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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2008

Stefan Linder

The literature on post-completion reviews (PCRs) either does not deal with the tying of PCRs to extrinsic rewards or provides scant theoretical reasoning or empirical…

Abstract

The literature on post-completion reviews (PCRs) either does not deal with the tying of PCRs to extrinsic rewards or provides scant theoretical reasoning or empirical analysis to back up its recommendations.

Based on research from psychology and empirical studies, the present chapter proposes that several effects of a PCR, which must be deemed rather dysfunctional, will increase when extrinsic rewards are linked to such a review. At the same time some possibly functional effects, however, are likely to remain constant. The propositions, therefore, call the usefulness of tying PCRs to rewards into question and call for further investigation.

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Performance Measurement and Management Control: Measuring and Rewarding Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-571-0

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Sunan Babar Khan, David G. Proverbs and Hong Xiao

Health and safety in small construction firms is often neglected by owners leading to poor health and safety performance and unacceptably high fatality and injury rates. A…

Abstract

Purpose

Health and safety in small construction firms is often neglected by owners leading to poor health and safety performance and unacceptably high fatality and injury rates. A body of knowledge has established significant links between the motivational behaviours of operatives towards health and safety. Motivation is also considered as a key tool for improving operative productivity as when operatives experience safe worksites, they can carry out their work in a more productive manner. The purpose of this research is to develop a framework to examine the motivational factors that affect operative health and safety in small construction firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical review and synthesis of the body of knowledge incorporating motivational theory, health and safety literature and the factors which characterise small firms, is used to develop the framework.

Findings

Key components of the framework include the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic components, appropriate health and safety policies and procedures, the type of work environment, the operatives (i.e. attitude, experience and training) as well as the presence of appropriate management and supervision. The study revealed that operatives in small firms are less likely to be extrinsically motivated due to the absence of training, management commitment, policies and the wider working environment

Research limitations/implications

Failure of motivational support can result in increased danger and risk in exposing operatives to injury in the small firm environment. In this context, the damage caused to operative's health and safety in small construction firms is dependent mainly on the extrinsic factors.

Practical implications

The framework provides a basis for improving our understanding of how to motivate operatives to act safely and will help to improve the health and safety performance of small firms. It is therefore vital to emphasise enhancement efforts on these extrinsic strategies in the small firms' environment especially in the initial stages of the project (or activity), so that the health and safety of operatives in small firms can be improved.

Originality/value

This study proposes a contribution in developing an understanding of the motivational factors and their influence on the health and safety of operatives in small construction firms. The study revealed that operatives in small firms are less likely to be extrinsically motivated and have only intrinsically motivated elements in their workplace. The study proposes an indirect link between the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect motivation.

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Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Jiseon Ahn and Joaquim Dias Soeiro

Although the characterisation of intrinsic and extrinsic attribution is pervasive and important, this concept is yet to be explored in the corporate social responsibility…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the characterisation of intrinsic and extrinsic attribution is pervasive and important, this concept is yet to be explored in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) context. Thus, this study aims to study these CSR attributes and examine its influences on hotel customers’ behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

This study explores and attempts to distinguish the varying roles of intrinsic and extrinsic CSR attributes. Framed in context of CSR in the hotel industry, the characteristics of CSR practices (e.g. sympathy or rewarding) are hypothesised to lead customers’ motivation to engage in a specific behaviour based on the attribution theory.

Findings

The target population of 150 hotel customers was surveyed, and the results exhibited that the intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of hotel CSR activities increased customers’ purchase intention by improving their level of perceived authenticity. The impact of intrinsic motivation on brand authenticity was found to have a greater influence compared to extrinsic motivation. When customers perceive the authenticity of hotel brands, there is a tendency to exert a positive behavioural intention. However, it was identified that for the hotel industry, only extrinsic motivation had a direct influence on customers’ positive behavioural intention.

Research limitations/implications

The varying roles of the intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of CSR and its impact on customers’ brand authenticity and behavioural intention were identified. Hence, this study conceptually contributes to the existing CSR literature by determining and incorporating the variables that measure the intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of hotel CSR activities.

Originality/value

This study contributes advancements to the hospitality and tourism industry, by expanding the literature to include the identification of significant CSR attributes and strategies that are beneficial, and can be used by companies for their development.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2020

Felix Septianto, Fandy Tjiptono, Widya Paramita and Tung Moi Chiew

The purpose of this paper is to examine a three-way interaction between the two motivational orientations of religiosity (i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic) and recognition (in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine a three-way interaction between the two motivational orientations of religiosity (i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic) and recognition (in this study, an explicit expectation that behavior is recognized) on charitable behavior. Further, drawing upon the evolutionary psychology perspective, the status motive is predicted to mediate the predicted effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies were conducted using a 2 (intrinsic religiosity: low/high; measured) × 2 (extrinsic religiosity: low/high; measured) × 2 (recognition: yes/no; manipulated) between-subjects design to examine the predicted effects on likelihood to donate and donation allocations in two Asian countries, namely, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Findings

The results show that recognition increases charitable behavior among consumers with a high level of extrinsic religiosity but low level of intrinsic religiosity (Studies 1a, 1b and 2). Further, a status motive mediates the predicted effects (Study 2).

Research limitations/implications

The present research provides a novel perspective on how marketers can purposively use recognition in charitable advertising to encourage charitable behavior among religious consumers – but only in Asia.

Practical implications

This paper presents the case for how a non-profit organization can develop charitable advertising for disaster relief in Indonesia (Studies 1a and 1b) and Malaysia (Study 2). The findings of this research could potentially be extended to other organizations in Asia or other countries where religiosity places an important role in consumer behavior.

Originality/value

This research shows the interactive effect between extrinsic religiosity, intrinsic religiosity and recognition can increase charitable behavior in Asia.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Ismatilla Mardanov

The purpose of the present study is to examine the determinants of employee contentment and its effects on job satisfaction, separation and performance; define employee…

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1491

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to examine the determinants of employee contentment and its effects on job satisfaction, separation and performance; define employee contentment as employee happiness/enjoyment at work triggered by employee intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and organizational context; and consider employee contentment as the critical factor affecting job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes survey data from 272 employees of Taiwanese construction companies and consulting firms in the construction industry. In confirmatory factor analysis, the items are from the short version of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and a newly developed organizational context questionnaire.

Findings

The MSQ items can be considered as perceived motivators of employees. These motivators and organizational characteristics (context) as manifest variables were loaded on distinct latent variables such as extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and organizational context, all of which in turn loaded on a single latent variable – employee contentment. The latter has a positive and statistically significant impact on job satisfaction, performance and intention to stay. While employee contentment has a stronger impact on performance, job satisfaction has a stronger impact on the intention to stay.

Originality/value

The present study utilizes the MSQ satisfaction themes as intrinsic and extrinsic motivators: employees' perceived feelings before the actual work process starts (intrinsic) and work outcomes occur (extrinsic). It examines employee contentment through these perceived feelings and organizational context, providing important research and practice implications.

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Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Carolyn Stringer, Jeni Didham and Paul Theivananthampillai

This paper aims to explore the complex relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, pay satisfaction and job satisfaction at the retailer that uses a…

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35014

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the complex relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, pay satisfaction and job satisfaction at the retailer that uses a pay‐for‐performance plan for front‐line employees.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on a single organization case study across seven stores, and uses a survey, archival documents, open‐ended questions and researcher interaction with employees and managers.

Findings

The results provide some support for the complementary nature of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation was positively associated with pay and job satisfactions, whereas extrinsic motivation was negatively associated with job satisfaction, and not associated with pay satisfaction. The qualitative insights indicate that pay fairness is important, and those who perceived pay was not fair generally made comparisons with others or felt that pay did not reflect their effort. It is also found that the majority of employees perceived that goals were clear.

Research limitations/implications

The dominance of extrinsic motivation without including behavioural, social, and psychological factors in agency theory research is questioned. The research finds no support for “crowding out”, but rather finds some evidence of “crowding in” where intrinsic motivation is enhanced, to the detriment of extrinsic motivation.

Practical implications

The findings highlight that managers should enhance both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and pay employees well to increase job satisfaction.

Originality/value

Few studies examine incentives for front‐line employees, and there is evidence that minimum wage employees can have high intrinsic motivation. Perceptions of pay fairness can vary across motivation levels, age, and gender.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

I.J. Hetty van Emmerik, Bert Schreurs, Nele de Cuyper, I.M. Jawahar and Maria C.W. Peeters

Drawing from the job characteristics model and the job demands‐resources model, this study aims to examine the associations of resources (i.e. feedback, autonomy, and…

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4846

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from the job characteristics model and the job demands‐resources model, this study aims to examine the associations of resources (i.e. feedback, autonomy, and variety) with intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and employability.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling on data from 611 employees of a Dutch municipality.

Findings

Consistent with the hypotheses, the authors' results indicated that resources are related to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and that the association between resources and employability was mediated by extrinsic motivation but not by intrinsic motivation.

Research limitations/implications

The authors use a one‐dimensional measure of perceived employability and do not make a distinction between internal and external employability and other dimensions of employability. The authors feel that distinguishing between internal employability and external employability will contribute to understanding if internal and external opportunities relate differently to perceptions of employability with the same organization and with a different organization.

Originality/value

Job resources are important for improvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, but the route from job resources to employability is via extrinsic job opportunities and not via intrinsic job opportunities. That is, the perception of performance outcome goals by employees is important for the association between job resources and employability. The paper shows that, without denying the value of intrinsic motivation, it is important for management to emphasize the instrumental value of resources embedded in the job itself that have implications for employability and career advancement.

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Career Development International, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2009

Jin-Wook Han and Hyungil H Kwon

The purpose of the study was to confirm the mediating effect of perceived quality in the relationship between two extrinsic cues (brand name and country of origin)and…

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to confirm the mediating effect of perceived quality in the relationship between two extrinsic cues (brand name and country of origin)and perceived value previously tested by Teas and Agarwal (2000) using more rigorous statistical techniques - regression analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) - in a sports consumption context. Data were collected from 194 members of the Korea University Ski Team Association. Based on the results, the partially mediated model was selected as the best fitting model. From a marketing perspective, ski marketers need to understand that the two extrinsic cues had direct and indirect influences through perceived quality on perceived value of the ski product.

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Jungin Kim

Based on motivation theories, such as self-determination theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether intrinsic and extrinsic motivations significantly…

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3935

Abstract

Purpose

Based on motivation theories, such as self-determination theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether intrinsic and extrinsic motivations significantly influence burnout and turnover intention in the public sector. Furthermore, the authors assessed the mediating effect of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and public service motivation (PSM) on the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and burnout/turnover intention.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a survey of 203 public employees from local governments in South Korea, this study conducted ordinary least squares regression analysis to investigate the relationships among intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, OCB, PSM, and burnout/turnover intention.

Findings

The authors found that intrinsic motivation had a significantly negative effect on both burnout and turnover intention. Extrinsic motivation had a significantly positive effect only on burnout. Lastly, OCB and PSM had a mediating effect on the relationships between intrinsic motivation and burnout.

Originality/value

These results provide some insights into the effects of job motivation on burnout and turnover intention in the public sector. Particularly, this research highlights the importance of intrinsic motivation, OCB, and PSM in decreasing burnout and the importance of intrinsic motivation in decreasing turnover intention of public employees.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2018

Arfat Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying reciprocity mechanism which governs the relationship between employer and employee at their workplaces in a…

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14488

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying reciprocity mechanism which governs the relationship between employer and employee at their workplaces in a perspective whereby intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction are considered as proxy to organizational offerings, while multi overall job satisfaction and dimensional organizational commitment as employee’ attitudinal reaction to the organizational offerings. Under the aforementioned notion, the present study intends to examine the influence of job characteristics on employees’ attitudes, such as, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions as psychological response to job characteristics. In a way, the study attempts to insight into how employee’ reciprocate to the perceived obligation toward its organization. The study also aims to supplement the empirical evidence about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction. Although various studies exhibit positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been consistently reported. However, for the managerial implication, the identification of employee physiological and psychological needs to gauge the understanding of mechanism by which of employee’ reacts to its environment and develop attitude toward their job and organization is imperative. In this context, this study makes a humble attempt to clear the relationships in the perspective of reciprocation between organization and its employees. Thus, this study attempts to illustrate how feeling a need to reciprocate, those who experienced strong satisfaction with job characteristics appear to have had a sense of moral duty to the organization can be helpful in understanding the processes by which organizational inducements exert their influence on other employee attitudes and behaviors. Evidently, while the link between employees’ satisfaction with their job and high organizational commitment, on the one hand, and low intentions to leave on the other is fairly straightforward, yet there in need to study these variables as exogenous and endogenous to inquire about their causation. Also, the available present literature on the understudy concern genuinely lacks adequate empirical material about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction as such some author hold that intrinsic characteristic of job better predict job satisfaction while as another set of behavioral scientists found extrinsic job characteristics as prime determinant of job satisfaction compare to the intrinsic worth of their jobs. The present study was conducted in the state of depressed economy where unemployment rate is as high as 194 percent it was found interesting to investigate the about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job in determining the job satisfaction. The present study also attempts to supplement the empirical evidence in this direction.

Design/methodology/approach

Since the study use the tenets of situational theories of employee’ attitude which assume that employee’ attitude results from the psychological evaluation of one’s job characteristics or other aspects of the environment in the organization; therefore, the study integrates the job characteristics as the organizational offerings to its employee and employees attitude like job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions as reciprocity reaction to the organizational offerings. The structural equation model was used to frames the intricacy job characteristics, job satisfaction and organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions. Ten job characteristics were identified with which employees experience at the workplace as organizational offerings. These include salary, recognition, co-workers, supervision, organizational policies, promotion, working condition, task requirement, job security and nature of work. Subsequently, these identified facets were divided into intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction, and were considering as proxy to the organizational offerings to its employees. These job characteristics were identified during in-depth interviews and discussions with the respondents, while overall job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employees’ turnover intentions were considered as employee’s psychological reactions to the organizational offerings. The sample consists of 654 hospital employees, working at the different hospital across state. In order to ensure the representation of the entire human capital, employees working under different levels of occupational status and different sectors of economy were included in the for the purpose of data collection. The number of employees from each hospital has been selected through proportionate method. Employees from each hospital were selected on the basis of the chit method. Measurement tools Questionnaire method was used to collect the data for the present study. A five-point likert type scale was used for the sake of maintaining uniformity in measuring the variables. All the variables were measured with multiple-item scales, questionnaire item used to measure different constructs in this study are derived from the previously established studies. As such, multidimensional organizational commitment construct was measured using items drawn from Meyer and Allen (1991) scale. Job characteristics and employee’ turnover intentions scale was adapted from the study conducted by Ali Muhammad et al. (2008). The instrument used for the present study has universal application. Therefore the results thus produce are of universal significance. The reliability and validity of measurement tools for the study was established by the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Findings

The findings from the study reveal employees’ subjective evaluation to the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job contribute to the formation of their reciprocal perspective of psychological attitude toward its job and organization characterized as their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. As such, better evaluation of job content and job context by the employees leads to the sense of obligation and commitment toward the organization, hence reduces their intentions to discord organizational membership. The findings also reveal that employees tend to incline their job satisfaction more toward the extrinsic worth of job than the intrinsic worth. While as both, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, explains relatively equal variation in the employees’ turnover intentions. The relatively strong correlation of extrinsic characteristics of job could be attributed to the fact that professionals generally have limited control over extrinsic factors and have high degree of control over intrinsic elements. Therefore, their perceptions of the job are particularly dependent on the degree of satisfaction with the extrinsic factors (Pearson and Seiler, 1983).

Originality/value

Although there are various studies manifested the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions, for all that, the present work is an attempt to deem these relationships in a different panorama to bring more insight in the subject of organizational behavior. In this study, the relationship among the job characteristics, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’ turnover intentions were considered in a perspective of reciprocity norms. The study opens new horizons to the researchers across the globe, whereby organizational and job characteristics are considered as catalyst for the employee’ attitude and can be study and analyze in a functional relationship model. A new regime of paradigm may investigate the functional relationship between employer offerings as an input and employee attitudes as an output, with more emphasis on the organizational equilibrium. Hence, study encompass the managerial implication by gauging the understanding of mechanism by which of employee’ reacts to the workplace environment and develop attitude toward their job and organization. In this way, the propositions expatiated in the present work improves the understanding for the implications of various motivational theories, different organizational theories and human resource management models. Moreover, this work substantiates and provides insight about the competing power of intrinsic and extrinsic job factors on job satisfaction and opens debate for the generalization of Herzberg’s motivation theory.

Details

Journal of Work-Applied Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2205-2062

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