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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2010

Maartje Cathelijne de Jong and Cornelis Hendrikus Boersma

Exposure therapy is a widely used treatment for patients with post-traumatic stress dis -order. It involves reduction of fear through progressive exposure to frightening…

Abstract

Exposure therapy is a widely used treatment for patients with post-traumatic stress dis -order. It involves reduction of fear through progressive exposure to frightening stimuli in a therapeutic environment. Here we propose a new method designed to improve the effectiveness of exposure therapy. We hypothesized that device-guided breathing during exposure therapy can increase the capability of the patient to undergo effective exposure. The successful application of the method is described for a single patient. Using a device to slow and regularize breathing, the patient was calmed and experienced a greater sense of control and a profound effect of the exposure. The use of the breathing-guiding device is believed to reduce arousal level and excitability of sympathetic “fight-flight” behaviors. The present study suggests that device-guided breathing integrated with exposure therapy may provide a practically feasible and potentially promising non-pharmacological treatment after trauma.

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Mental Illness, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Shona Adams and Steven Allan

Human Givens (HG) Rewind technique is a graded trauma-focused exposure treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder and trauma. The purpose of this paper is threefold…

Abstract

Purpose

Human Givens (HG) Rewind technique is a graded trauma-focused exposure treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder and trauma. The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to describe the technique; second, to provide an outline of its potential benefits; and third, to present some preliminary evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an overview of HG therapy and describes the stages of HG Rewind trauma treatment and its potential benefits. Similarities and differences between Rewind and other Cognitive Behavioural Therapy techniques are explored. Possible underlying mechanisms are discussed.

Findings

Preliminary evidence suggests that Rewind could be a promising trauma treatment technique and that HG therapy might be cost effective. The findings highlight the need for further research and a randomised controlled trial (RCT) on Rewind is warranted.

Practical implications

During the rewind technique, the trauma does not need to be discussed in detail, making treatment potentially more accessible for shame-based traumas. Multiple traumas may be treated in one session, making it possible for treatment to potentially be completed in fewer sessions.

Social implications

This UK-based treatment may be cost effective and make treatment more accessible for people who do not want to discuss details of their trauma.

Originality/value

This is the first description of HG Rewind in the peer-reviewed literature. Alternative explanations for mechanisms underlying this trauma treatment are also presented.

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Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2014

Trine Lise Bakken, Vibeke Gjersoe, Espen Matre, Tone Kristiansen, Arvid Ro, Anne Louise Tveter, Siv Helene Hoeidal and Arvid Nikolai Kildahl

The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss interventions of stabilisation of emotions and behaviour in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss interventions of stabilisation of emotions and behaviour in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This topic is understudied in persons with intellectual disability.

Design/methodology/approach

The aim of this study was to investigate interventions of stabilisation in persons with more severe intellectual disability; i.e. persons with moderate or severe intellectual disabilities. Five patients in a specialised psychiatric inpatient unit for patients with intellectual disabilities were included. Information about treatment of the patients was collected through case files, observations, and interviews. The authors of this paper followed a training programme for trauma therapists in addition to the inpatient treatment of the five patients.

Findings

Six main areas of stabilisation of emotions and behaviour were identified: validation, anxiety relief, treatment of depressed mood, increased mastering of daily activities, protection against anxiety triggers, and facilitated staff communication. Protection from anxiety triggers seems to be a core element of milieu therapy interventions. Interventions for neurotypical PTSD patients, such as exposure therapy may be contraindicated for patients with more severe intellectual disabilities.

Originality/value

Research on interventions of stabilisation towards adults with more severe intellectual disabilities is still in its infancy. The case reports may help milieu therapists to facilitate interventions towards patients with moderate or severe intellectual disabilities.

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Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Barbara Ruelle

A phobia is a condition that is caused by fear of a specific object or situation. Phobias constitute the most common form of psychiatric disorder. “People of all ages, at…

Abstract

A phobia is a condition that is caused by fear of a specific object or situation. Phobias constitute the most common form of psychiatric disorder. “People of all ages, at all income levels and in all geographic locations suffer from phobias, according to a study of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Between 5.1 percent and 12.5 percent of Americans suffer from phobias.”

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Reference Services Review, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Rachel Worthington

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of trauma with specific consideration to the neurological impact this has on information processing and potential links…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of trauma with specific consideration to the neurological impact this has on information processing and potential links with aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a summary of the literature in relation to theories of aggression and trauma. The paper considers how the two may interact and overlap and considers a theoretical rationale for why addressing trauma through a treatment such as Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) may assist to reduce aggression.

Findings

The paper argues that the experience of trauma may contribute to inputs which may take a person closer towards engaging in aggression. This is consistent with information processing models and unified models of aggression such as the General Aggression Model. Factors that were specifically identified included physiological hyper‐arousal, hostile attributions of stimulus, and neurological impairments. In addition, the paper also argued that there is evidence that as a result of trauma, a person's ability to provide cognitive accounts for the function of their behaviour may also be impaired because of the reduced interactivity between the two prefrontal hemispheres.

Research limitations/implications

The paper argues that as a result, interventions designed to reduce aggression may benefit from including additional elements which directly assist clients to process emotional information and that a reprocessing treatment such as EMDR could assist to reduce levels of emotional arousal and improve treatment effectiveness. Differences in the way in which EMDR is carried out and the variances in treatment protocols used should be attended to increase the reliability of future research.

Originality/value

Current modes of aggression therapy have focused on exposure based and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, there is evidence that EMDR has benefits over exposure and CBT approaches because of the way in which cognitive verbal accounts of the trauma are not required and because EMDR does not require the individual to have insight into their trauma experience and the link with aggression.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Adam J. Vanhove, Tiffany Brutus and Kristin A. Sowden

In recent years, a wide range of psychosocial health interventions have been implemented among military service members and their families. However, there are questions…

Abstract

In recent years, a wide range of psychosocial health interventions have been implemented among military service members and their families. However, there are questions over the evaluative rigor of these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of this literature, rating each relevant study (k = 111) on five evaluative rigor scales (type of control group, approach to participant assignment, outcome quality, number of measurement time points, and follow-up distality). The most frequently coded values on three of the five scales (control group type, participant assignment, and follow-up distality) were those indicating the lowest level of operationally defined rigor. Logistic regression results indicate that the evaluative rigor of intervention studies has largely remained consistent over time, with exceptions indicating that rigor has decreased. Analyses among seven military sub-populations indicate that interventions conducted among soldiers completing basic training, soldiers returning from combat deployment, and combat veterans have had, on average, the greatest evaluative rigor. However, variability in mean scores across evaluative rigor scales within sub-populations highlights the unique methodological hurdles common to different military settings. Recommendations for better standardizing the intervention evaluation process are discussed.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

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Abstract

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Gambling Advertising: Nature, Effects and Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-923-6

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A History of the Assessment of Sex Offenders: 1830–2020
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-360-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

David Crighton

Applied psychology interventions have an important role to play in mental and physical health services with offenders and in reducing re‐offending. There has been a…

Abstract

Applied psychology interventions have an important role to play in mental and physical health services with offenders and in reducing re‐offending. There has been a significant growth of the evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Barriers still exist to delivering effective psychological interventions.Psychological interventions also have a key role in comprehensive, accessible services with offenders in relation to long‐term disorders as well as co‐morbid problems. Until 2000 offenders were largely excluded from mainstream health and social care provision. Very significant progress has been made in this respect. The provision of mainstream psychological therapies had until recently lagged behind other areas of health care. As a result, Applied Psychology Group (APG) has developed a new strategy, with a shift of emphasis towards strategic development of psychological interventions ‐ away from a primary focus on psychologists, to psychology and its applications.This paper outlines recent developments designed to ensure delivery of high‐quality psychological interventions in Health and Offender Partnerships.

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The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Sarah J. Hoffman and Cheryl L. Robertson

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive perspective of the documented physical and mental health issues Karen refugees from Burma face as a result of war…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive perspective of the documented physical and mental health issues Karen refugees from Burma face as a result of war and refugee trauma, and migration. The review will address the question: What is the impact of trauma and migration on the physical and mental health of Karen refugees?

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 18 articles were systematically selected for inclusion in the final review. The focal content for included articles includes qualitative and quantitative research representative of the health and migration experiences of Karen refugees.

Findings

The findings of this review demonstrate significance for health providers from a public health standpoint as programs and services are targeted to meet the specific health needs of the Karen community. It also highlights the contribution of the Karen forced migration experience to the complexity of individual and community health needs, particularly as a result of the protracted conflict.

Originality/value

This critical appraisal of the body of literature describing the health experiences of Karen refugees from Burma, with a particular focus on outcomes relevant to resettlement, demonstrates value as programs are developed with an integrated refugee perspective.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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