A number of digital libraries have been set up in the course of various research and development activities in different parts of the world during the last few years. How…
A number of digital libraries have been set up in the course of various research and development activities in different parts of the world during the last few years. How do these digital libraries fair in terms of information retrieval features? This paper looks into this question by reviewing the information retrieval features of 20 digital libraries chosen from around the globe. The first part of the paper briefly describes the features of the chosen digital libraries in terms of their nature and content. The second part looks into the information retrieval features of each digital library. Unique features of some digital libraries have been indicated. Major areas of research that would improve the information retrieval features of the future digital libraries have been indicated.
The first Hong Kong Real Estate Investment Trust (HK‐REIT), the Link REIT, was successfully launched in late 2005. The retail tranche of its initial public offering…
The first Hong Kong Real Estate Investment Trust (HK‐REIT), the Link REIT, was successfully launched in late 2005. The retail tranche of its initial public offering (IPO) was 19 times oversubscribed, and the IPO is the largest of its kind in the world until now. Despite the initial phenomenon success, there have been only three others to follow and get listed. Indeed, it took Hong Kong over two years to have her first Link REIT listed after the legislation for REIT products had come into force. The development of REIT market in Hong Kong has been slow compared to its counterparts in some other Asian countries. This paper aims to explain the somewhat sluggish growth of the HK‐REIT market. Its development is compared with some emerging Asian markets as well as the more mature markets in the USA and Australia. The study is focused on the legislations that govern REITs in different jurisdictions, their different REIT market envi‐ronments and the rationale from the respective governments to introduce their REITs. It is concluded that the sluggish development of HK‐REITs is mainly due to its market environment and industry structure. There is not enough incentive for developers to dispose their assets in the form of REITs. Besides, the HK‐REIT Code was initially criticized by the industry as being too restrictive. Though subsequent amendments on the HK‐REIT Code have been made to make it more conducive to the development of REIT market, further sustainable success will however hinge on the willingness from sponsors, particularly large developers, to offer their portfolios of properties for sale through REITs.
The aim of this article is to summarise the available evidence from systematic reviews about the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or treat child physical abuse…
The aim of this article is to summarise the available evidence from systematic reviews about the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or treat child physical abuse and neglect. A computerised search was undertaken of major electronic databases up to December 2005 using key search terms. Only systematic reviews were included in which the primary studies evaluated the effectiveness of targeted or indicated interventions for child physical abuse or neglect. A total of 31 systematic reviews were identified and 15 met all the inclusion criteria. They covered a range of interventions/services, including home visiting, parenting programmes, multi‐component interventions, intensive family preservation services, family‐focused casework and multi‐systemic family therapy. There was limited evidence of the effectiveness of services in improving objective measures of abuse and neglect, due in part to methodological issues involved in their measurement, but good evidence of modest benefits in improving a range of outcomes that are associated with physical abuse and neglect, including parental and family functioning and child development. The results also showed some interventions (eg. media‐based and perinatal coaching) to be ineffective with high‐risk families. The evidence provided by these reviews has clear implications for children's services in the UK and other western developed countries.
This paper explores the creation of a global protocol on ethics in public relations. It begins by looking into the global ethical debate. It examines existing codes of ethics of a selection of public relations institutes and associations around the world, provides comparative analysis of these codes and discusses the pros and cons of their enforcement. It suggests that the immediate way forward in a highly litigious world is to provide some values‐based guidance to member associations together with access to an evolving database of case studies illustrating ethical problems. In the medium term more effective sanctions may be possible.
There exists an association between Supply Chain Quality Management(SCQM) and supply chain competence. To verify such claims, data wascollected from Hong Kong based firms…
There exists an association between Supply Chain Quality Management (SCQM) and supply chain competence. To verify such claims, data was collected from Hong Kong based firms. The data showed in most cases an association could be established between SCQM initiatives and the supply chain competence. Some fi rms with SCQM initiatives tend to perform better in terms of customer service or product quality. Supply chains managers may therefore, perform better when their managerial foci are consistent with recognized dimensions of supply chain quality and excellence. In today’s global economy supply chain management is crucial in achieving organizational effectiveness.
We envision an enterprise owned by an association of its employees. The enterprise may employ nonmember as well as member labor. All are paid the same wage, but…
We envision an enterprise owned by an association of its employees. The enterprise may employ nonmember as well as member labor. All are paid the same wage, but member-employees also accrue credit toward a pension as a benefit of their employment. Nonmember employees do not receive this benefit. Nonmember employees may be allowed to “buy in” as members for a share value that does not dilute the retirement fund, but only at the discretion of the existing members. As a consequence, the workers’ association is not strictly a cooperative, since membership is not “open.” One of the purposes of this inquiry, however, will be to determine under what circumstances the workers’ association will recruit new members.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a decision tool that enables supply chain (SC) architects to design resilient SC networks (SCNs). Two resilience design…
The purpose of this paper is to develop a decision tool that enables supply chain (SC) architects to design resilient SC networks (SCNs). Two resilience design determinants are considered: SC density and node criticality. The effect of considering these determinants on network structures is highlighted based on the ability to resist disruptions and how SC performance is affected.
A mixed-integer non-linear programming model is proposed as a proactive strategy to develop resilient structures; design determinants are formulated and considered as constraints. An upper limit is set for each determinant, and resistance capacity and performance of the developed structures are evaluated. These upper limits are then changed until SC performance stabilizes in case of no disruption.
Resilient SCN structures are achieved at relatively low design determinants levels on the expense of profit and without experiencing shortage in case of no disruption. This reduction in profit can be minimized on setting counter values for the two determinants; relatively higher SC density with lower node criticality or vice versa. At very low SC density levels, the design model will reduce the number of open facilities largely leading to only one facility open at each echelon; therefore, shortage occurs and vulnerability to disruption increases. On the other hand, at high determinants levels, SC vulnerability also increases as a result of having more geographically clustered structures with higher inbound and outbound flows for each facility.
In this paper, a novel proactive decision tool is adopted to design resilient SCNs. Previous literature used metrics for SC density and node criticality to assess resilience; in this research, determinants are incorporated directly as constraints in the design model. Results give insight to SC architects on how to set determinant values to reach resilient structures with minimum performance loss in case of no disruption.