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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the…

Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

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Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1982

The Companies Act 1981 introduced some significant changes which dramatically affect the accounts of companies in terms of format, contents and accounting rules. This…

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The Companies Act 1981 introduced some significant changes which dramatically affect the accounts of companies in terms of format, contents and accounting rules. This guide attempts to cover the main provisions of the Act in a clear and concise manner.

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Managerial Law, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Gill Scott

Examines the Out of School childcare initiative in Scotland (in 1996) by gathering data from the 1991 census and carrying out questionnaire surveys and interviews with…

Abstract

Examines the Out of School childcare initiative in Scotland (in 1996) by gathering data from the 1991 census and carrying out questionnaire surveys and interviews with both workers, responsible for developing Out of School care, and parents. Compares the findings with earlier research carried out in 1995. Assesses the impact the initiative has had on creating new jobs, improving access to employment for parents using the service, and how well the scheme answers the needs of women workers. Indicates from results obtained that parents had experienced a change in economic activity – increasing hours worked or starting a new job – and/or increased training take‐up. Records also that efficiency and enjoyment of work increased as gender inequalities began to be tackled. Notes that Out of School care schemes were more likely to occur in areas of higher socio‐economic composition, yet Out of School childcare could be part of an anti‐poverty strategy, encouraging women from deprived areas to enter the labour market. Claims that the scheme has had contradictory impacts but that it is hampered by lack of adequate and long‐term funding.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Charles Abrams

After first being issued in draft in July 1998 and then taking a year to go through Parliament, the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (FISMA) finally became law on…

Abstract

After first being issued in draft in July 1998 and then taking a year to go through Parliament, the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (FISMA) finally became law on 14th June, 2000. The Treasury, the government department responsible for the UK financial services industry, has, however, just announced that the FISMA will not come fully into force until summer 2001, although some sections may perhaps come into force earlier.

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Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2015

Kathleen Conn

The American public greatly esteems their First Amendment right to freedom of speech, but generally understands poorly its true ambit. Unfortunately, this defect in…

Abstract

The American public greatly esteems their First Amendment right to freedom of speech, but generally understands poorly its true ambit. Unfortunately, this defect in understanding permeates American educational institutions, from the lowest grades to higher education and even professional schools. Students’ pervasive ability to engage in technological speech and expression further complicates the issue, especially when inappropriate or offensive speech originating outside school crosses the geographic boundary and enters school. School administrators at all levels, challenged with maintaining atmospheres of safety and security conducive to learning, are being asked to respond to such student speech, but they fear to exceed the limits of their authority. Cyberbullying and harassing communications continue to distract victims and educators and detract from the quality of education at all institutions. The legal system and judiciary provide little guidance, and what guidance there is suffers from lack of consistent definitions and conflicting analyses. This chapter will review the jurisprudence pertaining to the First Amendment as applied to the school setting. The emphasis will be on legislative, judicial, and societal responses to cyberbullying and cyber harassment in the school setting, from the elementary level to higher education. Finally, recommendations for policies and procedures for dealing with cyberbullying and cyber harassment in schools will be presented.

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Legal Frontiers in Education: Complex Law Issues for Leaders, Policymakers and Policy Implementers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-577-2

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Barbara Bateman

This chapter presents the personal perspectives of the author on issues related to methodology in teaching children with learning disabilities and to the role of…

Abstract

This chapter presents the personal perspectives of the author on issues related to methodology in teaching children with learning disabilities and to the role of methodology in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Additionally, problems schools have had in implementing IDEA are highlighted and proposals offered to alleviate those difficulties.

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Special Education Past, Present, and Future: Perspectives from the Field
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-835-8

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Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2021

Jacquelyn Chovanes, Anne O. Papalia, David F. Bateman and Mitchell Yell

This chapter describes possible effects of the 2017 Endrew F. Supreme Court decision that raised the de minimus standard established in 1982 in Board of Education of the

Abstract

This chapter describes possible effects of the 2017 Endrew F. Supreme Court decision that raised the de minimus standard established in 1982 in Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson School District v. Rowley. In Rowley, the court held school districts provided an appropriate education to students with disabilities by demonstrating that students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) are reasonably calculated to provide some educational benefit. In contrast, the Endrew F. decision requires IEPs to be reasonably calculated to provide progress that is appropriately ambitious in light of the child's circumstances. The implications of Endrew F. in the IEP process are delineated, including the importance of meaningful parent involvement; relevant and current statements of present levels of performance; challenging; ambitious and measurable goals; and frequent, systematic progress monitoring used to inform effective instructional changes that maximize student progress toward IEP goals. Finally, the authors discuss ways that Endrew F. may affect future litigation and that school districts may prepare to avoid possible litigation in the post-Endrew era.

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The Next Big Thing in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-749-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Robert Datzer

12,2 Millionen Bundesbürger sind über 60 Jahre alt. Im Jahre 2000 werden es bereits 14 Millionen sein. Kein Wunder also, dass die Senioren für viele Wirtschaftszweige…

Abstract

12,2 Millionen Bundesbürger sind über 60 Jahre alt. Im Jahre 2000 werden es bereits 14 Millionen sein. Kein Wunder also, dass die Senioren für viele Wirtschaftszweige immer interessanter werden. Dies gilt auch für die Tourismusbranche, die mit der wachsenden Reisefreude der älteren Generation rechnen kann. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden ausgewählte Ergebnisse einer Studie wiedergegeben, die das Institut für Freizeit‐ und Tourismusberatung aus Ettlingen Anfang des Jahres gemacht hatte.

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The Tourist Review, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

Jian Zhao

Main Difficulties Traditionally agriculture and industry were — until recent times — the only real resources. Historical events and the political situation empeded the…

Abstract

Main Difficulties Traditionally agriculture and industry were — until recent times — the only real resources. Historical events and the political situation empeded the government to pay the necessary attention to the economical and cultural advantages of national and international tourism. Another hindrance was the negative opinion — one of the long‐lasting consequences of the “Cultural Revolution” — about Lu‐lio (travel and sight‐seeing), which made the natives shrink from the latest ideas about tourism.

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The Tourist Review, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Abstract

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Kybernetes, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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