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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Rafi M.M.I. Chowdhury, Denni Arli and Felix Septianto

This study aims to examine how religiosity influences brand loyalty toward religiously positioned brands (Chick-fil-A, Forever 21, etc.) when these brands engage in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how religiosity influences brand loyalty toward religiously positioned brands (Chick-fil-A, Forever 21, etc.) when these brands engage in morally controversial actions.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 investigates how religiosity affects brand loyalty when religiously positioned brands engage in religiousness-related vs nonreligiousness-related morally controversial actions. Study 2 examines several psychological processes (reactance, forgiveness and moral decoupling) as mediators of the effects of intrinsic religiosity and extrinsic religiosity on brand loyalty for controversial religious brands.

Findings

Study 1 demonstrates that religiosity leads to positive brand loyalty for religiously positioned brands in the case of both religiousness-related and nonreligiousness-related controversies. Study 2 reveals that intrinsic religiosity (extrinsic religiosity) leads to brand loyalty through moral decoupling and forgiveness, but not through reactance, when religious brands engage in religiousness-related (nonreligiousness-related) controversies.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on the effects of religiosity on brand loyalty for morally controversial religious brands but does not examine the effects of religious affiliation (Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, etc.). The samples include only US residents.

Practical implications

Religious positioning of brands can engender brand loyalty for consumers with high levels of intrinsic religiosity and/or extrinsic religiosity, even when these brands engage in morally controversial actions.

Originality/value

This research shows that religiosity affects brand loyalty for morally controversial religious brands and demonstrates that psychological processes used by consumers to justify support for morally controversial religious brands depend on type of religiosity (intrinsic vs extrinsic) and type of controversy (religiousness-related and nonreligiousness-related).

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2020

Felix Septianto, Fandy Tjiptono, Widya Paramita and Tung Moi Chiew

The purpose of this paper is to examine a three-way interaction between the two motivational orientations of religiosity (i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic) and recognition (in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine a three-way interaction between the two motivational orientations of religiosity (i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic) and recognition (in this study, an explicit expectation that behavior is recognized) on charitable behavior. Further, drawing upon the evolutionary psychology perspective, the status motive is predicted to mediate the predicted effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies were conducted using a 2 (intrinsic religiosity: low/high; measured) × 2 (extrinsic religiosity: low/high; measured) × 2 (recognition: yes/no; manipulated) between-subjects design to examine the predicted effects on likelihood to donate and donation allocations in two Asian countries, namely, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Findings

The results show that recognition increases charitable behavior among consumers with a high level of extrinsic religiosity but low level of intrinsic religiosity (Studies 1a, 1b and 2). Further, a status motive mediates the predicted effects (Study 2).

Research limitations/implications

The present research provides a novel perspective on how marketers can purposively use recognition in charitable advertising to encourage charitable behavior among religious consumers – but only in Asia.

Practical implications

This paper presents the case for how a non-profit organization can develop charitable advertising for disaster relief in Indonesia (Studies 1a and 1b) and Malaysia (Study 2). The findings of this research could potentially be extended to other organizations in Asia or other countries where religiosity places an important role in consumer behavior.

Originality/value

This research shows the interactive effect between extrinsic religiosity, intrinsic religiosity and recognition can increase charitable behavior in Asia.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Denni Arli, Tuyet-Mai Nguyen and Phong Tuan Nham

There is a perception that non-religious consumers are less ethical than religious consumers. Studies found prejudices against atheists around the world and assumed that…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a perception that non-religious consumers are less ethical than religious consumers. Studies found prejudices against atheists around the world and assumed that those who committed unethical behavior were more likely to be atheists. Hence, first, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of consumers’ intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and atheism on consumers’ ethical beliefs. Second, this study attempts to segment consumers and identify differences between these segments.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from 235 study participants in the USA and 531 in Vietnam. Subsequently, a two-step cluster approach was used to identify segments within these samples.

Findings

The study results show consumers’ intrinsic religiosity negatively influences all consumers’ unethical beliefs. Similarly, atheism also negatively influences all consumers’ unethical beliefs. This study also complements other studies exploring consumer ethics in developing countries. In addition, the segmentation analysis produced unique segments. The results from both samples (USA and Vietnam) indicated that non-religious consumers are less likely to accept various unethical behaviors compared to religious consumers. Religious consumers are not necessarily more ethical and atheism consumers are not necessarily less ethical. In the end, are implications for business ethics, religious and non-religious leaders on how to view the impact of beliefs on consumer ethical behaviors.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies investigating the impact of atheism on consumer ethics. The results of this study further extend the knowledge of study in consumer ethics by comparing consumers’ religiosity and atheism.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 April 2022

Denni Arli, Narain Gupta, Deepak Sardana and Piyush Sharma

This paper uses social identity theory to investigate the sequential mediating effects of extrinsic religiosity and perceived role of religious leaders in the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper uses social identity theory to investigate the sequential mediating effects of extrinsic religiosity and perceived role of religious leaders in the impact of consumers' intrinsic religiosity on perceived value of brands endorsed by religious leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper comprises two survey-based studies with urban consumers in two emerging markets, India (N = 303) and Indonesia (N = 150).

Findings

Intrinsic religiosity has a direct positive effect on extrinsic religiosity, which in turn mediates the effect of intrinsic religiosity on the perceived value of the brands endorsed by religious leaders in both India and Indonesia. However, extrinsic religiosity has a significant positive effect on the perceived value of these brands through the perceived role of religious leaders in India but not in Indonesia.

Research limitations/implications

Samples for both the studies are drawn from urban consumers in India and Indonesia, which also have large rural populations. Hence, future research may use both urban and rural samples from other countries to replicate our results.

Practical implications

The study findings may help both local and global brand managers in the emerging markets with religious societies, such as India and Indonesia, to understand how they may use endorsements by religious leaders to manage the differences in the impact of consumers' intrinsic versus extrinsic religiosity on their brand perceptions and evaluations.

Originality/value

This paper extends social identity theory to the international marketing context by showing that religious consumers in the emerging markets are likely to support the brands endorsed by religious leaders vis-à-vis other national or multinational brands. Thus, religious identification offers a unique sacred worldview and unlimited group membership, unlike other social groups, especially in the highly religious emerging markets.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Sinan Çavuşoĝlu, Bülent Demirağ, Yakup Durmaz and Gökhan Tutuş

This research aims to find out whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity affect product attitude functions (value-expressive, social-adjustive).

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to find out whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity affect product attitude functions (value-expressive, social-adjustive).

Design/methodology/approach

The population of the research consists of Muslim consumers in Turkey and Christian consumers in Portugal. Using the convenience sampling method, the data was obtained from 800 questionnaire forms which consist of 400 forms filled by Muslim consumers in Turkey and 400 forms filled by Christian consumers in Portugal. Smart PLS 3 (Partial Least Squares) statistical program was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Results of the analyses show that the intrinsic religiosity of Muslim Consumers living in Turkey and Christian consumers living in Portugal negatively affects the value-expressive and social adjustive attitude. Extrinsic religiosity, on the other hand, has been found to have a positive effect on the functions of value-expressive and social-adjustive attitudes within the consumers of both countries.

Originality/value

There are studies on religiosity and consumer attitudes in the Turkish literature (Kurtoglu and Çiçek, 2013; Uyar et al., 2020; Demirag et al., 2020). Religiosity dimensions (intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity); however, have been neglected in the Turkish literature. This study provides a detailed evaluation of the effect of these dimensions on the dependent variable. Additionally, this study emphasizes the relational aspect of attitude dependent variable and religiosity dimensions by approaching it through the context of value-expressive and social-adjustive attitude. Thus, it is aimed to help practitioners and the literature gain a different perspective by referring to the attitude functions whose foundations were laid in the studies of Smith et al. (1956), Katz (1960) and strengthened in studies like Wilcox et al. (2009). By comparing two different religions, the study results are analyzed in the context of different regions and cultures. This comparison can be beneficial both for local and international investors as religious and cultural factors play an important role in local and cultural investment decisions. The results of this study are thought to contribute to the consumer behavior literature and to public authorities in terms of evaluating the level of religiosity. In addition, this study can have practical results for the practitioners in both Portugal and Turkey.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Yao-Chin Wang, Christina Geng-Qing Chi and Eren Erkılıç

While former literature has shown that people have a strong tendency to seek religious support during difficult times, knowledge gaps exist in how the mechanism of…

Abstract

Purpose

While former literature has shown that people have a strong tendency to seek religious support during difficult times, knowledge gaps exist in how the mechanism of religiosity works to support employees’ mental status and performance. Therefore, based on self-categorization theory, this study aims to examine the effects of employees’ intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity on building their mental toughness and mindfulness and the further formation of employees’ political skills.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from 404 full-time hotel employees working in 34 hotels in Turkey during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in spring 2020. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

Results of this study show that intrinsic religiosity improves employees’ mental toughness, while extrinsic religiosity enhances employee mindfulness. Additionally, both mental toughness and mindfulness help employees to develop political skill.

Research limitations/implications

This study enriches knowledge to workplace religiosity literature and expands the research scope of religion-related research in hospitality and tourism literature. Future studies are recommended to consider religious heterogeneity and longitudinal design.

Practical implications

To foster employee mental well-being, hotel firms should create a religious-friendly workplace and develop religion-friendly policies. Opportunities should be created within hospitality organizations for employees to develop and use their political skills in needed work aspects.

Originality/value

The findings of this study contribute to valuable theoretical and practical implications. To the best of the knowledge, this study is one of the first attempts to study hotel employees’ religiosity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Denni Arli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of religiosity in consumer ethics. This objective will be achieved by investigating the impact of intrinsic and…

1258

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of religiosity in consumer ethics. This objective will be achieved by investigating the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity on consumer ethics, and segmenting consumers’ religiosity and explore differences between each segment.

Design/methodology/approach

The surveys were distributed to undergraduate students, their friends and members of their immediate families, through a large public university in Australia. Of 700 paper questionnaires, participants returned 651. Incomplete surveys with too many missing values were removed from the sample. Of these, 517 were usable, yielding a response rate of 74 per cent. Singles accounted for 53.9 per cent of the sample, followed by married people (26.8 per cent). Of the respondents, 49.9 per cent were men. The majority of respondents were between 18 and 24 years old (52 per cent), followed by 15-34 years (16.4 per cent). Finally, most respondents had an income level of less than $20,000 (36.6 per cent) followed by $21,000-$40,000 (20.5 per cent) and $41,000-$61,000 (19.7 per cent). Overall, despite being dominated by younger consumers, the sample is relatively representative of the entire adult population of Australia.

Findings

The results show that both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity had an impact on consumers’ ethical beliefs. Moreover, the results show significant differences between the two segments studied. The religious segment was more likely than the non-religious segment to reject various unethical beliefs, but no significant differences were found in the behavioural dimensions of recycling and doing good deeds.

Originality/value

This is one of the first few studies to explore the impact of religiosity on consumer ethics in Australia. The results of this study have several implications for academic researchers, religious leaders and managers working in the area of consumer ethics.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2020

Adil Khan, Mohd Yasir Arafat and Mohammad Khalid Azam

This study aims to investigate the influence of religiosity (intrinsic and extrinsic) and halal literacy on the intention of Muslim consumers to purchase halal branded…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of religiosity (intrinsic and extrinsic) and halal literacy on the intention of Muslim consumers to purchase halal branded food products in India. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used as a framework. Apart from religiosity and halal literacy, the influence of attitude, social norms and perceived behavioural control of halal on buying intention were also tested.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a survey design. The data were collected from 350 individual respondents, using a closed-ended, structured questionnaire. The quality of the measurement model has been assessed through reliability testing, factor loading, average variance extracted and Fornell-Larcker criterion. The test of hypotheses was conducted by performing the partial least square structural equation modelling.

Findings

The result of hypotheses testing shows that both intrinsic and extrinsic types of religiosities did not have a direct influence on buying intention. However, religiosity (extrinsic and intrinsic) and halal literacy have significant relationships with most of the antecedents of the intention of the TPB. In addition, both kinds of religiosities (extrinsic and intrinsic) and halal literacy had a significant indirect effect (through TPB antecedents) on buying intention.

Originality/value

Muslim population in India is one of the largest in the world, yet there is a lack of popular halal branded food products in the market. Nevertheless, few researchers have attempted to study the consumer behaviour of the Muslim population for halal products in India. A large amount of research work on halal food behaviour is from countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, where the Muslim population is in the majority and halal brands are already popular. Further, this paper studies the impact of dimensions of religiosity, which has been overlooked by researchers studying the halal food purchasing behaviour. The study also explores the impact of halal literacy, an understudied construct in halal marketing literature. The present study is amongst the earliest empirical research based on Muslim consumers in India on the topic of halal branded food products.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Junaidi Junaidi

This research investigates how religiosity (e.g. extrinsic and intrinsic) influences consumers’ awareness and attitudes, which subsequently influences consumers…

Abstract

Purpose

This research investigates how religiosity (e.g. extrinsic and intrinsic) influences consumers’ awareness and attitudes, which subsequently influences consumers’ preferences for Muslims in the context of Islamic bank.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 480 Islamic bank consumers were recruited for online survey study. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

Extrinsic religiosity has crucial role on consumers’ awareness and consumer attitudes. However, intrinsic religiosity has less effect on consumer attitudes, whereas consumer awareness plays an important role on consumer attitudes. Furthermore, mediator variables, such as consumers’ awareness and attitudes, have partial role to mediate religiosity and consumers’ preference.

Research limitations/implications

The recent study was limited to core of one region, therefore, future studies are needed to analyze consumers’ attitude and engagement in religious products and services such as Islamic brands image.

Practical implications

The stakeholders need to collaborate action to promote Islamic banks and the varying standard between their counterparts from the perspective of business and marketing.

Originality/value

The result of this study contributes to literature which has correlation with testing religion role toward Islamic bank. It also develops a new views into the determinants factor to influence consumers’ preferences.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Junaidi Junaidi, Ready Wicaksono and Hamka Hamka

This paper aims to investigate whether and how religiosity (e.g. extrinsic and intrinsic) influences the mediator variables (consumers’ commitment and materialism) in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether and how religiosity (e.g. extrinsic and intrinsic) influences the mediator variables (consumers’ commitment and materialism) in the Islamic bank consumers context. It also examines how the mediators should be influence consumers’ preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 658 Muslim people and Islamic bank consumers were recruited for a survey study and structural equation modeling was used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that religiosity (e.g. extrinsic and intrinsic) has significant and positive effects on consumers’ commitment and materialism, whereas intrinsic religiosity has no significant effect on consumers’ commitment which subsequently influences consumers’ preference. Furthermore, mediator variables (e.g. consumers’ commitment and consumers’ materialism) have partial mediators between religiosity and consumers’ preferences.

Research limitations/implications

The current study was limited to Indonesian Muslim people; there is a future need to study consumers’ attitudes and engagement in religious products and services (e.g. Islamic brands). It is can help practitioners, regulators and researchers to observe the dynamic behavior to elaborate on the impact of religion and Islamic products on consumers’ preference.

Practical implications

The bank managers and regulators should enhance the information of products and services Islamic banks and the difference principle between conventional banks. Moreover, enlighten the consumers about the principle operation of Islamic banks from the perspective of marketing and religiosity.

Originality/value

This study contributes to consumers’ behavior literature and, specifically, for the decision-making process through developing and testing a model of religious determinants toward Islamic bank products, as well as offers new insights into the determinants of religion and consumers’ decision process toward Islamic banking.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 13 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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