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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Oscar Dousin and Rini Suryati Sulong

In the study of expatriation and expatriate adaptation, there are limited studies that focus on issues faced by expatriates working in foreign countries with very distinct…

Abstract

Purpose

In the study of expatriation and expatriate adaptation, there are limited studies that focus on issues faced by expatriates working in foreign countries with very distinct cultures. This study aims to explore this idea through the experiences of western expatriates working in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Two research questions were posed to examine the cross-cultural issues and challenges faced by expatriates in the KSA, as well as the role of cross-cultural training in expatriate adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was guided by an interpretivism paradigm through a qualitative method by using a semi-structured in-depth interview approach. Interviews were conducted among 12 expatriates from the USA and UK who are currently working in KSA.

Findings

A coding technique and theoretical thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data. The results of this study highlighted three key themes that had a considerable influence on expatriates’ adjustment, in particular: culture shock, lack of pre-departure training and the demand for an extensive cross-cultural training.

Research limitations/implications

It is acknowledged that the existence of sub-cultures within the KSA would expose the respondents to varying cultural values within the community. Thus, future studies within a similar context should consider the influence of intra-cultural variations.

Originality/value

The findings of the study emphasized on the importance understanding the cultural gap between home and host country and the individual cultural awareness of the expatriate. It calls attention to the need for a tailored and extensive pre-departure, cross-cultural training and a collaborative effort between employees’ and managers to improve expatriates’ motivation and retention.

Details

Rajagiri Management Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-9968

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

G.D. Moss

Describes the training model employed to train trainers for the UK‐based ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) programme. A questionnaire evaluation of the course reveals…

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Abstract

Describes the training model employed to train trainers for the UK‐based ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) programme. A questionnaire evaluation of the course reveals the effectiveness of the training model when compared to other training provision in postgraduate medical education. The course is seen to be very effective in raising the confidence of instructors who have little previous training in instructional methods. Identifies and discusses the successful characteristics of the course which include a high tutor:student ratio, extensive use of interactive learning strategies, continuous assessment, a focus on problem‐based learning and the use of self and peer group critiquing strategies.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1996

David Walters

Discusses research into provisions for education and training in health and safety offered by trade unions in a number of European countries. Uses material gathered in the…

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2548

Abstract

Discusses research into provisions for education and training in health and safety offered by trade unions in a number of European countries. Uses material gathered in the survey to consider the role of trade union training in health and safety and its contribution to the operation of participative management of health and safety at the workplace level. Discusses the significance of employee representation in health and safety regulation and examines the support provided by trade union training in the context of factors that influence its effectiveness. Several specific aspects of trade union training are identified as characteristic. Other aspects of trade union health and safety education that contribute to the overall support and proactive role of trade unions in preventative health and safety are identified and discussed. Trade unions make extensive provision for education and training in occupational health and safety. This is a significant factor in raising awareness of health and safety issues and the development of a preventive health and safety ethos in all of the countries included in the study. Argues that it is possible to identify a common pedagogy in trade union education and training in occupational health and safety. This pedagogy is rooted in the educational methods of labour education, emphasizing the value of participants’ own experience and developing a collective approach to the definition and solution of problems, while encouraging listening and communication skills in this process. Shows that although trade unions have suffered a loss of influence and power across Europe during the past decade ‐ and in some countries their losses have been severe ‐ in the case of education and training in health and safety, generally trade unions have maintained a significant provision as well as continuing to develop an innovative and dynamic approach to its content and delivery.

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Employee Relations, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2005

Bruce C. Hungerford and Michael A. Eierman

The Unified Modeling Language has become an alternative to traditional modeling languages such as data flow diagrams for use in systems analysis. A modeling language is…

Abstract

The Unified Modeling Language has become an alternative to traditional modeling languages such as data flow diagrams for use in systems analysis. A modeling language is used to represent an information system so that analysts can use the model to make decisions about the design of the system and to communicate with stakeholders about the system. This study examines the comparative effectiveness of the UML and traditional modeling languages in communicating information about a system design. The study examines this on three types of individuals: individuals with no knowledge of either modeling language, individuals with no knowledge of either language that were provided training in one of the languages, and individuals that have had more extensive training in one of the languages. The study finds that there is no difference in the ability to communicate system design information between the languages for the first two types of individuals. However, the study finds that, for more extensively trained individuals, systems modeled with the UML are better able to communicate information about the data in the system while systems modeled with traditional languages are better able to communicate information about the process used by the system.

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American Journal of Business, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

Robert Youker

A large amount of resources are spent each year on management training for Sub‐Saharan Africa. For example, in fiscal years 1984 and 1985, the World Bank alone committed…

Abstract

A large amount of resources are spent each year on management training for Sub‐Saharan Africa. For example, in fiscal years 1984 and 1985, the World Bank alone committed an average of US$25 million per year for management training. The overall figure, combining all countries and donors, would be much higher. Worldwide, the Bank committed US$240 million for all types of training in 1985. These funds are used for fellowships, hardware, local training, study tours and expatriate experts. Training in the developing world is big business and the effectiveness of that training in improving organisational performance is important. The efficiency and effectiveness of management training is important for reasons beyond simple return on these large investments.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Gregory B. Morrison

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of police departments and instructors regarding academy‐based pre‐service firearm and deadly force training.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine perceptions of police departments and instructors regarding academy‐based pre‐service firearm and deadly force training.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys of department‐based instructors (n=175) and state and local police departments (n=116) in Washington State provided ratings and other data on pre‐service academy training and included department‐based training provided before and/or after attending the academy.

Findings

The paper found academy graduates' skills generally were rated as adequate. Ratings for tactics and decision making were lower, and many departments noted that these areas needed more attention. Some departments also provided extensive post‐academy training before allowing their new officers to work armed. Nevertheless, many departments used BLEA's handgun qualification course‐of‐fire for in‐service requalification and, in some cases, training.

Research limitations

The research setting was one state and the study focused on firearm and deadly force training.

Practical limitations/implications

The paper shows pre‐service firearm and deadly force training is crucial for officer and public safety at the outset of officers' employment. It also lays the foundation for department in‐service training. Because departments exercise considerable latitude over the content, techniques and instructional methods of their own programs, the nature and extent of academy training has implications for officers' skills and abilities in the long term, too.

Originality/value

This paper shows prior research has concentrated on the perceptions of academy graduates and the full spectrum job tasks associated with policing and/or taking their certification examinations. It provides detailed insights into a specific training job‐task area, as well as from important stakeholders such as departments and their instructors, not previously available.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2019

Tor Söderström, Carina Lindgren and Gregory Neely

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the practical knowing that is central in police education. Drawing on perspectives about tacit knowledge and embodied learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the practical knowing that is central in police education. Drawing on perspectives about tacit knowledge and embodied learning (e.g. Merleau-Ponty, 1945/1997; Polanyi, 1966; Argyris and Schön, 1974) as well as empirical examples, this paper discusses the design of and what can be expected from computer simulation training for the development of police students’ professional knowing.

Design/methodology/approach

The discussion is based on lessons learned from working with two different computer simulation training situations designed to prepare the students for an upcoming practical training by facilitating the understanding of complex situations as they should be handled in the physical training situation.

Findings

The experiences from the training sessions showed that the different characteristics of the simulations mediate how the training session was performed, e.g., unplanned trial and error vs focused and attentive, but also group discussions about how to act and appropriate actions in relation to the situation to be solved in the simulation.

Originality/value

Based on the lessons learned from working with the two different computer simulations, it is posited that the use of computer simulations for practical scenario training is a complex endeavor that needs, in various degrees, to be supported by pedagogical steering. The design of computer simulation training (both the simulation and how the training is designed and performed) need to consider the specific aspects that surround tacit knowledge and embodied learning in the “real sense” (anchored to the practical training) to be of relevance for police students development of professional knowing.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Mansoor Ahmad, Matthew M.C. Allen, Muhammad Mustafa Raziq and Wali ur Rehman

Existing work on convergence/divergence among HRM practices in MNCs and local firms mainly focuses on Europe and the USA. Limited research examines these organizations in…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing work on convergence/divergence among HRM practices in MNCs and local firms mainly focuses on Europe and the USA. Limited research examines these organizations in Pakistan, hindering our understanding of what policies MNCs are likely to adopt there as well as the extent of any differences between HRM in MNC subsidiaries and local firms. The purpose of this paper is to examine the similarities and differences between the HRM practices of MNC subsidiaries and domestic firms to assess if there is evidence for convergence or divergence.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors targeted MNC subsidiaries and domestically owned firms working in the banking, information technology and pharmaceutical sectors in Pakistan. These sectors have enjoyed a steady inflow of foreign direct investment and have a sizeable number of MNC subsidiaries. Out of 1,081 companies, some 392 participated in a face-to-face survey (response rate of 36.4 percent). The authors ran a series of binary logistic regression models to test the hypothesized relationships between HR practices and nationality of ownership.

Findings

The authors reveal that a small minority of both types of firm use some practices, such as high compensation contingent on performance and performance review, appraisal and career development. However, domestic firms use some practices, such as extensive training, performance appraisals and performance-related pay significantly less than their multinational counterparts. The authors argue that these differences reflect institutional influences in Pakistan as well as a potential opportunity for local firms to change their HRM practices. In other areas, such as recruitment and employee involvement, there are no differences between the two groups.

Originality/value

The authors deepen our understanding of the types of HR practices that local companies in an emerging economy are likely to adopt as well as those that they are unlikely to adopt. Existing research has tended to downplay HRM in Pakistan and the different use of individual HRM practices among MNC subsidiaries and local firms. This research reveals that some companies in Pakistan have sophisticated HRM practices in place in some areas; however, MNC subsidiaries make greater use of some HR practices, reflecting different cultural norms between the two groups.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1992

Bert de Vries and John Warmerdam

Focuses on how to fit on‐the‐job training activities into theorganization of work, a problem area which will be gaining importanceover the next few years when the training

Abstract

Focuses on how to fit on‐the‐job training activities into the organization of work, a problem area which will be gaining importance over the next few years when the training load may become an important bottleneck when training policy is implemented. Investigates what reactions actually are to this fitting‐in problem, using an ITS study as a starting‐point which shows that a whole range of instruments are employed at management level to prevent or meet capacity problems: regulation of training moments, planning of training periods, spreading or limiting study leave, enlarging individual and departmental flexibility, limitation of the output (quality) and, if none of these things help, employing outside staff. The choice of instrument is mainly determined by: nature and organization of the work done in the department; the size of the workload; and the extent to which leave cumulates. If these instruments are applied adequately, the “burdens” of training do not necessarily have to slow down further growth in training.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 16 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1972

JOHN WELLENS

From analysis to training materials The movement of the sixties We have examined the analytical movement in training from its beginnings in the 1940s and noted that it was…

Abstract

From analysis to training materials The movement of the sixties We have examined the analytical movement in training from its beginnings in the 1940s and noted that it was based on the work study approach of breaking down the task into its elements. Within this system, training is based on these elements and we have also noted that this normally calls for the use of special training devices which, in turn, requires an off‐the‐job training situation, because the training equipment differs considerably from the production equipment.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 4 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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