Search results

1 – 10 of over 11000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

João S. Oliveira, John W. Cadogan and Anne Souchon

The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers and journal reviewers with guidance regarding the appropriate level of analysis when developing and testing theory on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers and journal reviewers with guidance regarding the appropriate level of analysis when developing and testing theory on export performance determinants. The authors’ focus is on the implications this has for the measurement of export performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of an essay.

Findings

Researchers should measure export performance at the level at which the theory is developed. Most export performance theory developed is inherently export function level theory, requiring export function level measurement of performance. Less commonly, researchers may develop theory at the intra‐firm level, which requires performance data from multiple export ventures within firms for theory testing purposes. Researchers rarely have cause to collect data from a single export venture from firms, since data at this level are unlikely to generalize to the firm as a whole, and may lead to a biased picture of the determinants of overall export performance.

Originality/value

Researchers sometimes find that their passage to publication is blocked by reviewers who insist that measurement of export performance should occur at an incorrect level. Typically, the reviewer demands export performance assessment at the export venture level when the theory being tested is inherently an export function level theory. In this paper, the authors hope to correct poorly informed opinion regarding the use of venture level export performance measures, and encourage the use of measures of export performance that match the theory being tested.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

João S. Oliveira and John W. Cadogan

The purpose of this paper is to present several opportunities that can emerge from using a multilevel approach to study the antecedents of export venture performance, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present several opportunities that can emerge from using a multilevel approach to study the antecedents of export venture performance, and provide scholars with the conceptual and practical tools for developing multilevel models of export venture success.

Design/methodology/approach

Essay.

Findings

The paper shows the problems which scholars face if they continue to engage in using single venture data to test models that are inherently multilevel in nature.

Research limitations/implications

There may be a need to revisit previous works that utilize samples of single ventures to assess models of export venture performance that are implicitly multilevel.

Practical implications

This paper outlines the practical issues that researchers need to consider when conducting multilevel research in the export venture performance field.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to focus on the multilevel nature of the export venture performance construct.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Mei Chen, Peijie Ni, Torger Reve, Jing Huang and Ren Lu

Previous studies primarily focus on how to achieve better performance in the international markets, but few centers on whether internationalization is a promising strategy…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies primarily focus on how to achieve better performance in the international markets, but few centers on whether internationalization is a promising strategy for new ventures’ growth and development. Based on two pioneering frameworks Conservative, Predictable, and Pacemaker (CPP) model and the 7-P model, this paper fills this gap by analyzing how exporting exert heterogeneous effects on two types of growth, sales growth and employment growth. Accordingly, this paper aims to favor market-oriented new ventures to make a strategy on expanding international markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on firm-level data from the Chinese Industrial Enterprises Database. The year 2005 was used as the shock year. By conducting the propensity score matching method, 793 couples of matched new ventures were collected with sales growth and 686 couples with employment growth. The difference-in-differences method was applied to analyze the various influences that exporting has on new ventures’ sales growth and employment growth.

Findings

The main finding of this paper is that new ventures that exported can achieve better sales growth than their counterparts that only operated domestically, whereas new ventures that remain in the domestic market have no difference in employment growth from those that exported.

Research limitations/implications

This study shows that exporting is especially beneficial for market-seeking new ventures. Because the study is based on Chinese data, scholars of international business can conduct further research on other countries with different economic structures.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this paper contributes to both international business theory and entrepreneurship theory by combining the CPP model and the 7-P model. Practically, this paper shows that exports mainly benefit the sales growth of new ventures. This suggests that business practitioners should consider their growth goals before they choose to enter the global market.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Ryuta Ishii

The literature on export channels suggests that intermediary resources, namely intermediary competence and availability, are critical for export success. However, little…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature on export channels suggests that intermediary resources, namely intermediary competence and availability, are critical for export success. However, little is known about how the beneficial effects of intermediary resources differ amongst integrated, independent and dual channel structures. One difference between these channel structures is the degree of reliance on independent intermediaries. This study aims to investigate (1) the impact of intermediary resources on export venture success, that is, export sales performance and channel maintenance costs and (2) the moderating role of the degree of reliance on independent intermediaries.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical testing was conducted using survey data collected from 204 Japanese industrial exporting ventures. To test the proposed hypotheses, this study estimated a structural equation model with the maximum likelihood estimation procedure.

Findings

Evidence shows that two aspects of intermediary resources have different beneficial effects on export venture success. Specifically, intermediary availability leads to export venture success by decreasing channel maintenance costs, whereas intermediary competence is not always beneficial for it. Furthermore, this study finds that reliance on independent intermediaries positively moderates the impacts of intermediary competence and availability.

Originality/value

Previous studies emphasise the importance of intermediary resources and export channel structures. However, the question of whether export channel structures determine the performance benefits of intermediary resources is unanswered. By addressing this question, this study provides helpful insight into how exporting managers can implement channel strategy and access intermediary resources to achieve export success.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Stavroula Spyropoulou, Dionysis Skarmeas and Constantine S. Katsikeas

Globalization has rendered international expanding activities increasingly important for the survival, growth and success of modern firms. Drawing on the resource‐based…

Abstract

Purpose

Globalization has rendered international expanding activities increasingly important for the survival, growth and success of modern firms. Drawing on the resource‐based view (RBV) of the firm, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the antecedents and performance implications of branding advantage in export ventures.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail survey was used to collect data from exporting manufacturers. Further, a series of qualitative interviews with export managers was conducted. The unit of analysis is the export venture. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to assess the measurement properties of the study constructs. Structural equation modelling using a full information estimation approach was performed to test the research model.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that both export venture financial and experiential resources promote export venture communication capabilities, and financial and experiential resources and communication capabilities are contributors to the achievement of export venture branding advantage, which in turn is related positively to export venture performance.

Research limitations/implications

The study findings provide export managers with useful insights into how to successfully compete in export markets on the basis of branding advantage. Financial and experiential resources and communication capabilities should be deployed in order to achieve a branding advantage position and enhanced export performance outcomes. Replication of this research within other settings is needed to test the external validity of the present findings.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study is that it highlights the role of branding advantage in the context of exporting firms.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Manfred Fuchs and Mariella Köstner

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among organizational factors (export market experience, international commitment), external environment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among organizational factors (export market experience, international commitment), external environment (competitive intensity), export marketing strategy and export success. The findings yielded by the analyses confirm that export market-specific experience and international commitment are significant drivers of export success. In addition, the results indicate that the degree of product adaptation is positively related to profitability and overall success, while price and distribution adaptation to local conditions have a direct impact on sales growth. Finally, the authors found evidence that international commitment exerts a positive effect on the adaptation of marketing strategies to country-specific requirements. Thus, the study findings can be used to formulate business and marketing strategies to improve firm’s success in overseas markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used PLS for dealing with formative and reflective measures and used a sample of 200 export ventures that exported on the average in more than 15 countries.

Findings

This study clearly shows that export venture success is linked to managerial commitment and experiential knowledge and that firms contribute to export venture success by adapting product to foreign markets. It is also shown that firms in more competitive environments increase their effort to adapt, leading to better export venture performance.

Research limitations/implications

Although Austrian companies are typically characterized as small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the study is limited to this sample.

Practical implications

Managers in SME should concentrate their effort on a small set of export venture countries of concentrate their capabilities and effort (commitment and personal) to increase adaptation in those selected market, which will lead to increasing export venture performance.

Originality/value

The study differentiates between formative and reflective measures which most studies in this genre do not, which is a fundamental conceptual shortcoming. This study shows with robust result the interrelation between commitment and managerial experience (intra-firm factors) and the degree of competition in foreign markets and how marketing mix adaptation affects export venture performance measured over a period of five years.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Vasilis Theoharakis, Yannis Angelis and Georgios Batsakis

The importance of architectural marketing capabilities (i.e. marketing planning and implementation) in exporting ventures has been recognised. However, extant literature…

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of architectural marketing capabilities (i.e. marketing planning and implementation) in exporting ventures has been recognised. However, extant literature has not taken into account the explicit roles and required synergy between the exporter and their foreign distributor in delivering these capabilities. Drawing from the resource-based theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the complementarity of distributor implementation capability and market orientation with exporter planning capability.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out using a survey. Data were collected from 147 Greek exporters who replied to our questionnaire and the hypotheses were tested using the full information maximum likelihood estimation procedure.

Findings

The results support the hypotheses about the importance of exporter planning capability on financial performance and the complementary role of distributor market orientation. Further, the authors find that the distributor’s implementation capability partially mediates the impact of the exporter’s planning capability on financial performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to a better understanding about the complementarity of exporter and distributor capabilities. It demonstrates the crucial role of the distributor in the deployment of architectural capabilities for the export venture: the distributor’s market orientation and implementation capability have the final say in achieving higher levels of export performance.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 February 2009

Tulin Ural

The purpose of this paper was to empirically examine the effects of relationship quality between exporter and importer on export performance in Turkish firms, and further…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to empirically examine the effects of relationship quality between exporter and importer on export performance in Turkish firms, and further, how small and medium‐sized exporting firms are segmented based on quality of their relationship with importers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper includes Structural Equation Modeling and Cluster Analysis.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that there is the positive impact of: information sharing on financial export performance and satisfaction with the export venture; long‐term orientation on financial export performance, strategic export performance and satisfaction with the export venture; and satisfaction with the relationship on financial performance, strategic performance and satisfaction with export venture. Three segments of firm are profiled such as “long‐term thinkers”, “dissatisfactioners” and “information keepers”.

Research limitations/implications

The data incorporate only the view of one player (the exporter) around the exporter‐importer relationship and do not take into account views from the other side of the dyad. However, since this study focused on first, the measuring relationship quality from the exporter's perspective and, second, the formation of exporter relationships as perceived by the exporter, ideal participants to be examined in this study are exporters. Future researches should be encouraged to test similar hypotheses in other international settings and compare their findings.

Practical implications

Information exchange between exporter and importer fosters the export performance of small and medium sized firms. If exporters openly enter into contact with importers and share confidential information and strategic issues, satisfaction with export venture will be increased. The long run relationships will probably involve cooperation, goal sharing and risk sharing. Export managers should work by cooperative manner, avoid the short‐term alternatives instead of long‐term benefits and not act opportunistically. Relational satisfaction impacts to the financial and strategic export performances, and satisfaction with the export venture. When an exporter meets the expectations of importer based on evaluations of the tangible product or non‐product related attributes such as delivery, service, or relational investments, his/her export performance will improve.

Originality/value

This study can increase exporting firms' awareness and understanding about relationship quality in handling international operations. Additionally, this study differs from similar studies, which are related to relationships quality, by suggesting a classification of firms based on relational quality dimensions. Therefore, it provides more specific knowledge.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 43 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Vinh Nhat Lu and Craig C. Julian

This study seeks to examine the empirical link in export market ventures of the relationship between the internet (when it is used for communication, networking, market…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to examine the empirical link in export market ventures of the relationship between the internet (when it is used for communication, networking, market research, sales, image enhancement, cost reduction and competitive advantage purposes) and export marketing performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered via a self‐administered mail survey of Australian exporters. The sample consisted of 133 Australian firms coming from a wide cross‐section of industries.

Findings

The findings indicate that, when the internet was used to achieve a competitive advantage for the firm and reduce the costs associated in doing international business, these uses of the internet were significant in discriminating between high and low export marketing performance. Furthermore, the international experience of the export venture's management was a significant factor in discriminating between high and low export marketing performance.

Research limitations/implications

From a methodological perspective, a potential concern may be that the measures are all self‐reported. Consequently, the relationships tested may be susceptible to the influence of common method variance. Evidence has been provided that, when the internet is used for cost reduction purposes and as a competitive weapon, this will have a positive impact on export marketing performance.

Originality/value

A major contribution of this study is that it re‐validates measures for the different uses of the internet, namely, communication, networking, market research, sales, image enhancement, cost reduction and competitive advantage.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Halit Keskin, Hayat Ayar Şentürk, Ekrem Tatoglu, Ismail Gölgeci, Ozan Kalaycioglu and Hatice Tuba Etlioglu

This study aims to determine the simultaneous effect of exporting firms' competitive strategies and capabilities on the achievement of competitive advantages and export

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the simultaneous effect of exporting firms' competitive strategies and capabilities on the achievement of competitive advantages and export performance under the boundary conditions of competitive intensity. In so doing, the study combines the alternative theoretical lenses of the resource-based view (RBV) and the structure–conduct–performance (SCP) paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were obtained from 281 Turkish manufacturer–exporter firms operating in different sectors and located in several regions of the country. Structural equation modeling was utilized to test our conceptual framework, which combined the effects of RBV-based and SCP-based factors on competitive advantages and export performance under the moderating influence of competitive intensity.

Findings

This study reveals that unique firm capabilities, specifically informational, relational, and marketing capabilities, and competitive strategies, including differentiation and cost leadership, provide export firms with a competitive advantage and improve their export performance in foreign markets. Furthermore, competitive advantages partially mediate the effects of competitive strategies and unique firm capabilities on export performance. Finally, unexpectedly, and contrary to most of the existing literature, we find that competitive intensity negatively moderates the link between service advantages and export performance.

Originality/value

This research offers a comprehensive view of manufacturer–exporter firms' export performance by accounting for the overlooked simultaneous effect of firm capabilities and competitive strategies through the mediation of competitive advantages and under the boundary conditions of competitive intensity.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 11000