Search results

1 – 10 of 56
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

U. Soy, A. Demir and F. Findik

The main goal of the present study is to investigate the friction and wear behaviors of aluminum matrix composites with an A360 matrix reinforced with SiC, B4C and SiC/B4C…

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of the present study is to investigate the friction and wear behaviors of aluminum matrix composites with an A360 matrix reinforced with SiC, B4C and SiC/B4C particles.

Design/methodology/approach

Un‐reinforced aluminum casting alloy, Al/SiC, Al/B4C and Al/SiC/B4C aluminum composites were prepared for the present study. Friction and wear tests of aluminum and its composites versus AISI316L stainless steel were carried out for dry sliding condition using by a pin‐on‐disc arrangement. Tests were realized at the sliding speed of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ms−1 and under the loads of 10, 20 and 30 N. The microstructures of the present composites were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis.

Findings

The coefficient of friction of the composites is approximately 25‐30 percent lower than that of the un‐reinforced aluminum. The specific wear rate of the aluminum and its composites decreases with the increase in load and increases with the increment of sliding speed. Un‐reinforced aluminum has specific wear rate value of 1.73×10−13 which is the highest specific wear rate, while Al+17%SiC has specific wear rate value of 2.25×10−13 m2 N−1 which is the lowest specific wear rate among the tested materials. The average specific wear rates for Al+17%B4C, Al+17%SiC/B4C and Al+17%SiC composites are obtained about 49, 79 and 160 percent lower than aluminum wear rate under the same test conditions, respectively.

Originality/value

In the present study, composites were prepared by pressured infiltration technique. The employed composites are important in industry due to their higher wear resistance, light in weight and less thermal distortion comparing to conventional composites. Also, wear behavior of Al/B4C, Al/SiC/B4C and Al/SiC composites produced by pressured infiltration technique were not studied very much earlier, therefore more explanation about these composites were proposed.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

I. Mutlu, C. Oner, I. Cevik and F. Findik

The aim of the research is to investigate wear performance of some phenolic composites with boric acid.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the research is to investigate wear performance of some phenolic composites with boric acid.

Design/methodology/approach

The brake lining which has new formulation has been produced by using various additive materials. Various techniques have been used in the production of brake lining. These phenolic composites were subjected to friction and wear tests under different loads, and changes in the hardness and microstructures were examined.

Findings

As a result of this study, the following findings are reported. It was not found a direct proportionality between hardness and wear resistance due to the complexity of composite structure. Heat treatment application changed the microstructure of the brake lining, and increased the hardness and also decreased the density. With the increasing of temperature, the ingredients in the braking pad were affected other due to faster diffusion. On the other hand, hardness of specimen increases due to heat treatment and also specific wear ratio changes. As a filling material, barite was used due to better performance in the environmental conditions. More wear was observed in the bigger powder particles comparing to the smaller ones due to more structural loss. Squealing was heard in fiber un‐reinforced brake lining due to more barite content. In the present samples, boric acid deports the water and establishing the structural equilibrium. Therefore, these samples supplied higher and stable friction of coefficient. Also, heat treatment supplied a stable friction coefficient. With the increasing of copper powder into specimens, friction coefficient also increased. Heat treatment made the increment of hardness of specimens and also it made effect on the hardness with strengthening bonds of interparticles.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations in the present research are as follows: two different pressures and eight different temperatures were used and brake linings were subjected to wear test, hardness tests, microstructures were examined.

Practical implications

For future work, instead of buying expensive brake lining, new and cheaper phenolic linings are produced. By this process, economic benefit can be gained and also environmental protection can be succeeded in producing such asbestos free brake linings.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified information and offers practical help to the industrial firms working with brake lining and also to the academicians working on wear of materials.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 59 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

H. Unal and F. Findik

The present study aims to find out the best polymer/polymer pair in electrical insulating applications. Moreover, the effects of different polymer counterpart and applied…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to find out the best polymer/polymer pair in electrical insulating applications. Moreover, the effects of different polymer counterpart and applied load on the friction and wear behaviour of PA 46 + 30%GFR and unfilled PA 66 thermoplastic polymers are to be studied.

Design/methodology/approach

Friction and wear tests vs PA 46 + 30%GFR and PPS + 30%GFR polymer composites were carried out on a pin‐on‐disc arrangement and at a dry sliding conditions. Tribological tests were performed at room temperature under 20, 40 and 60 N loads and at 0.5 m/s sliding speed.

Findings

The results showed that, the coefficient of friction decreases with the increasing of load (up to 40 N) for PA 46 + 30%GFR composite and polyamide (PA) 66 polymer used in this study. However, above 40 N applied load the coefficient of friction increases. The specific wear rate for PA 46 + 30%GFR and PA 66 against PPS + 30%GFR polymer composite counterpart are about in the order of 10−13 m2/N while the specific wear rate for PA 46 + 30%GFR and PA 66 against PA 46 + 30%GFR polymer composite counterpart are in the order of 10−14 m2/N. For PA 46 + 30%GFR composite and unfilled PA 66 polymers tested the specific wear rate values increased with the increment of load. The highest specific wear rate is for unfilled PA 66 against PPS + 30%GFR with a value of 2.81 × 10−13 m2/N followed by PA 66 against PA 46 + 30%GFR with a value of 2.26 × 10−13 m2/N. The lowest wear rate is PA 46 + 30%GFR polymer composite against PA 46 + 30%GFR polymer composite counterpart with a value of 3.19 × 10−14 m2/N. The average specific wear rates for unfilled PA 66 against PA 46 + 30%GFR is 80 times higher than PA 46 + 30%GFR wear rate while specific wear rates for unfilled PA 66 against PPS + 30%GFR is 100 times higher than that of PA 46 + 30%GFR wear rate. From point view of tribological performance, PA 46 + 30%GFR is a more suitable engineering thermoplastic composite materials for electrical contact breaker applications.

Research limitations/implications

In the present work, tribological tests were performed only at room temperature under three different loads and a sliding speed. This is the limitation of the work.

Practical implications

This work is easily used for industrial polyamides to check their tribological behaviours.

Originality/value

This is an original and experimental study and it will be useful both for academicians and for industrial sides.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 60 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

I. Mutlu, O. Eldogan and F. Findik

The aim of the research is to investigate the ceramic brake lining on the brake performance.Design/methodology/approach – The brake lining which has new formulation has…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the research is to investigate the ceramic brake lining on the brake performance.Design/methodology/approach – The brake lining which has new formulation has been produced by using various additive materials. Various techniques have been used in the production of brake lining. These ceramic linings were subjected to friction and wear tests under different loads, and changes in the hardness and microstructures were examined.Findings – As a result of this study, the following findings are reported. A direct proportional was not found between hardness and wear resistance due to the complexity of composite structure. Kevlar fibers were homogeneously distributed in the matrix and therefore, very few microvoids were observed in the structure. Similarly, stone wool was well spread out the braking pad and hence decreased the microvoids' occurrence. Heat treatment supplied more homogeneous structure and hence, microstructural variations were minimised during the brake action. On the other hand, heat treatment decreased the hardness of glass fiber reinforced specimens and increased the density. Each specimen was affected from the environmental conditions. However, water affected all specimens more than the other environmental conditions, such as salty water, oil and braking liquid. With the increasing of temperature, the ingredients in the braking pad were affected other due to better diffusion. On the other hand, hardness of specimens increases and density decreases due to heat treatment and also specific wear ratio changes.Research limitations/implications – Limitations in the present research are as follows: two different pressures and eight different temperatures were used and brake linings were subjected to wear test, hardness tests, microstructures were examined.Practical implications – For future work, instead of buying expensive brake lining, new and cheaper ceramic linings are produced. By this process, economic benefit can be gained and also environmental protection can be succeeded in producing such asbestos free brake linings.Originality/value – This paper fulfills an identified information and offers practical help to the industrial firms working with brake lining and also to the academicians working on wear of materials.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 57 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

N. Kiratli and F. Findik

This paper aims to research the tribological features of AISI 1035 steel, boronized at various parameters.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to research the tribological features of AISI 1035 steel, boronized at various parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

The samples were boronized via box boronizing method. By using Ekabor 2 powders, boronizing was conducted at 840, 880, 920, 960 and 1,000°C for two, four and six hours. Wear resistance of boronized samples at determined parameters were analysed. Wear experiments were conducted under 40 N constant load at pin‐on‐disk experiment setup. Also, microstructures and microhardness values of boronized samples were analysed to determine the most suitable boronizing parameters against wearing.

Findings

As a result of this study, the following findings are reported: it was determined as the temperature increased, the thicker the boride layer obtained during the boronizing. In the case of longer boronizing time, the distinct columnar structure was clearer. Whenever applying higher temperature and longer boronizing time, wear decreased and hardness values increased. It was also determined that when boronizing was conducted at 900 and 1,000°C for at least four to six hours, better results were obtained. Furthermore, the increment in the boronizing temperature and longer duration caused an increase in hardness from the surface to inwards and thus a decrease in wear ratio.

Research limitations/implications

In the present study, only 40 N is used for a wear load and that is the limitation of the research.

Practical implications

Boronizing of the parts using 900 and 1,000°C temperature and four to six hours time, the better results can be obtained. Wear resistance can be improved in the determined temperature interval for boronizing process. Therefore, the industrial firms can be gained huge economical profits.

Originality/value

The outcome of the study will be beneficial for the academicians and industrial firms working on wear process. The service life of the steel parts can be extended via boronizing of steels working on quarries.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Nor Amirah binti Mohd Amran, Mohd Sayuti bin Ab Karim, Rusdi bin Abd Rashid, Waleed Alghani and Nur Aqilah binti Derahman

This study aims to present a direct repurposing activity of consumed high-speed steel (HSS) hacksaw blade into fine-looking handmade knives to increase the awareness about…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to present a direct repurposing activity of consumed high-speed steel (HSS) hacksaw blade into fine-looking handmade knives to increase the awareness about sustainability by evaluating the relationship between the quality of material alloys and heat treatment as well as cultural aspects such as the treatment on the HSS hacksaw blade that will affect the material hardness.

Design/methodology/approach

The quality of HSS hacksaw blade samples was analyzed by using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) through the identification of material element’s properties. Besides, finite element structural analysis was performed by using SolidWorks Simulation to evaluate the material performance by determining the Von Mises stress to find the factor of safety of the knife designs. Then, the effect of tribology implementation toward mechanical properties of the handmade knives was determined by using a Rockwell C hardness test.

Findings

It is found that the material composition of carbon plays a vital role in increasing and improving the hardness and wear resistance of the HSS hacksaw blade. The Von Mises stress obtained is lower than the yield strength of 3,250 MPa by 71.44 per cent with the safety factor of 3.58,which means the design will not be subjected to failure. The mechanical properties of the HSS hacksaw blade such as hardness were determined averagely by 5 per cent of hardness increase.

Originality/value

It has been validated that the tribological effect toward the material characteristic leads to hardness changes which contributed to the enhancement of tool life of the HSS hacksaw blade, thus producing better quality knives.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Halit Dogan, Fehim Findik and Ahmet Oztarhan

Coating is a technique employed for the surface of materials to have thermal insulation, hot corrosion and oxidation resistance. Ion implantation forms modifications in…

Abstract

Coating is a technique employed for the surface of materials to have thermal insulation, hot corrosion and oxidation resistance. Ion implantation forms modifications in surface composition or morphology of solids which yield to a change of physical and especially mechanical properties such as hardness and modulus of elasticity. The objective of this investigation is to concentrate on the friction and wear behaviour of TiN, N2 and Zr implanted and TiN and Tinalox PVD coated 316L stainless steel and compare with a substrate. Mainly stainless steels were of attraction, because they frequently demonstrate a poor tribological behaviour, which can be enhanced when they are hardened by incorporating N2, TiN Tinalox and Zr and forming a hardened surface zone.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 55 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Serdar Salman, Ali Topal and Fehim Findik

The aim of the research is to increase piston and engine performance by using ceramic coated pistons instead of pistons which are manufactured from aluminum alloys and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the research is to increase piston and engine performance by using ceramic coated pistons instead of pistons which are manufactured from aluminum alloys and having a coated flame chamber.

Design/methodology/approach

Thermal torch and thermal shock tests were performed on the pistons and some specimens of 1.5 mm thick were prepared according to ASTM standards; both have the same material characteristics. In the present work, plasma spray technique was used for ceramic coating.

Findings

It was found that the ceramic coating, which, when performed properly, has compatible expansion coefficient with the aluminum alloy pistons, increases performance of pistons and engines.

Research limitations/implications

Coatings were limited with one type of bonding and two ceramics, and coated parts were subjected to thermal torch and thermal shock tests.

Practical implications

For future work, instead of using other coating materials, stable yttria is used as the best coating material with optimum thermal resistance. By this process, working life of the machine parts can be extended and a number of economical advantages may also be obtained.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils the identified information and offers practical help to the industrial firms working with ceramic coatings and also to the academicians working on wear of materials.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 60 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Wei Feng, Lei Yin, Yanfeng Han, Jiaxu Wang, Ke Xiao and Junyang Li

This paper aims to explore the possibility of converting the nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) water-lubricated bearing material into a self-lubricating bearing material by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the possibility of converting the nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) water-lubricated bearing material into a self-lubricating bearing material by the action of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) particles and water lubrication.

Design/methodology/approach

A group of experimental studies was carried out on a ring-on-block friction test. The physical properties, tribological properties and interface structure of PTFE-NBR self-lubricating composites filled with different percentages of PTFE particles were investigated.

Findings

The experimental results indicated that the reduction in friction and wear is a result of the formation of the lubricating film on the surface of the composites. The lubricating film was formed of a large amount of PTFE particles continuously supplied under water lubrication conditions and the PTFE particles here can greatly enhance the load capacity and lubrication performance.

Originality/value

In this study, the tribological properties of PTFE particles added to the NBR water-lubricated bearing materials under water lubrication were investigated experimentally, and the research was carried out by a ring-on-block friction test. It is believed that this study can provide some guidance for the application of PTFE-NBR self-lubricating.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-05-2020-0187/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Dayang Nor Fatin Mahmud, Mohd Fadzli Bin Abdollah, Nor Azmmi Bin Masripan, Noreffendy Tamaldin and Hilmi Amiruddin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms of frictional wear stability of an activated carbon composite derived from palm kernel using phase transformation study.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms of frictional wear stability of an activated carbon composite derived from palm kernel using phase transformation study.

Design/methodology/approach

The unlubricated sliding test was executed using a ball-on-disc tribometer at different loads with a constant speed, sliding distance and temperature.

Findings

Results of this paper suggest that stability of friction and wear of the test materials are primarily due to the phase transformation of the composite surface layer.

Research limitations/implications

However, the effectiveness of the transfer layer as a medium for low friction and wear is only limited at certain applied loads.

Originality/value

This is the first study, to the authors’ knowledge, to find out the mechanisms of low frictional wear properties of an activated carbon composite derived from palm kernel using phase transformation study.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

1 – 10 of 56