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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Haakon Lund

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible. Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated.

Design/methodology/approach

The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used, the number of test persons and reports on the eye-tracking measures. Furthermore, this study will report which other methods were applied in combination with eye tracking.

Findings

The number of published research utilizing eye-tracking technologies within library and information science (LIS) is still limited although an increase in the use of eye-tracking technologies is observed during recent years.

Originality/value

To the knowledge of the author, this is the first systematic review on eye-tracking technology and application in LIS.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Rafael Batista Duarte, Denis Silva da Silveira, Vinícius de Albuquerque Brito and Charlie Silva Lopes

Business process modeling can involve multiple stakeholders, so it is natural that problems may occur during the designing and understanding processes. One way to perceive…

Abstract

Purpose

Business process modeling can involve multiple stakeholders, so it is natural that problems may occur during the designing and understanding processes. One way to perceive these problems is to evaluate the comprehension of business process models through the collection of data related to the readers' eye movement via an eye-tracking device. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the use of eye-trackers in understanding process models and to offer a research roadmap to challenge the community to address the identified limitations and open issues that require further investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this goal, Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was performed following good practices from the Evidence-Based Software Engineering's (EBSE) field.

Findings

This study resulted in 10 primary studies selected for analysis and data extraction, from the 1,482 initially retrieved. The major findings indicate that the business process community still benefits little from the use of eye-tracking, e.g. not offering sufficient support for inexperienced designers and not having an explicit standardization in its use. These and other findings are synthesized in a research roadmap which results would benefit researchers and practitioners.

Originality/value

In the studies found, the methods used to explore eyes' movement in process models' comprehension analysis were presented as an advantage of the current study. Additionally, another aspect presented in this SRL as an originality is presenting a set of open questions, suggesting valuable topics for future research through a research script (research roadmap).

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2019

Su Mu, Meng Cui, Xiao Jin Wang, Jin Xiu Qiao and Dong Mei Tang

This study aims to use eye-tracking technology to conduct an empirical study about online learning process analysis, thus aiming to understand the attentional preferences…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use eye-tracking technology to conduct an empirical study about online learning process analysis, thus aiming to understand the attentional preferences and learning paths in online learners.

Design/methodology/approach

With eye movement tracking and data analysing technology, the Tobii X120 eye-tracking instrument, Tobii studio and online learning platform are used to record and visualise data of eye moving and learning steps during the real task-based online learning processes of 14 online learners. According to Barbara A. Soloman’s learning style classification framework, these learners’ learning style was presented in four dimensions. Based on data of eye moving, leaning style and operation in online course, the correlation about learners’ preferences of learning content, online learning paths and learning style were analysed based on according data.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights about how change is brought about during online learning. It is found that there is no significant difference in attention preference between the students with the difference on the learning style of visual-verbal, although each person has a different attention preference on the learning content.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study is that only one common type of video learning process is studied. The learning process of various types of instructional videos in online learning will be done in future research.

Practical implications

In this study, eye-movement tracking technology is used to understand students’ learning path and learning preference in the online learning process, which is helpful to optimise the online learning process and improve the efficiency of online learning.

Social implications

This research findings have been approved by relevant experts and have won the first prize in the school-level competition of South China Normal University in China.

Originality/value

In this study, the technology of psychology (eye-tracking technology) is introduced into the study of real task-based online learning process in the subject of educational technology, realising the integration of multi-disciplinary research techniques and methods.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Dominik Szajerman, Piotr Napieralski and Jean-Philippe Lecointe

Technological innovation has made it possible to review how a film cues particular reactions on the part of the viewers. The purpose of this paper is to capture and…

Abstract

Purpose

Technological innovation has made it possible to review how a film cues particular reactions on the part of the viewers. The purpose of this paper is to capture and interpret visual perception and attention by the simultaneous use of eye tracking and electroencephalography (EEG) technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have developed a method for joint analysis of EEG and eye tracking. To achieve this goal, an algorithm was implemented to capture and interpret visual perception and attention by the simultaneous use of eye tracking and EEG technologies. All parameters have been measured as a function of the relationship between the tested signals, which, in turn, allowed for a more accurate validation of hypotheses by appropriately selected calculations.

Findings

The results of this study revealed a coherence between EEG and eye tracking that are of particular relevance for human perception.

Practical implications

This paper endeavors both to capture and interpret visual perception and attention by the simultaneous use of eye tracking and EEG technologies. Eye tracking provides a powerful real-time measure of viewer region of interest. EEG technologies provides data regarding the viewer’s emotional states while watching the movie.

Originality/value

The approach in this paper is distinct from similar studies because it takes into account the integration of the eye tracking and EEG technologies. This paper provides a method for determining a fully functional video introspection system.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Jacek Gwizdka, Yan Zhang and Andrew Dillon

The purpose of this paper is to introduce eye tracking as a method for capturing direct and indirect measures of online human information search behaviour. The unique…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce eye tracking as a method for capturing direct and indirect measures of online human information search behaviour. The unique contribution of eye-tracking data in studying information behaviour is examined in the context of health information research.

Design/methodology/approach

The need for multiple methods of data collection when examining human online health information behaviour is described and summarised. The nature of human eye movements in information use and reading is outlined and the emergence and application of contemporary eye-tracking technology are explained.

Findings

The paper summarises key contributions and insights that eye tracking has provided across multiple studies, with examples of both direct data on fixations and gaze durations as well as theoretical assessments of relevance and knowledge gain.

Originality/value

The paper provides a basic introduction to the application of a unique method for information research in general and online health information search in particular and provides readers with an awareness of how such data are captured and interpreted.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Chih-Ming Chen, Jung-Ying Wang and Yu-Chieh Lin

Developing attention-aware systems and interfaces based on eye tracking technology could revolutionize mainstream human–computer interaction to make the interaction…

Abstract

Purpose

Developing attention-aware systems and interfaces based on eye tracking technology could revolutionize mainstream human–computer interaction to make the interaction between human beings and computers more intuitive, effective and immersive than can be achieved traditionally using a computer mouse. This paper aims to propose an eye-controlled interactive reading system (ECIRS) that uses human eyes instead of the traditional mouse to control digital text to support screen-based digital reading.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of an experimental group and a control group of learners who, respectively, used the ECIRS and a mouse-controlled interactive reading system (MCIRS) to conduct their reading of two types of English-language text online – pure text and Q&A-type articles on reading comprehension, cognitive load, technology acceptance, and reading behavioural characteristics. Additionally, the effects of learners with field-independent (FI) and field-dependence (FD) cognitive styles who, respectively, used the ECIRS and MCIRS to conduct their reading of two types of English-language text online – pure text and Q&A-type articles on reading comprehension are also examined.

Findings

Analytical results reveal that the reading comprehension of learners in the experimental group significantly exceeded those in the control group for the Q&A article, but the difference was insignificant for the pure text article. Moreover, the ECIRS improved the reading comprehension of field-independent learners more than it did that of field-dependent learners. Moreover, neither the cognitive loads of the two groups nor their acceptance of the technology differed significantly, whereas the reading time of the experimental group significantly exceeded that of the control group. Interestingly, for all articles, the control group of learners read mostly from top to bottom without repetition, whereas most of the learners in the experimental group read most paragraphs more than once. Clearly, the proposed ECIRS supports deeper digital reading than does the MCIRS.

Originality/value

This study proposes an emerging ECIRS that can automatically provide supplementary information to a reader and control a reading text based on a reader’s eye movement to replace the widely used mouse-controlled reading system on a computer screen to effectively support digital reading for English language learning. The implications of this study are that the highly interactive reading patterns of digital text with ECIRS support increase motivation and willingness to learn while giving learners a more intuitive and natural reading experience as well as reading an article online with ECIRS support guides learners’ attention in deeper digital reading than does the MCIRS because of simultaneously integrating perceptual and cognitive processes of selection, awareness and control based on human eye movement.

Details

The Electronic Library , vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2020

Ye (Sandy) Shen, Michael Lever and Marion Joppe

Destination management organizations deliver travel-related information through visitor guides to build destination awareness and attract potential tourists. Therefore…

Abstract

Purpose

Destination management organizations deliver travel-related information through visitor guides to build destination awareness and attract potential tourists. Therefore, this research aims to investigate how people read such a guide, understand their attitudes and to provide recommendations on enhancing its design.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used eye-tracking technology in tandem with surveys and in-depth interviews. Eye-tracking technology uncovered the elements of a visitor guide that attracted particular attention, whereas surveys and interviews provided deeper insights into people’s attitudes toward them.

Findings

People do not spend attention equally on each page of a visitor guide. Instead, they look at the reference points (i.e. photo credits, photos, headings and bolded words) and then read the adjacent areas if the information triggers their interest. The characteristics of the attractive components of a visitor guide were discussed and suggestions on designing a more appealing guide were provided.

Research limitations/implications

The triangulated approach not only generated objective and insightful results but also enhanced research validity. This exploratory sequential mixed method can usefully be applied to test other stimuli and assess attention.

Practical implications

To be deemed appealing, a visitor guide should avoid ads unrelated to the destination, include more photos, use the list format and bolded words, add stories or selected comments from social media and provide well-designed maps.

Originality/value

This research fills a gap in the literature by using a triangulated approach including eye-tracking, survey and interviews to examine a 68-page visitor guide. The concept of reference-point reading behavior is proposed. Practical implications are discussed to improve the design of a visitor guide.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Zhanni Luo, Billy O'Steen and Cheryl Brown

To build adaptive learning systems for a better learning experience, designers need to identify users’ behaviour patterns and provide adaptive learning materials…

Abstract

Purpose

To build adaptive learning systems for a better learning experience, designers need to identify users’ behaviour patterns and provide adaptive learning materials accordingly. This study involved a quasi-experiment and also this paper aims to investigate the accuracy of eye-tracking technology in identifying visualisers and verbalisers and the contributing factors to diverse levels of accuracy, which lays the foundation for the establishment of adaptive learning systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors prepared eight documents with different image-text combinations with the intention of triggering participants’ natural reading habits. By analysing the eye-movement data, this author categorised the 22 participants as visualisers or verbalisers. The results were compared for accuracy measure with participants’ self-reports in response to the index of learning style questionnaire.

Findings

The results showed that visualisers and verbalisers presented significantly different eye-movement patterns, which was confirmed by the fixation data from the Tobii eye-tracker with the detection accuracy ranged from 38% to 77%. Various factors contributed to a range of levels of accuracy, including highlighted elements, learning context, complex background, low relevance of images and texts, learner differences, awareness of experimental settings, self-conception and prior knowledge.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper investigating the feasibility of eye-tracking technology to identify visualisers and verbalisers for the development of adaptive learning systems.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2018

Quan Lu, Jiyue Zhang, Jing Chen and Ji Li

This paper aims to examine the effect of domain knowledge on eye-tracking measures and predict readers’ domain knowledge from these measures in a navigational table of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of domain knowledge on eye-tracking measures and predict readers’ domain knowledge from these measures in a navigational table of contents (N-TOC) system.

Design/methodology/approach

A controlled experiment of three reading tasks was conducted in an N-TOC system for 24 postgraduates of Wuhan University. Data including fixation duration, fixation count and inter-scanning transitions were collected and calculated. Participants’ domain knowledge was measured by pre-experiment questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was leveraged to build the prediction model and the model’s performance was evaluated based on baseline model.

Findings

The results showed that novices spent significantly more time in fixating on text area than experts, because of the difficulty of understanding the information of text area. Total fixation duration on text area (TFD_T) was a significantly negative predictor of domain knowledge. The prediction performance of logistic regression model using eye-tracking measures was better than baseline model, with the accuracy, precision and F(β = 1) scores to be 0.71, 0.86, 0.79.

Originality/value

Little research has been reported in literature on investigation of domain knowledge effect on eye-tracking measures during reading and prediction of domain knowledge based on eye-tracking measures. Most studies focus on multimedia learning. With respect to the prediction of domain knowledge, only some studies are found in the field of information search. This paper makes a good contribution to the literature on the effect of domain knowledge on eye-tracking measures during N-TOC reading and predicting domain knowledge.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-726-1

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