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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Patrick De Groote

Since the Great Exhibition of London (1851) approx. 75 Expos have been held worldwide. They are regulated by the BIE in Paris. An Expo is a show case of technological…

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Abstract

Since the Great Exhibition of London (1851) approx. 75 Expos have been held worldwide. They are regulated by the BIE in Paris. An Expo is a show case of technological progress, represented in pavilions. Until 1873 a unique building hosted the exhibits. Later the Exposites were located extramuros, and sometimes afterwards redeveloped into a leisure or science park or a multifunctional urbanised area. Mostly Expos have a positive effect for the city and the region on income, employment and infrastructure. The impact on culture, science, technology and tourism is also very important. However, Expos can generate an increase in prices, overcrowding and even environmental damage. Several Expos were even a financial disaster! The post‐event depression was certainly the case for many Expos. Expos still bear witness to their era and that they have tried to maintain the harmony and peace between people. Still they have opportunities for communication, investments, development, trade and tourism. The case study focus on the successsfull Expo 1992 in Seville.

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Tourism Review, vol. 60 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Ying Deng and Sun Wah Poon

This paper aims to seek a greater understanding of the conceptualization of mega-event flagship (MEF) development as a point of departure to forge the much-needed…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to seek a greater understanding of the conceptualization of mega-event flagship (MEF) development as a point of departure to forge the much-needed organizational capacities in these regions. An MEF constitutes a temporarily themed venue for a mega-event and a transforming force on corresponding urban renewal. The unfailing demand for MEFs from emerging hosts after historical failures in the West draws attention to a glaring weakness of extant literature in wanting of evidence-based case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the explorative nature of research and the context-dependent complexities, the case study method is used for studying the case of Theme Pavilion – one of the four key flagships led by Expo 2010 to catalyze an ambitious urban renewal in Shanghai, China. The focus is on its conceptualization process (2004-2007) where different copying strategies were tested and consolidated to facilitate the post-event transformation. Data were collected mainly through participant observation in that duration.

Findings

For future Expo hosts, exhibition center developers and the event industry, the study concludes with eight constructive lessons, namely, clustering strategy, different integration, pre-post orientation, diversification for adaptation, development by stage, flexible mindset, the end crowns the work and building local capacity.

Research limitations/implications

Given the qualitative nature of the study, some results may not be fully generalizable. While showing the possibility of sustaining MEF development given the right coping strategy, it also reveals implementation difficulties and emphasizes the importance of continued case studies.

Originality/value

The study will contribute fresh insights into forging better strategies to cope with transformation difficulties of MEF development and building greater capacity to accomplish affiliated renewals and other significantly comparable urban projects in emerging economies.

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Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Sunitha K. Haneef and Zakiya Ansari

The purpose of this study is to discuss the phases and kinds of marketing strategies being employed during the conduct of mega events such as expos. The study also aims to…

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1254

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to discuss the phases and kinds of marketing strategies being employed during the conduct of mega events such as expos. The study also aims to familiarize the reader with the detailed marketing strategies used by Dubai Expo 2020 and the marketing strategies adopted by tour operators in Dubai, alongside their most used digital channels of communication and marketing. Further, an attempt has been made to understand how the marketing methods for Expo 2020 can be integrated with the marketing of general travel products in Dubai.

Design/methodology/approach

Short, unstructured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted as part of the data-collection method over a period of two weeks. The interviewees are a core group of officials from the marketing and IT sections of Dubai Expo 2020. The data were recorded for later retrieval and analysis. Also, a survey of 150 tour operators and travel agents was conducted over a period of five weeks. This garnered a comprehensive set of data on the preferred marketing strategies to promote tourism products.

Findings

The marketing strategies used for Dubai Expo 2020 have been attractive, varied and innovative. Digital marketing is the most opted-for channel of communication for marketing purposes by both Expo 2020 officials and tour operators and travel agents in Dubai. Maximum popularity in terms of usage by tour operators and travel agents is reflected in social media channels of marketing, especially Facebook. There is a need to evolve a distinctly separate digital marketing strategy that will create more tailored marketing campaigns based on the characteristics affecting the consumer behavior of people engaged in Expo 2020.

Research limitations/implications

This study could have incorporated more varied data if other stakeholders, e.g. hoteliers, had been included. More varied data would certainly have been useful in arriving at well-founded observations about the ideal marketing strategies that could be adopted for an event of this magnitude. Another limitation is that interviews with a greater cross-section of the officials of Dubai Expo 2020 would have rendered a more detailed and finer description of the marketing methods used in promoting Dubai Expo 2020.

Practical implications

Dubai is being equipped as a world-class venue for large-scale conferences and conventions rivaling Las Vegas for meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions. Further, Dubai will be able to position itself as a favored location for hosting a wide array of events with global participation.

Social implications

Based on this study, it is reasonable to conclude that there is a need to rethink and innovate ways of marketing by customizing the marketing strategies according to the market structure and consumer behavior, without abandoning any particular marketing channel.

Originality/value

This research on the marketing strategies of Dubai Expo 2020 is of interest to industry, government agencies and other stakeholders. The observations drawn from this study on marketing strategies can be used by other nations hosting similar events in similar geographical areas to provide a basis to design or redesign their tourism and marketing strategies.

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Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Ying Deng

A mega‐event flagship (MEF) refers to a purpose‐built building flagship for a global mega‐event and a popular instrument to catalyze urban renewal in the host city…

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1287

Abstract

Purpose

A mega‐event flagship (MEF) refers to a purpose‐built building flagship for a global mega‐event and a popular instrument to catalyze urban renewal in the host city. Despite their lasting popularity and volatile outcomes, such highly controversial developments have received little analysis. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in the research.

Design/methodology/approach

To bridge the Triple‐C Gap identified, a case study method was adopted in the form of participant observation, due to the author's special role as a key project coordinator of Expo 2010. To provide a good reference for comparable developments, it takes three steps to study the Expo Center (EC) – one of the four MEFs of Expo 2010. First, planning rationales are explained to form a holistic understanding of the Big 4 as an integrated whole. Then, a pilot questionnaire survey is reported to identify pressing issues on a broader scale. Finally, the early stages of the EC are investigated in six dimensions.

Findings

The study concludes with significant lessons in shaping the early stage of a MEF, as well as correcting a misunderstanding of such a development being an end in itself.

Research limitations/implications

Certain constraints in participant observation have been minimized since the author maintained a relatively independent role as a process facilitator, which is different from the traditional role of a design manager or a project manager.

Originality/value

A timely reminder to rethink the commitment to MEFs, this explorative study offers new insights into MEF research and will be of cross‐boundary value to a wide spectrum of people and agencies.

Details

Facilities, vol. 30 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Larry Yu, Chunlei Wang and Joohwan Seo

The purpose of this study is to analyze Chinese tourists' perceptions toward the 2010 World Expo and the impact of a mega event on the host city and visitor satisfaction.

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4917

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze Chinese tourists' perceptions toward the 2010 World Expo and the impact of a mega event on the host city and visitor satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by the conceptualization of hosting special events for destination branding, this study examines empirically tourists' perceptions and experiences of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo and the host city. Ten hypotheses were tested using SEM to identify and analyze the factors and relationships that influence mega events and host cities.

Findings

Data collected from 600 tourists who visited the 2010 Shanghai World Expo provide support for the proposed model. The empirical test provides support for eight of the ten hypotheses and it reveals that the hosting of the World Expo had significant positive impact on Shanghai but not vice versa, and the Chinese tourists exhibited loyalty to the host city.

Research limitations/implications

Using a moving event such as Expo, the Shanghai brand is simplified. The sample includes only domestic tourists and future research should include an international sample for comparison.

Practical implications

The results help in identifying and managing the factors that contribute positively to the host destination brand when hosting mega events.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to empirically test the conceptual framework of leveraging a mega event for enhancing the host destination brand by using the 2010 Shanghai Expo as a case study. It validates that the strategic fit between the event and host city, community support and event quality are essential in enhancing host destination brand and tourist loyalty.

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International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2019

Ruggero Sainaghi, Aurelio G. Mauri, Stanislav Ivanov and Francesca d’Angella

This paper aims to explore the effects generated by the Milan World Expo 2015 on both firm performance and seasonality structure. It aims to answer the following research…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the effects generated by the Milan World Expo 2015 on both firm performance and seasonality structure. It aims to answer the following research question: Did the Milan Expo 2015 influence only hotel results without changing seasonal patterns, or was this mega event able to reconfigure seasonal periods?

Design/methodology/approach

The present analysis is based on Smith Travel Research (STR) data. This source offers daily data on a large sample of Milan hotels (approximately 80 per cent of the total), representing more than 30,000 rooms. The empirical data relate to a period of 12 years, 11 of which are focused on the pre-event period (2004-2014), while 2015 is centered on the Milan Expo. This data comprise 4,383 daily observations. For each day, three operating measures were analyzed: occupancy, average daily rate (ADR) and revenue per available room (RevPAR).

Findings

The empirical findings fully support the first hypothesis: the four seasonal periods built around the main market segments are relevant lenses for understanding Milan’s demand structure before Expo 2015. The findings also support the second hypothesis relating to the effects generated by the event: Expo 2015 was able to improve hotel performance during the four seasonal periods analyzed. The most fragile seasonality registered the highest rise. Finally, the last two hypotheses to be investigated are as follows: did the Milan Expo 2015 simply improve hotel performance, without changing the underlying seasonal patterns (H3), or did this event reconfigure the demand structure (H4)? The analyses carried out lend more support to the fourth hypothesis, suggesting that new seasonal patterns emerged during Expo 2015.

Originality/value

This paper explores the impact of a mega event on seasonal patterns of hotel performance metrics. At least three original aspects are introduced. First, to analyze the Milan demand variation, a market segment approach that proposes an innovative seasonal matrix is developed. This is based on the three main client groups attracted by the destination. Second, the effects generated by the Expo are measured with consideration given to the four seasonal periods. Third, based on graphical and statistical analysis, the paper confirms that new seasonal patterns emerged during the Expo.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Hak Jun Song, So Young Bae and Choong-Ki Lee

This study aims to explore the relationships among antecedents (i.e. quality) and outcomes (i.e. trust, support, theme awareness and extension effect) of satisfaction at…

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1051

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the relationships among antecedents (i.e. quality) and outcomes (i.e. trust, support, theme awareness and extension effect) of satisfaction at the 2013 Osong Cosmetics & Beauty (C&B) Expo held in Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

An onsite survey with self-administered questionnaires was administered for this study. A structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used to analyze the relationships among ten constructs in the research model.

Findings

The results indicate that hospitality and product dimensions of quality positively affect satisfaction, satisfaction exerts positive influence on trust and theme awareness, trust performs an important role as a mediator between satisfaction and support and theme awareness significantly mediates satisfaction and extension effect.

Practical implications

This study encourages the Expo’s organizers to manage quality attributes to ensure Expo satisfaction and to consider extension effects of Expo experiences from long-term perspectives. This study also recommends that local governments develop symbolic products with exhibitors to strengthen the association of Expo themes with regions.

Originality/value

The current study highlights the role of quality as an antecedent of satisfaction with the C&B Expo, which has not been well-known despite its crucial role in the industry and the regional economy. It also improves the understanding of the inherent cause–effect relationships among antecedents and outcomes of Expo satisfaction. Therefore, this study provides crucial insights that the C&B Expo could be an effective means to reach target markets and stimulate trust from visitors, which, in turn, would encourage support for the C&B industry and extension effects for C&B products as a whole.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Ying Deng and S.W. Poon

Over decades, mega‐events have enjoyed increasing global popularity as catalysts of significant urban renewal both on and beyond the event grounds. Nevertheless, although…

Abstract

Purpose

Over decades, mega‐events have enjoyed increasing global popularity as catalysts of significant urban renewal both on and beyond the event grounds. Nevertheless, although some mega‐events are exemplary in their transformation of some places, post‐event failure of others highlight a lack of long‐range planning. Yet, such a paradoxical relationship between spectacularity and sustainability has, so far, received little in‐depth analysis. Building upon the Yin‐Yang theory, the purpose of this paper is to identify the Triple‐C gap and argues that planning for mega‐event led renewals (MELRs) is an issue of dualism rather than dichotomy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts the multiple‐case study approach. Two methodological steps are taken to seek a greater understanding of the issue at global and local scales. One is a review of eight mega‐event cases in the West to identify post‐event sustainability challenges. The other explores these challenges through an examination of the Expo 2010 development as a chapter of the Huangpu Riverfronts Renewal in Shanghai China.

Findings

The eight historical cases and Expo 2010 unanimously challenge the dichotomy between event staging and post‐event sustainability. It is therefore high time for future client organizations to rethink how to find a convergence.

Practical implications

With lessons drawn, the article concludes that planning an MELR should be pre‐post oriented and serve as a catalyst for broader‐scale improvements.

Originality/value

This pioneering study constitutes a much‐needed reference for future mega‐event hosts to rethink their commitment to MELDs, which will hopefully spark more interdisciplinary interest.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Sunitha K. Haneef, Zakiya Ansari and Ganga Bhavani

The purpose of this study is to provide context to the evolution of tourist attractions in Dubai, retrospectively learn from the experiences of the Milan and Shanghai Expos

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide context to the evolution of tourist attractions in Dubai, retrospectively learn from the experiences of the Milan and Shanghai Expos and to highlight the tourist attractions of Dubai Expo 2020. In so doing, the paper also seeks to understand how attractions play a role in shaping the growth of the tourism and hospitality sectors in Dubai.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this paper were gathered from primary and secondary sources. Informal discussions with officials of Expo 2020 generally and tourism stakeholders, in particular, who were willing to participate in this study, form the core of the primary data reflected in this paper. These discussions, which span a period of four weeks, were transcribed for later study and analysis.

Findings

First, the tourism industry, the bedrock of Dubai’s economy, has witnessed remarkable growth during the period 1990-2015 and beyond because of its rich tourism infrastructure comprising hotels, tourism activities and tourist attractions. Second, it is important that Dubai Expo draws on the experiences and expectations of prior events and can apply lessons learnt from the Milan and Shanghai Expo events. Third, that Dubai Expo 2020 can enable Dubai to build on its established image for excellent infrastructure, attractions, hotels, affordable amenities, easy accessibility and highly-developed air and road transport systems.

Research limitations/implications

Even if lessons learnt from the Milan and Shanghai Expo are taken into account, they may not account for unforeseen circumstances and sources of failure – though they provide a guide in relation to the conduct of a mega event.

Practical implications

Dubai Expo 2020 can enable Dubai to build on its established and broadening global appeal.

Social implications

Employment prospects will be enhanced by Expo 2020 that will project an image of Dubai as a world tourist destination to a far greater extent than it has done so to date. Social changes may also occur because of cultural exchanges during the Expo 2020 period.

Originality/value

The paper discusses how strategic planning for new attractions combined with the existing attractions will help spread awareness of Expo 2020. The observations made from this study can be used by other nations hosting similar events in similar geographical areas, to help prepare and draw on prior experience and lessons learnt.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Emma Björner and Per Olof Berg

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to our understanding of the underlying rationale for why companies participate in mega‐events in general, and in mega‐events in…

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2382

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to our understanding of the underlying rationale for why companies participate in mega‐events in general, and in mega‐events in emerging economies – such as the 2010 Shanghai Expo – in particular. Of particular interest are the ways that companies use an event to advance their own purposes, and how experiences are created that use aspects of an event setting such as Expo 2010.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a participatory, ethnographic and longitudinal field study focusing on the VIP section of the Swedish Pavilion at the Shanghai World Expo, using additional data from other national pavilions and respondents with insight into Expo 2010 and its organization.

Findings

The study indicates that even though companies operationally used the World Expo and the VIP section in many different ways, an underlying element appears to be to use the event for the “practice of communification”.

Practical implications

The study provides practitioners with a conceptual framework and tools to manage the co‐creation process of experiences at events. This is done by supplying an empirical example from World Expo 2010 and the VIP area of the Swedish pavilion. This is a needed addition to the current knowledge on how customers engage in co‐creation of experiences and how companies manage the co‐creation process.

Originality/value

The “communification” concept is used to denote the simultaneous building of community while communicating business‐related issues to strengthen and build relationships with customers over time, with exclusivity and co‐creation of experiences as important components.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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