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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Davide Menozzi

Sustainability of the origin-based production and promotion system of a geographical indication (GI) depends on the remuneration from the market and the local resources…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainability of the origin-based production and promotion system of a geographical indication (GI) depends on the remuneration from the market and the local resources reproduction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the sustainability and the development of olive growing and extra-virgin olive oil production in the Emilia Provinces (northern Italy) using the origin-based quality virtuous circle as a conceptual framework.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 11 personal interviews and one focus group with six olive producers were conducted to assess the product potential and the willingness to set up rules for value creation and preservation of local resources. A survey of 100 extra-virgin olive oil consumers was performed to examine the product perception and consumers’ willingness to pay.

Findings

The origin-based quality virtuous circle was used as a conceptual framework to deal with the different aspects involved in the development and sustainability of the GI system. The results show that the value creation and preservation process of extra-virgin olive oil production in the Emilia Provinces has good potential, although many problems still exist, such as a lack of technical and agronomic expertise, and the lack of organisation among the producers. These weaknesses should be addressed to enhance the potential for sustainable development of the GI system.

Practical implications

The creation of a GI organisation, such as a Consortium, may play a central role in coordinating collective action, such as providing technical assistance, managing the internal rules and controls system along the supply chain, and the marketing and communication strategies.

Social implications

The future development of olive production, by reducing the risk of land abandonment, would contribute to landscape protection and improvement of the geological structure of the Emilia hilly areas, which are under serious threat of soil erosion and landslide events.

Originality/value

This study represents the first attempt to evaluate the economic and development potential of olive growing and extra-virgin olive oil production in non-specialised areas, using the origin-based quality virtuous circle as a conceptual framework.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Lucia Giansante, Giuseppina Di Loreto, Maria Gabriella Di Serio, Raffaella Vito and Luciana Di Giacinto

The purpose of this paper is to guide the choice of consumers, putting on the label an additional claim, which can provide more information on the sensory profile and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to guide the choice of consumers, putting on the label an additional claim, which can provide more information on the sensory profile and the nutritional and preservation features of the marketed extra virgin olive oil.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to define the concept of global quality, the following parameters were considered: fruity, bitter, pungency, 1-penten-3-one, phenolic substances, tocopherols, peroxide value, free acidity, palmitic acid, stearic acid oleic acid linoleic acid, and the campesterol/stigmasterol ratio. The study was carried out on 143 commercial extra virgin olive oils.

Findings

The Global Quality Index was calculated as the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual local indices, according to three different algorithms. The computation obtained was recognised by chemometric analysis.

Social implications

A legislative amendment on the labelling could be proposed through an additional claim that safeguards the consumers on the health profile, inducing them to a more targeted purchase.

Originality/value

Three different global quality levels “excellent”, “good”, and “sufficient” have been determined. This clustering has also been recognised with a statistical approach. Since in the market, consumers can find extra virgin olive oils of different overall quality levels, it is possible to guide the choice of customers through an additional claim on the label, able to give more information on the sensory profile and the nutritional and preservation features of the product.

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Rodrigo Romo Muñoz, Mario Lagos Moya and José M. Gil

Focused on the olive oil sector in Chile which is a non-traditional market (both in production and consumption), the purpose of this paper is to determine the implicit…

Abstract

Purpose

Focused on the olive oil sector in Chile which is a non-traditional market (both in production and consumption), the purpose of this paper is to determine the implicit value of the most relevant attributes of olive oil on the final price charged by supermarkets to consumers through the hedonic pricing methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

Field work was carried out between September and October 2012 in 12 supermarkets belonging to the four most important Chilean retail chains. A log-linear price-attribute function was used to estimate the hedonic price function. The sample included 248 observations olive oil prices available to consumers in the leading supermarkets in the city of Chillán (Chile).

Findings

The model estimation results led to the observation that the attributes that most positively influenced final price are oil acidity level, tin can container of imported oil, and origin. On the other hand, the attributes that most negatively influenced final consumer price are retailer house brand and plastic container.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study is associated with the geographic area where it was carried out, that is, the city of Chillán in the Bío-Bío Region, which is the second largest region and accounts for 12 per cent of the total population. Further research should include other cities such as Santiago (capital), Concepción, Curicó and Valparaíso.

Originality/value

This study can be considered as a first approximation of a hedonic pricing model estimation for olive oil in non-traditional markets like Chile, which is considered an emerging market.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Stathis Klonaris and Andromachi Agiangkatzoglou

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the competitiveness of the Greek virgin olive oil in the main destination markets (German, Italian, UK and US market).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the competitiveness of the Greek virgin olive oil in the main destination markets (German, Italian, UK and US market).

Design/methodology/approach

In order to achieve the aim, in the first stage the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA2) Index was employed showing that Greek virgin olive oil has a comparative advantage over the other suppliers (mainly Italy and Spain) in the markets under examination. In the second stage, the estimations of an import demand system for each market were estimated.

Findings

Results demonstrate clearly the competitive advantage of Greek virgin olive oil in the German market but not so clear in the rest of the markets. A strategic shift to export high-quality branded virgin olive oil instead of bulk seems necessity, in order the Greek virgin olive oil to dominate to the international markets.

Originality/value

Though there are similar works, especially for Spanish olive oil, there is no analogous research work for the Greek olive oil.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Samane Hatami, Ali Mohamadi Sani and Masoud Yavarmanesh

The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of original extra virgin olive oil in Iran on some food borne pathogens.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of original extra virgin olive oil in Iran on some food borne pathogens.

Design/methodology/approach

Microbial analysis tests including disk diffusion and detections of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were used. Also the chemical composition analysis of the oil was determined by GC-MS. Results of disk diffusion test confirmed antimicrobial activity for the oil in which S.aureus and E. coli were more resistant than L. innocua.

Findings

The MIC and MBC of organic extra virgin olive oil on the studied pathogens were in the range of 12.5-25 and 100 per cent v/v, respectively. The GC-MS analysis showed Z-9-Octadecenal (32.75 per cent), Oleic acid (15.78 per cent), Squalene (11.856 per cent), Phenol (8.392 per cent), Palmitic acid (1.884 per cent) as the main compounds (>0.7 per cent) in organic extra virgin olive oil, which have functional role in the biological activities.

Originality/value

This is the first study on organic extra virgin olive oil from Iran. According to the results, extra virgin olive oil has antimicrobial activity on foodborne pathogens.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Mouna Feki, Hédia Hannachi, Moez Bou Ali, Haytem Hamrouni, Elvira Romano, Boubaker Karray and Mohamed Hammami

The purpose of this paper is to build a class model to confirm the authenticity of olives from Bi'r al Malluli, Tunisian region, in order to obtain the Designation of Origin (DO).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to build a class model to confirm the authenticity of olives from Bi'r al Malluli, Tunisian region, in order to obtain the Designation of Origin (DO).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, ten orchards of Chemlali olive oil variety were chosen, in Sfax region, characterized by the same applied cultural techniques. Pomological characters of olives, fatty acids composition and organoleptic analysis of olive oil were conducted.

Findings

Results showed that the pomological characters were specific of the Chemlali variety: the olive weight ranged from 0.9 to 1.10 g in all studied orchards and the water content (WC) ranged from 41.45 to 57.68 per cent. All analysed oils showed good fatty acids balance. Chemlali olive oil contains high amounts of oleic acid and a smaller amount of linoleic acid. The oleic acid content ranged from 57.96 to 63.52 per cent according to the orchards. All oils having oleic acid higher than 55 per cent are categorized as extra virgin olive oil based on International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) Norma. Based on the organoleptic analysis, all the analysed oils were classified as an extra virgin olive oil. The principal component analysis applied separately on olive characters and fatty acids contents do not indicate any group's structure.

Originality/value

An objective approach based on pomologic, sensory and acidic composition analyses would be used to delimitate Protected Designation of Origin (PDOs) in olive oil from the Bi'r al Malluli area and better protect their markets.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Carla Marano Marcolini, Manuel Parras Rosa and Esther Lopez-Zafra

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the labeling and denominations of olive oils and to examine to what extent these factors confuse consumers. Specifically, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the labeling and denominations of olive oils and to examine to what extent these factors confuse consumers. Specifically, the authors analyze the extent to which the different denominations of olive oil prevent consumers from distinguishing among the types of olive oil. Furthermore, the authors analyze whether the current generic names of olive oil affect consumer perceptions regarding the product’s various qualities and characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed an experiment with 128 participants divided into two groups (experimental n=64 and control n=64). In the pretest, participants completed a survey with 12 terms related to olive oil. The experimental group was then trained in the meaning of each term, after which the group returned to complete the same survey.

Findings

The authors can confirm H1 and H2. Results show that there is no clear knowledge regarding some of these terms.

Social implications

This study provides positive implications to both consumers, providing them a clear information, and producers and marketers, helping distinguish in the market olive oils of more quality.

Originality/value

This paper is pioneer in the literature. The authors provide a number of proposals and amendments regarding olive oil names to improve the knowledge and clarity of olive oil with direct implications for agricultural policy.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Giuseppe Di Vita, Raffaele Zanchini, Giovanni Gulisano, Teresina Mancuso, Gaetano Chinnici and Mario D'Amico

Urban metropolitan consumers react to the different qualitative categorizations of the product thus creating homogeneous market segments. The aim of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Urban metropolitan consumers react to the different qualitative categorizations of the product thus creating homogeneous market segments. The aim of this paper is to identify specific market segments which allow for the definition of homogeneous olive oil consumer targets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was based on the stated preferences of consumers and emphasizes the role that different quality scales of olive oil have in the eye of the consumer. The data, collected through a questionnaire, were analysed by means of inferential and multivariate statistics techniques, that is, the study specifically entailed a factorial and cluster analysis.

Findings

This paper explores olive oil market segments broken down by the different quality levels of existing products, thus trying to identify main consumer preferences. Our outcomes suggest the existence of three main quality classes of olive oil consumer: basic, popular and premium.

Research limitations/implications

Even though we gathered data and information from a broad sample, the study does not fully reflect the average Italian population since we based our study on a convenience sample of northern Italian consumers. A more extended sample is needed to test our hypothesis in other regional areas.

Practical implications

The outcomes derived from this study provide useful insights both for marketers and olive oil producers by allowing more efficient strategic decisions in terms of product segmentation.

Originality/value

This study, aimed at matching olive oil market segments and consumer preferences, shows the existence of three well-defined quality classes of olive oil consumer: basic, popular and premium. In addition, this study ascertains for the first time how the attitude towards local products is positively influenced by family origin as a result of an inter-generational attitude.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Idiano D’Adamo, Pasquale Marcello Falcone and Massimo Gastaldi

The price of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is highly subjected to variability. In this way, the consumer is not able to perceive a price of reference. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The price of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is highly subjected to variability. In this way, the consumer is not able to perceive a price of reference. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this topic, trying to define a range suitable for the selling of EVOO.

Design/methodology/approach

A mathematical model is applied to the three price levels (i.e. production, intermediate and selling). It studies the relationship among main variables: purchase cost of olives, the production cost of olive oil, the yield of olives obtained by the technological process and the profit margin. To define the input data, 25 producers of olives and 25 owners of olive oil mills are involved.

Findings

The production of EVOO depends strictly on the production of olives, which typically is subdivided in a year of “high production” and in a year of “low production.” The price of EVOO is subjected to a great variability; however, it is possible to propose a range that varies from €7.0 per liter to €8.7 per liter.

Research limitations/implications

The level of acidity influences significantly the quality of olive oil, and this model has the limit to not analyze the variation of the price in function of this parameter.

Originality/value

This study is the first to propose a pricing model to evaluate EVOO. The literature section supports this assumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Sara Spognardi, Domenico Vistocco, Lucio Cappelli and Patrizia Papetti

Investigate the behaviour and the habits of the consumers from central-southern Italy in relation to extra olive oil consumption, focussing on the impact of protected…

Abstract

Purpose

Investigate the behaviour and the habits of the consumers from central-southern Italy in relation to extra olive oil consumption, focussing on the impact of protected designation of origin (PDO) and EU–organic certification on purchase intention and quality perception.

Design/methodology/approach

A specific questionnaire was submitted to 160 consumers; a subsample of ten experts, ten semi-experts and ten habitual consumers of olive oil tested, through a blind test first and a normal one then, three Italian samples: an extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) without certification, an organic EVOO and a PDO EVOO, which were characterised also from a chemical-physical point of view. The answers provided during the tastings were statistically analysed and compared.

Findings

People interviewed prefer local olive oils; they are positively influenced by PDO/organic certification, while price is not a decisive factor on the purchasing choices. According to tasting panel results: experts gave consistent answers preferring organic olive oil, semi-experts are positively influenced by the PDO brand contrary to what they claimed; non-experts would buy EVOO, although they are positively influenced by the PDO brand and negatively by the organic certification.

Practical implications

Only knowledge and experience can aid consumers make consistent and aware choices. Information campaigns could help them to distinguish products, correctly identify food attributes and overcome their scepticism towards quality of organic products.

Originality/value

Few works investigated the impact of quality and sustainability labelling on perception of olive oils, valuing the consistency between answers provided before and after sensory assessments.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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