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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 July 2020

Nicoleta Meslec, Jacco Duel and Joseph Soeters

The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which teamwork (developed either during an initial training phase or during a subsequent deployment phase) is…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which teamwork (developed either during an initial training phase or during a subsequent deployment phase) is influenced by the nature of the team’s environment (extreme vs non-extreme) and the extent to which teamwork is one of the explaining mechanisms for team performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from 60 teams at 2 time-points: training phase in The Netherlands or Germany and deployment phase (in locations such as Afghanistan and Bosnia-Herzegovina).

Findings

This study’s results indicate that when teams consider working in extreme environments, they develop higher levels of teamwork as compared to teams expecting to work in non-extreme environments. These differences remain stable also during the deployment phase, such that teams operating in extreme environments will continue to have higher levels of teamwork as compared to teams operating in non-extreme environments.

Originality/value

With this study, the authors contribute to the teamwork quality research stream by empirically studying how teamwork quality develops in unique military contexts such as extreme environments. Studies in such contexts are relatively rare.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Peter G. Roma and Wendy L. Bedwell

To better understand contributing factors and mediating mechanisms related to team dynamics in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments.

Abstract

Purpose

To better understand contributing factors and mediating mechanisms related to team dynamics in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments.

Methodology/approach

Literature review.

Findings

Our primary focus is on cohesion and adaptation – two critical aspects of team performance in ICE environments that have received increased attention in both the literature and funding initiatives. We begin by describing the conditions that define ICE environments and review relevant individual biological, neuropsychiatric, and environmental factors that interact with team dynamics. We then outline a unifying team cohesion framework for long-duration missions and discuss several environmental, operational, organizational, and psychosocial factors that can impact team dynamics. Finally, we end with a discussion of directions for future research and countermeasure development, emphasizing the importance of temporal dynamics, multidisciplinary integration, and novel conceptual frameworks for the inherently mixed work and social setting of long-duration missions in ICE environments.

Social implications

A better understanding of team dynamics over time can contribute to success in a variety of organizational settings, including space exploration, defense and security, business, education, athletics, and social relationships.

Originality/value

We promote a multidisciplinary approach to team dynamics in ICE environments that incorporates dynamic biological, behavioral, psychological, and organizational factors over time.

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2022

Rabeh Morrar and Sofiane Baba

This paper focuses on social innovation dynamics in extreme contexts where institutional volatility is deeply rooted and enduring. In other words, the authors focus their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper focuses on social innovation dynamics in extreme contexts where institutional volatility is deeply rooted and enduring. In other words, the authors focus their discussion on the challenges that social innovators are facing in their endeavor of solving wicked social problems within an extreme institutional environment. This research is guided by the following question: How does an extreme institutional environment influence social innovation processes?

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research builds on the unique case of the Palestinian non-governmental organization (NGO) sector, a rarely studied context in organizational studies. The authors combine archival sources with 24 semi-structured interviews with Palestinian NGOs.

Findings

The authors theorize three barriers that hinder social innovation in such contexts: institutional trap, effectiveness trap and sustainability trap. The authors also theorize five mechanisms through which these barriers influence each other dynamically: mingling, surviving, undermining, binding and reinforcing. Taken together, these barriers and mechanisms shed light on social innovation processes taking place within extreme institutional environments.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is the methodological design, based on an extreme single case-study which, on a bunch of features, is quite unique in the world. The authors argue that the results are all the same transferable to other relatively similar contexts.

Practical implications

By theorizing the institutional barriers to social innovation in an extreme institutional context, the research thus sheds light on how social innovation could be sustained and stimulated in Palestine and other contexts that face similar institutional challenges.

Social implications

From an engaged scholarship perspective, studying Palestine cannot be more relevant than today considering the turmoil in which Palestinians are. The research thus provides a deeper understanding of organizational and institutional dynamics with crucial social repercussions.

Originality/value

The social innovation literature has overemphasized success stories to the detriment of the struggles that hinder social innovations in extreme institutional environments. By focusing on the barriers that social innovators experience in these contexts, the authors provide novel empirical insight. Furthermore, this study enriches the understanding of the institutional dynamics of social innovations by proposing a process model that elucidates how an extreme institutional context can influence social innovations.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 60 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Sofia Karlsson, Britt-Inger Saveman and Lina Gyllencreutz

The purpose of this paper is to examine emergency medical service (EMS) personnel’s perceptions and experiences of managing underground mining injury incidents.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine emergency medical service (EMS) personnel’s perceptions and experiences of managing underground mining injury incidents.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 13 EMS personnel were interviewed according to a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

Findings

An underground mining environment was described as unfamiliar and unsafe and, with no guidelines for operational actions in an extreme environment, such as underground mines, the EMS personnel were uncertain of their role. They therefore became passive and relied on the rescue service and mining company during a major incident. However, the medical care was not considered to be different from any other prehospital care, although a mining environment would make the situation more difficult and it would take longer for the mine workers to be placed under definitive care.

Originality/value

This study complements earlier studies by examining the EMS personnel’s perceptions and experiences of major incidents.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Kara A. Arnold, Catherine Loughlin and Megan M Walsh

– The purpose of this paper is to explore how male and female leaders define effective leadership in an extreme context.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how male and female leaders define effective leadership in an extreme context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted in-depth interviews with leaders working in an extreme context (a matched sample of female and male Majors and Colonels in the Canadian Armed Forces) and analysed military training materials.

Findings

In the military, male and female leadership looks much more similar than might be expected. Further, surprisingly this is not occurring because women are leading in more masculine ways, but rather the opposite; men are leading in more feminine ways.

Practical implications

There is a need for organizations to recognize and acknowledge the role of feminine leadership behaviours. This may also give women a better opportunity to succeed in these types of leadership roles.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the leadership literature by furthering our understanding of the boundary conditions for transformational leadership in relation to gender stereotypes, situational strength, and social identity.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Liang Du, Wei-Jun Zhang and Jian-Jun Yuan

This paper aims to present the design and experimental tests of an active circulating cooling system for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak in-vessel…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the design and experimental tests of an active circulating cooling system for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak in-vessel inspection manipulator, which will help the current manipulator prototype to achieve a full-scale in-vessel high temperature environment compatibility.

Design/methodology/approach

The high-temperature effects and heat transfer conditions of the manipulator under in-vessel environment were analyzed. An active circulating cooling system was designed and implemented on the manipulator prototype. A simulative in-vessel inspection task in a high temperature environment of 100°C was carried out to evaluate the performance of the active circulating cooling system.

Findings

The proposed active circulating cooling system was proved effective in helping the manipulator prototype to achieve its basic in-vessel inspection capability in a high temperature environment. The active circulating cooling system performance can be further improved considering the cooling structure coefficient differences in different manipulator parts.

Originality/value

For the first time, the active circulating cooling system was implemented and tested on a full-scale of the in-vessel inspection manipulator. The experimental data of the temperature distribution inside the manipulator and the operating status of the circulating system were helpful to evaluate the current active circulating cooling system design and provided effective guidance for improving the overall system performance.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Ioan Ursu, Daniela Enciu and Adrian Toader

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a recent project of complex tests on the survival of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology with piezo wafer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a recent project of complex tests on the survival of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology with piezo wafer active sensors (PWAS) and electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) at simulating the concomitant action of harsh conditions of outer space: extreme temperatures, radiations, vacuum.

Design/methodology/approach

The tests were conducted on PWAS, consists in adhesive and aluminium discs as structural specimens, with PWAS bonded on them. The substantiating of PWAS-EMIS-based SHM technique consists the fact that real part of the PWAS electromechanical impedance spectrum follows with fidelity the resonance behaviour of the structure vibrating under the PWAS excitation. This EMIS signature is very sensitive to any structural changes and, on this basis, can be monitored the onset and progress of structural damages such as fatigue, cracks, corrosion, etc.

Findings

The conclusion of the tests is that the cumulative impact of severe conditions of temperature, radiation and vacuum has not generated decommissioning of sensors or adhesive, which would have meant the compromise of the methodology. A second important outcome is linked to the capability of this methodology to distinguish between the damages of mechanical origin and the false ones, caused by environmental conditions, which are, basically, harmless.

Originality/value

The question of transfer of PWAS-EMIS-based SHM technology to space vehicles and applications received, as a novelty, a first and encouraging response.

Abstract

Details

Cabin Fever
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-355-0

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Hongjun Xing, Kerui Xia, Liang Ding, Haibo Gao, Guangjun Liu and Zongquan Deng

The purpose of this paper is to enable autonomous door-opening with unknown geometrical constraints. Door-opening is a common action needed for mobile manipulators to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enable autonomous door-opening with unknown geometrical constraints. Door-opening is a common action needed for mobile manipulators to perform rescue operation. However, it remains difficult for them to handle it in real rescue environments. The major difficulties of rescue manipulation involve contradiction between unknown geometrical constraints and limited sensors because of extreme physical constraints.

Design/methodology/approach

A method for estimating the unknown door geometrical parameters using coordinate transformation of the end-effector with visual teleoperation assists is proposed. A trajectory planning algorithm is developed using geometrical parameters from the proposed method.

Findings

The relevant experiments are also conducted using a manipulator suited to extreme physical constraints to open a real door with a locked latch and unknown geometrical parameters, which demonstrates the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach.

Originality/value

This is a novel method for estimating the unknown door geometrical parameters with coordinate transformation of the end-effector through visual teleoperation assists.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

David M. Penetar and Karl E. Friedl

Understanding how health status and physiological factors affect performance is a daunting task. This chapter will discuss physiological, behavioral, and psychological…

Abstract

Understanding how health status and physiological factors affect performance is a daunting task. This chapter will discuss physiological, behavioral, and psychological factors that influence or determine the capacity to fight, and will consider metrics that can be used to measure their status. The premise of this discussion is that there is a set of physiological and psychological factors that intimately affect performance and that the relative contribution of these variables is individually unique. These factors can be identified and assessed, and are amenable to modification. A fuller understanding of these variables can lead the effort to maintain and improve performance in the adverse and challenging environments of military operations.

Details

The Science and Simulation of Human Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-296-2

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