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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Dae‐seok Kang, Jeff Gold and Daewon Kim

This paper aims to focus on a career perspective to investigate the association between employee experience of job insecurity and work‐related behaviors, specifically…

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3467

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on a career perspective to investigate the association between employee experience of job insecurity and work‐related behaviors, specifically discretionary extra‐role and impression management behaviors. A second purpose is to analyze the interaction effect of perceived employability and job insecurity on extra‐role and impression management behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 207 supervisor‐subordinate dyads in Korean banking and financial institutions, the relationships between job insecurity and extra‐role or impression management as two career behaviors are tested. The interaction effects of employability and job insecurity on behavioral options are also tested.

Findings

The results showed that the perception of job insecurity led to both reduced extra‐role and impression management behavior and the intensity of withdrawal increased as employability increased.

Research limitations/implications

The findings provide a fundamental new insight into how a careerist orientation functions in the age of job insecurity.

Practical implications

Extra‐role and impression management behaviors may be an individual's method of career management, especially in the context of job insecurity, allowing managers to capture a more dynamic picture of an individual's career choice in a new employment relationship.

Originality/value

The paper adopts a career perspective in investigating employee extra‐role and impression management behaviors under conditions of declining job security. It adds further value by showing the moderating effect of employability on such behaviors.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Michael Mustafa, Hazel Melanie Ramos and Thomas Wing Yan Man

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of psychological ownership (both job and organisational based) on extra-role behaviours among family and non-family…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of psychological ownership (both job and organisational based) on extra-role behaviours among family and non-family employees in small overseas Chinese family businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical evidence was drawn from a survey of 80 family owners/managers and non-family employees from 40 small overseas Chinese family businesses from the transport industry in Malaysia. All proposed hypothesis were tested using hierarchical moderated regression analyses.

Findings

Job-based psychological ownership was found to significantly predict both types of extra-role behaviours. Organisational-based psychological ownership, however, was only a significant predictor of voice extra-role behaviour. Interestingly enough, no significant moderating effects on the relationships between the two dimensions of psychological ownership and two types of extra-role behaviour were found.

Originality/value

Having a dedicated workforce of both family and non-family employees who are willing to display extra-role behaviours may be considered as an essential component of business success and long-term continuity for many family firms around the world. This particular paper represents one of the few empirical efforts to examine the extra-role behaviours of employees in family firms from emerging economies.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Xiaoyu Wang, Hean Tat Keh and Li Yan

Frontline employees (FLEs) play a pivotal role in service delivery. Beyond their expected in-role behaviors, FLEs often have to perform extra-role behaviors such as…

Abstract

Purpose

Frontline employees (FLEs) play a pivotal role in service delivery. Beyond their expected in-role behaviors, FLEs often have to perform extra-role behaviors such as providing additional help to customers. The purpose of this study is to investigate how customers’ power distance belief (PDB) influences their perceptions of FLEs’ warmth and competence when FLEs perform extra-role helping behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses. The first three experiments used a one factor two-level (PDB: low vs high) between-participants design. The fourth one used a 2 (PDB: low vs high) × 2 (firm reputation: low vs high) between-participants design.

Findings

The results indicate that, compared to high-PDB customers, low-PDB customers perceive greater warmth in FLEs’ extra-role helping behaviors but no significant difference in FLEs’ perceived competence. Importantly, these effects are mediated by customer gratitude. Moreover, these effects are moderated by firm reputation such that customers’ perceptions of FLEs’ warmth and competence are both enhanced when the firm has a favorable reputation.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the study is the first to identify the differential effects of PDB on customer perceptions of FLEs’ warmth and competence in the context of FLEs’ extra-role helping behaviors and to reveal the mediating role of gratitude. These findings contribute to the literatures on FLEs’ extra-role behaviors and social perceptions of both warmth and competence.

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Jason Stoner, Pamela L. Perrewé and Timothy P. Munyon

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that discerns when and how extra role behaviors result in positive versus negative outcomes for individuals and…

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3381

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that discerns when and how extra role behaviors result in positive versus negative outcomes for individuals and organizations. The focus is on how employees' citizenship identities shape extra‐role behaviors which include both organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and contextual performance behaviors (CPBs).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses role identity theory as the theoretical lens to develop the model of extra‐role behaviors, distinguishing between OCBs and CPBs.

Findings

While extra‐role behaviors are generally associated with positive organizational functioning, these behaviors also have been linked to negative individual outcomes, such as work‐family conflict, role overload, and reduced task performance. Based on previous research and theory, a conceptual model is developed that explains when extra‐role behaviors will occur, when and why these behaviors will be internalized as an identity, and how identities affect whether employees engage in OCBs or CPBs. Further, the paper examines the influence of these extra‐role behaviors on long term positive and negative outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The main research implication of this paper is the use of role identity theory to further understanding of the nature of extra‐role behaviors.

Originality/value

The paper aims to offer a comprehensive theoretically based model to explain OCBs and incorporates research conducted to date to develop the model.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2019

Marcel Paulssen, Johanna Brunneder and Angela Sommerfeld

Prior research does not provide a clear picture of how managers can effectively manage customer in-role and extra-role behaviours in a retail setting. This study aims to…

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1012

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research does not provide a clear picture of how managers can effectively manage customer in-role and extra-role behaviours in a retail setting. This study aims to test the differential impact of the two main customer relationship predictor paths – identity-based and satisfaction-based paths – on customer in-role and extra-role behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

A random sample of 500 customers from the flagship store of an up-market, international department store chain participated in a written survey. Purchase spending data for each customer was obtained from the retailer’s loyalty card database.

Findings

The two studied predictor paths possess a differential impact on customer extra-role behaviours. Civic virtue and co-creation behaviours are exclusively driven by the identity-based path, whereas sportsmanship is driven solely by the satisfaction-based path. Moreover, the identity-based path impacts purchase behaviour only when symbolic purchase motivation is high. Overall satisfaction has no impact on purchase behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

In some retailing contexts, extra-role behaviours such as co-creation or civic virtue might simply be irrelevant (e.g. discount chains).

Practical implications

Managers, who have the intention to stimulate customers to give constructive feedback on products or services, or to involve them in co-creation activities, are well advised to also invest in identity-based path activities.

Originality/value

This study is the first to empirically test the effects of customer identification and overall customer satisfaction on the various dimensions of customer in-role and extra-role behaviours. Customer extra-role behaviours should not be conceptualised as one global construct but should comprise distinct dimensions of discretionary behaviours that have different antecedents.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2009

Melody L. Wollan, Mary F. Sully de Luque and Marko Grunhagen

This paper suggests that motives for engaging in affiliative‐promotive “helping” extra‐role behavior is related to cross‐cultural differences. The cultural dimensions of…

Abstract

This paper suggests that motives for engaging in affiliative‐promotive “helping” extra‐role behavior is related to cross‐cultural differences. The cultural dimensions of in‐group collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, performance orientation, and humane orientation, and their differential effect on helping extra‐role behavior in a diverse workforce are examined. Theoretical implications provide guidance for future empirical research in this area, and provide managers with more realistic expectations of employee performance in the workplace.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Anugamini Priya Srivastava, Vimal Babu and Swati Krutarth Shetye

The purpose of this paper is to show the relevance of teachers’ extra role behaviour towards improving students’ learning efficacy status. This study examines the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show the relevance of teachers’ extra role behaviour towards improving students’ learning efficacy status. This study examines the intervening role of art-based teaching pedagogies, i.e. involvement of different forms of art during the traditional teaching session between extra role behaviour and students’ learning efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

The statistical test results showed that teachers’ extra role behaviour is significant for improving and strengthening students’ learning efficacy. Further, the moderation analysis showed that if art is integrated with teachers’ extra role behaviour, the effect on learning efficacy of students will increase. Art-based teaching pedagogies suggest involvement of art in teaching practices. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the direct effect of extra role behaviour on students’ learning efficacy with the intervening role of art-based teaching pedagogies.

Findings

Results indicated a linear effect of teachers’ extra role behaviour on students’ learning efficacy and that art-based teaching pedagogies had an indirect effect (mediation) on students’ learning efficacy.

Originality/value

The study will bridge the gap between academic initiatives taken and its overall implementation in primary and secondary schools.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Jo En Yap, Liliana L. Bove and Michael B. Beverland

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of different reward programs on in‐role and extra‐role behaviour; and to investigate whether specific reward programs…

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5475

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of different reward programs on in‐role and extra‐role behaviour; and to investigate whether specific reward programs can be designed to enhance both in‐role and extra‐role behaviour simultaneously.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi‐structured in‐depth interviews were conducted on a total of 11 employees from four different fashion retail outlets. Informants consisted of employees from different positions within these organizations (i.e. store manager, assistant store manager and sales associates) to provide researchers with possibly differing viewpoints. Interviews were content analysed and classified, according to emerging themes.

Findings

Certain reward programs, namely individual and group financial incentives motivated sales associates to engage in both in‐role and extra‐role behaviour simultaneously. Further, compared to formal recognition programs, informal reward programs (individual financial incentives, individual social recognition and group social recognition) appeared to be more effective in motivating sales associates to enhance their in‐role and extra‐role performance.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a better understanding of the effects of different reward programs and their administration on in‐role and extra‐role performance of retail sales associates.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Elisa Rescalvo-Martin, Leopoldo Gutierrez-Gutierrez and Francisco Javier Llorens-Montes

This study aims to examine the influence of paradoxical leadership (PLSH) on the extra-role service behavior of frontline employees. It analyzes not only direct but also…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the influence of paradoxical leadership (PLSH) on the extra-role service behavior of frontline employees. It analyzes not only direct but also indirect influence through mechanisms that improve the learning (self-improvement) and communication (voice) capabilities of hospitality employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered through structured questionnaires administered to a sample of frontline employees from Spanish hotels. A structural equations model was used to evaluate the theoretical model proposed.

Findings

The results show both a direct positive effect of PLSH on extra-role service and a mediating effect of employees’ improvement-oriented behaviors on this relationship. These results support the idea that employees under paradoxical leaders seek both self-improvement and organizational improvement through their voice to provide guests with excellent service.

Research limitations/implications

The findings extend understanding of PLSH’s effects on the hospitality industry through its impact on extra-role service, an essential element of hotel success.

Originality/value

This study addresses the lack of research on hospitality leadership by analyzing the effects of PLSH on employees’ communication and learning behaviors, as well as on their extra-role service. The authors argue that some behaviors that help hotels compete (e.g. extra-role service) can have paradoxical implications for employees.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Yang Lei, Qiang Zhou, Jifan Ren and Xiling Cui

This study aims to examine how job satisfaction (JS) affects two types of knowledge sharing (KS), in-role KS and extra-role KS. It also investigates the mediating effect…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how job satisfaction (JS) affects two types of knowledge sharing (KS), in-role KS and extra-role KS. It also investigates the mediating effect of knowledge sharing self-efficacy (KSSE) and the moderating effect of team collaborative culture (TCC) between JS and two types of KS.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies attribution theory to develop a cross-level model and validate it through paired data collected from 322 information technology professionals nested within 80 teams. Hierarchical linear modeling is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

JS positively influences in-role and extra-role KS via KSSE and TCC positively moderates the relationship between JS and extra-role KS.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to investigate the mechanism underlying the influence of JS on two types of KS. It also identifies the mediating and moderating effects of this mechanism.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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