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This study attempts to identify and analyze the pragmatic functions of religious expressions, that is, invocations that include the name of Allah (God), in naturally…
This study attempts to identify and analyze the pragmatic functions of religious expressions, that is, invocations that include the name of Allah (God), in naturally occurring social interactions in Najdi Arabic, which is spoken in Central Saudi Arabia.
Drawing on the speech act theory and politeness model, an analysis of the data illustrates that religious expressions, in addition to their prototypical religious meanings and uses in everyday interactions, are employed to communicate a wide range of pragmatic functions.
These include signaling the end of a conversation, persuading, mitigating and hedging, showing agreement and approval, reinforcing emphasis, expressing emotions, seeking protection from the evil eye, conveying skepticism and ambiguity, expressing humor and sarcasm, and showing respect and honor. The embedded multifunctional dimension of religious expressions in the present data is interpreted as serving as a politeness marker with which speakers promote both positive politeness (by showing solidarity, claiming common grounds, and building rapport) and negative politeness (by reducing imposition and emphasizing personal autonomy).
This study further highlights the interplay between religion, culture, and language use in Najdi Arabic.
Research in industrial and organizational psychology demonstrates that the regulation of negative emotions in response to both organizational stressors and interpersonal…
Research in industrial and organizational psychology demonstrates that the regulation of negative emotions in response to both organizational stressors and interpersonal workplace interactions can result in functional and dysfunctional outcomes (Côté, 2005; Diefendorff, Richard, & Yang, 2008). Research on the regulation of negative emotions has additionally been conducted in social psychology, developmental psychology, neuropsychology, health psychology, and clinical psychology. A close reading of this broader literature, however, reveals that the conceptualization and use of the term “emotion regulation” varies within each research field as well as across these fields. The main focus of our chapter is to make sense of the term “emotion regulation” in the workplace by considering its use across a broad range of psychology disciplines. We then develop an overarching theoretical framework using disambiguating terminology to highlight what we argue are the important constructs involved in the process of intrapersonal emotion generation, emotional experience regulation, and emotional expression regulation in the workplace (e.g., emotional intelligence, emotion regulation strategies, emotion expression displays). We anticipate this chapter will enable researchers and industrial and organizational psychologists to identify the conditions under which functional regulation outcomes are more likely to occur and then build interventions around these findings.
Theorists, such as Darwin and Aristotle, have long argued that facial expressions communicate information about a person's emotional state. Recently, validated coding…
Theorists, such as Darwin and Aristotle, have long argued that facial expressions communicate information about a person's emotional state. Recently, validated coding strategies for facial expressions have been developed, which enable researchers to reliably assess a person's affect. Although social, health, and clinical psychologists have regularly employed these objective measures of facial expressions (OMFE), occupational stress and well-being researchers are yet to benefit from this method. The subsequent chapter integrates the facial expression and occupational well-being literature. Specifically, we discuss the advantages of OMFE over self-reports and implications of OMFE for future research on occupational well-being.
Despite the absence of federal legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender identity and expression, many companies have adopted such policies in recent…
Despite the absence of federal legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender identity and expression, many companies have adopted such policies in recent years. We examine the impact of several contextual factors thought to influence gender identity and expression nondiscrimination policy adoption among Fortune 500 firms from 1997 to 2007. Our findings suggest that city and state laws likely influence policy adoption, as do federal case rulings regarding gender nonconformity and the adoption of similar policies by companies in the same industry. We found little evidence that companies respond to state or city executive orders or to media coverage of gender identity issues in the workplace.
In this chapter, I explicate the engagement of poetic expression as research analysis to understand more deeply and to represent more rigorously the experience of research…
In this chapter, I explicate the engagement of poetic expression as research analysis to understand more deeply and to represent more rigorously the experience of research participants within educational research. As a tool of analysis, poetry has the strength to disrupt expectations and invite multiple interpretations of research. Here, I articulate a methodology for engaging poetic expression fully as a tool of narrative research to reach beyond textual analysis and representation of participants’ conversations into a deeper expression of their stories to live by. Poetic expression of narrative research is the particular emphasized, which is to say that meaning-making facilitated by poetic expression relies on a consistent and minute focus on the particular. Through poetic expression of research, thoroughly member-checked by participants, I surface and make evident my position as a researcher within the research. This chapter identifies ways in which poetic expression of research invites voice on multiple levels. The poetic expression of research within a narrative inquiry makes visible the experience of the research as an unfolding experience itself for the participant, the researcher, and the reader. I demonstrate the ways in which infusing a narrative inquiry with the poetic expression of research provokes the researcher as well as the reader to draw deeply on personal experience to make sense of the research. Furthermore, poetic expression of research invites participation from readers to engage poetically with the research and become a subsequent co-participant/researcher as they make sense, themselves, of the poetic expressions of research.
The study explores the antecedent and consequences of sales employees' authenticity of emotional expression during customer interactions. Based on a survey of 468 medical…
The study explores the antecedent and consequences of sales employees' authenticity of emotional expression during customer interactions. Based on a survey of 468 medical sales representatives (MSRs) in India, the study found a significant effect of authenticity of emotional expression on employees' well-being and turnover intention. Organizational identification was found to be an antecedent of authenticity of emotional expression. The mediation effect of authenticity of emotional expression in explaining the relationship between organizational identification and well-being was supported. However, contrary to the hypothesis, the study found no mediation effect of authenticity of emotional expression on the relationship between organizational identification and turnover intention. The study addresses an important yet neglected issue: how authenticity might meaningfully contribute to the advancement of theory and practice in business.
This chapter focuses on whether perceived emotional intensity and help need is possible to discriminate in expressions of fear and neutrality in brief authentic emergency…
This chapter focuses on whether perceived emotional intensity and help need is possible to discriminate in expressions of fear and neutrality in brief authentic emergency calls. Extraction of acoustic parameters of fear and neutrality was done prior to letting participants listen to a low-pass-filtered stimuli set. Participants discriminated fear and neutrality in both the intensity and help need condition. In turn, judged intensity and judged help need correlated strongly, with partial correlations indicating that participants use acoustically measured intensity (mean dB) as information to infer the intensity/help need relationship. We also discuss the implications of emotional expression in the call centre domain.
Purpose – This chapter discusses the role of emotion expression in decision-making. To understand connections between emotion and decision it is helpful first to…
Purpose – This chapter discusses the role of emotion expression in decision-making. To understand connections between emotion and decision it is helpful first to differentiate between emotion experience and emotion expression. Understanding how emotion expression influences decision-making is important as a practical matter. However, in contrast to emotion experience, economic research has paid little attention to the significance of emotion expression in decision-making.
Approach – I review recent studies on emotion expression, paying specific attention to possible connections between emotion expression, punishment, fair economic exchange, and well-being.
Practical implications – In contrast to emotions, which are typically difficult to control, I suggest that opportunities for emotion expression can feasibly be manipulated through appropriately designed policies. I further suggest that this approach may have the ability to positively affect well-being and economic outcomes.
Value of the chapter – The chapter provides new perspectives on how policy-makers can benefit by understanding the effect of emotion expression in decision-making. The chapter also suggests future research to improve our understanding of emotion expression.
This study extends prior cross-cultural research by examining the effects of both cultural and noncultural factors on the judgments of professional accountants. It…
This study extends prior cross-cultural research by examining the effects of both cultural and noncultural factors on the judgments of professional accountants. It examines the extent and the cause of differences in judgments of professional accountants in Australia and Fiji when interpreting and applying selected International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). A comparative study between these two countries, which have both adopted IFRS, provides empirical evidence that IFRS are not interpreted and applied consistently. It supports the views that: (a) both national culture and organizational culture (Big 4 and non-Big 4 firm affiliations) have a significant effect on the manner in which professional accountants in a country interpret uncertainty expressions contained in IFRS; and (b) national culture and organizational culture interact to influence the judgments of professional accountants. Further, the results of the effects of noncultural factors on the judgments of professional accountants in Australia and Fiji show that the professional accountants' perceived level of task complexity has a significant effect on their judgments. An important implication of this study is that the adoption of IFRS in different countries alone may not result in uniformity in financial reporting as IFRS may not be consistently applied by those countries because of differences in cultural as well as noncultural factors.
Facial expression recognition by human observers is affected by subjective components. Indeed there is no ground truth. We have developed Discrete Choice Models (DCM) to…
Facial expression recognition by human observers is affected by subjective components. Indeed there is no ground truth. We have developed Discrete Choice Models (DCM) to capture the human perception of facial expressions. In a first step, the static case is treated, that is modelling perception of facial images. Image information is extracted using a computer vision tool called Active Appearance Model (AAM). DCMs attributes are based on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), Expression Descriptive Units (EDUs) and outputs of AAM. Some behavioural data have been collected using an Internet survey, where respondents are asked to label facial images from the Cohn–Kanade database with expressions. Different models were estimated by likelihood maximization using the obtained data. In a second step, the proposed static discrete choice framework is extended to the dynamic case, which considers facial video instead of images. The model theory is described and another Internet survey is currently conducted in order to obtain expressions labels on videos. In this second Internet survey, videos come from the Cohn–Kanade database and the Facial Expressions and Emotions Database (FEED).