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1 – 10 of over 17000

Abstract

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-726-1

Abstract

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

Abstract

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2008

Ladan Najafi, Marcus Friday and Zoe Robertson

Eye gaze technology may be beneficial for individuals with little or no movement of their limbs. Examples of such users are those who have suffered brainstem stroke, MS or…

242

Abstract

Eye gaze technology may be beneficial for individuals with little or no movement of their limbs. Examples of such users are those who have suffered brainstem stroke, MS or high‐level quadriplegia (Cook & Hussey, 2002). Its advantage is that it is a direct access method, with no intermediary steps involved in making a selection, thus, potentially speeding access to applications the user requires (eg. communication and environmental control). Using an eye gaze system may also be preferable for those capable of using an indirect method such as a switch accessible scanning interface. Recent advances in the technology, including demands from clinicians, clients and families, raised awareness, and independent evaluation sources such as the COGAIN (communication by gaze interaction) project have stimulated a competitive commercial market for such systems. In the UK, a number of devices are available through different suppliers. It is vital that careful assessment is conducted prior to choosing an gaze interaction system, an example being that a particular system may not accommodate a large amount of involuntary head movement, such as with athetoid CP. The same system however, may be appropriate for someone with a lesser degree of involuntary movement, as found with spinal cord injury. It is therefore important that the assessment process should include careful consideration of the individuals' strengths, identification of goals and tasks, the environment in which they are to be accomplished and identification of assistive technology options (Aigner & Blalock, 1999). This paper presents two case studies; one describes the assessment and provision of eye gaze technology for a young woman born with severe physical disability and the other for an adult with acquired brain injury.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2007

Keith S. Coulter

This paper aims to suggest that individuals are either consciously or non‐consciously aware of the left‐right (forward/backward) orientation of numeric digits. The purpose…

1247

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to suggest that individuals are either consciously or non‐consciously aware of the left‐right (forward/backward) orientation of numeric digits. The purpose of the studies is to demonstrate that the “directionality” (left‐ or right‐facing nature) of numerals, and the resultant eye movement bias that this directionality creates may affect the degree to which consumers attend to, or focus upon, the various digits in a price. The degree of attention paid to these digits will, in turn, impact consumers' price‐encoding strategies. It is argued that the use of left (right)‐facing digits may increase (decrease) the likelihood that consumers will employ a truncation (i.e. rounding down) price‐encoding strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper contains two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects were exposed to one of four ads containing regular and sale prices. The prices were placed at opposite ends of the Mueller‐Lyer illusion, with the prices substituting for the “extraneous stimuli” (i.e. inward‐ or outward‐facing wings) in the illusion. In Experiment 2, subjects were exposed to one of six ads containing a sale price only.

Findings

In Experiment 1, digit “directionality” was found to cause eye movement bias, which resulted in distorted physical distance perceptions. In Experiment 2, digit directionality was found to impact price‐rounding behavior.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that perceived digit‐directionality creates eye movement bias, and that eye movement bias may impact the manner in which price digits are recalled and encoded. Eye movement bias can be inferred from the results of Experiment 1, but it is not directly measured. It is suggested that future research efforts might employ eye‐tracking measures to more directly confirm that this perceptual bias does indeed occur.

Practical implications

The findings have important implications for the marketing practitioner, because they demonstrate that the use of particular digit combinations can result in a price being perceived as greater or less than its actual value.

Originality/value

In presenting the concept of “digit‐directionality”, the paper offers an entirely new rubric in which to examine matters pertaining to numerical cognition.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Haakon Lund

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science…

1758

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible. Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated.

Design/methodology/approach

The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used, the number of test persons and reports on the eye-tracking measures. Furthermore, this study will report which other methods were applied in combination with eye tracking.

Findings

The number of published research utilizing eye-tracking technologies within library and information science (LIS) is still limited although an increase in the use of eye-tracking technologies is observed during recent years.

Originality/value

To the knowledge of the author, this is the first systematic review on eye-tracking technology and application in LIS.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Zehui Zhan, Jun Wu, Hu Mei, Qianyi Wu and Patrick S.W. Fong

This paper aims to investigate the individual difference on digital reading, by examining the eye-tracking records of male and female readers with different reading…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the individual difference on digital reading, by examining the eye-tracking records of male and female readers with different reading ability (including their pupil size, blink rate, fixation rate, fixation duration, saccade rate, saccade duration, saccade amplitude and regression rate).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 74 participants were selected according to 6,520 undergraduate students’ university entrance exam scores and the follow-up reading assessments. Half of them are men and half are women, with the top 3% good readers and the bottom 3% poor readers, from different disciplines.

Findings

Results indicated that the major gender differences on reading abilities were indicated by saccade duration, regression rate and blink rate. The major effects on reading ability have a larger effect size than the major effect on gender. Among all the indicators that have been examined, blink rate and regression rates are the most sensitive to the gender attribute, while the fixation rate and saccade amplitude showed the least sensitiveness.

Originality/value

This finding could be helpful for user modeling with eye-tracking data in intelligent tutoring systems, where necessary adjustments might be needed according to users’ individual differences. In this way, instructors could be able to provide purposeful guidance according to what the learners had seen and personalized the experience of digital reading.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Søren Risløv Staugaard and Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg

Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show…

Abstract

Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 March 2022

Liang Xiao and Shu Wang

The rapid growth of m-commerce and mobile marketing has flooded the users with homogeneous contents that raise little user interest making the users' browsing pattern on…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid growth of m-commerce and mobile marketing has flooded the users with homogeneous contents that raise little user interest making the users' browsing pattern on these contents aimless free browsing. However, the interface that presents the mobile marketing contents triggers much user attention, especially the layout. Without significant usability defects, the layout poses influences on the user's aesthetic experience. Identifying the layout attributes that affect user aesthetic preference is critical to the design of mobile marketing interfaces since they influence users' interaction intention, cognitive process, and decision-making.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, 6 layout attributes that quantify the aesthetic design of the interface layout and 3 eye-movement indicators that connect to human aesthetic preference were identified through literature research. An eye-tracking experiment measuring the 3 eye-movement indicators on 6 pairs of interface layout materials corresponding to the 6 layout attributes was conducted. The experiment was designed to mimic the free browsing context in mobile marketing. The materials were divided into Liked/Disliked preference groups according to the response of the subjects. Analysis of indicators on materials between the L/D groups shows that the attributes of balance, centricity, density, simplicity, and symmetry affect user aesthetic preferences.

Findings

Analysis of the attribute value levels shows that balance, centricity, and density are responsible for addressing users' aesthetic preferences for a disliked interface layout. The study suggests an attribute set for quantitatively optimizing the aesthetic design of mobile marketing system interfaces and provides evidence for the visual attention and cognitive process under the free browsing context.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the field both theoretically and practically: (1) it provides support for optimizing the interface layout of mobile marketing systems quantitatively from the aesthetic perspective. (2) It promotes the cognitive attention theory by providing evidence for the cognitive process of interacting with mobile marketing interfaces from the perspective of visual attention and cognitive fluency. (3) It expands the objects of visual perception from traditional or symbolic artworks (such as logos) to the abstract visual stimuli of interface layout. (4) It suggests an optimization tool of five quantification layout attributes for mobile marketing businesses and platforms to aesthetically improve their marketing interfaces to improve user experiences.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Wei Li, Yushi Jiang, Miao Miao, Qing Yan and Fan He

Enterprises often use anthropomorphic images to display products. In this study, by discussing the differences of the anthropomorphic images of juxtaposition and fusion…

Abstract

Purpose

Enterprises often use anthropomorphic images to display products. In this study, by discussing the differences of the anthropomorphic images of juxtaposition and fusion, the authors can distinguish the boundary conditions of the influence of different visual object structures on consumers' attention.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on schema theory and information processing theory and using eye movement methods, this study analyzed the attractiveness of anthropomorphic images to consumers under different congruence levels through experiments of 2 (congruence: high and low) *2(visual object structure: juxtaposition and fusion)*2(self-construct: interdependent and independent). This study discusses the difference in the attractiveness of interdependent and independent consumers in the context of high congruence, juxtaposition and fusion of two visual object structures.

Findings

The results show that compared with the low congruence anthropomorphic image, the high congruence anthropomorphic image can attract more attention of consumers. In the case of low compatibility of anthropomorphic images, the juxtaposition structure of anthropomorphic images is more attractive to consumers than the fusion structure. In the case of high compatibility of anthropomorphic images, for independent self-consumers, the attraction of fusion structure image is higher than the juxtaposition image, and for interdependent self-consumers, the attraction of juxtaposition image is higher than the fusion image.

Originality/value

The conclusion enriches the anthropomorphic marketing theory. It reveals different degrees of attention paid to anthropomorphic image by consumers of different types of self-construct. Eye movement methods provide a new perspective for the study of anthropomorphic marketing and provide a reference for enterprises to publicize products or services through anthropomorphic image.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

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