level drivers of business customer satisfaction.

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Larice Nogueira de Andrade and Mariangela Garcia Praça Leite

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the changes of the characteristics of the study area caused by human influence and the reduction of flow rates with time, in Água…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the changes of the characteristics of the study area caused by human influence and the reduction of flow rates with time, in Água Limpa stream basin, Jequitinhonha Valley of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

The study area is a typical arid zone in the northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Field observations, collection and analyses of precipitation, evaporation, temperature and flow rate data were the main approaches used in this study. The data cover the last 50 years, including aerial photographs and satellite images of different dates. The stream flow rate has decreased in the region of the Jequitinhonha valley in the last decades, in particular during draught periods (base flows), with serious social‐economic and environmental consequences. The increase in stream intermittence is responsible for rural exodus to other parts of the country, mainly to São Paulo state. The study presented provides decision makers with important information that can assist them in making objective decisions relational this problem.

Findings

The research shows that the forest cover has declined, the agricultural and pasture cover have decreased and the deforestation areas have grown. These changes resulted in a spatially diverse landscape with implications in the flow rate, and consequently, in the social‐economic condition of the region considering the high rate of emigration.

Practical implications

The expected results of this study will be of great importance, because the clarification of the factors addressed in this project will allow progress in the understanding of the reduction of flow rates. This reduction has been occurring in the Jequitinhonha Valley and also in almost all Brazilian rivers.

Originality/value

This paper is original and reports the main causes for decreasing of the stream flow rate in the region of the Jequitinhonha valley in Brazil.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Abdul Hamid Nurfaizey, Mohd Zaid Akop, Mohd Azli Salim, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli and Nor Azmmi Masripan

In this study, a new method of controlled deposition in electrospinning process is investigated using active time-varying secondary electrodes, in particular sine and…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, a new method of controlled deposition in electrospinning process is investigated using active time-varying secondary electrodes, in particular sine and triangular potentials to produce a wide and uniform electrospun fibre web.

Design/methodology/approach

A special electrospinning setup was designed to include two independently charged secondary electrodes and a rotating collector. LabVIEW programme was used to control the applied potential at the electrodes. An aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol was used as the model material. An image analysis method was used to quantify the results. MATLAB programme was used to simulate the experimental results. Scanning electron microscope and SEM analyser software were used to examine the fibres.

Findings

It was observed that when a time-varying electric potential was used, the electrospinning jet was periodically move to-and-fro in agreement with the varying electric field. The continuous movement of the jet expanded the width of the deposited web. The smooth oscillation of a sine wave potential was initially thought to produce a uniform pattern of deposited web; however, the results showed otherwise. A similar result was also found in simulations. The reason behind this observation was due to the difference in jet scanning speed between the two potentials.

Originality/value

This study provides useful information for understanding how an active secondary electrode can be used as a new method of fibre deposition control in electrospinning process.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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