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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Ross R. Vickers

Constructing and evaluating behavioral science models is a complex process. Decisions must be made about which variables to include, which variables are related to each…

Abstract

Constructing and evaluating behavioral science models is a complex process. Decisions must be made about which variables to include, which variables are related to each other, the functional forms of the relationships, and so on. The last 10 years have seen a substantial extension of the range of statistical tools available for use in the construction process. The progress in tool development has been accompanied by the publication of handbooks that introduce the methods in general terms (Arminger et al., 1995; Tinsley & Brown, 2000a). Each chapter in these handbooks cites a wide range of books and articles on specific analysis topics.

Details

The Science and Simulation of Human Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-296-2

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Joseph M. Petrosko and Meera Alagaraja

The purpose of the paper is to suggest effective choices for key decisions when pursuing a programmatic research strategy in management, spirituality and religion (MSR)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to suggest effective choices for key decisions when pursuing a programmatic research strategy in management, spirituality and religion (MSR). An example is provided of how the suggestions can be used.

Design/methodology/approach

Suggestions for research were gleaned from current sources in research methodology. The example provided was a study of 398 employees who were surveyed on spirituality, job satisfaction and intent to leave their job. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test three research hypotheses.

Findings

Using item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and SEM can be a way to pursue research using variables related to spirituality and religion.

Originality/value

A programmatic research strategy employing SEM can effectively model how spirituality/religious variables directly and indirectly affect outcomes significant to the organization.

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Bilal Saeed, R. Tasmin, Ayyaz Mahmood and Aamer Hafeez

Considering the relevance of operational excellence as a business strategy, organizations are striving to improve themselves by adopting best practices and universally…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the relevance of operational excellence as a business strategy, organizations are striving to improve themselves by adopting best practices and universally accepted principles through the process of continuous improvement, and these principles should be embedded in the culture of an organization. Organizations pursue to align themselves by continuously improving their processes by adopting scientifically proven techniques and cultural transformation throughout the organization. However, there is a lack of scientific instruments for the assessment of operational excellence. The objective of this study is to develop a scale for the assessment of practices of operational excellence principles in the organizations. Further reliability and validity of the developed scale are measured by testing the relationship between Human Resource Practices (HRP) and Operational Excellence (OE).

Design/methodology/approach

This study comprises quantitative design through exploratory and confirmatory studies and also includes qualitative analysis to develop a scale for the assessment of Operational Excellence (OE). Interviews from industry experts have been conducted to identify the major components for which organizations are striving for OE. Previous literature and excellence models, especially principles of the Shingo Operational Excellence Model (SOEM), have been reviewed and considered to finalize the scale items. Data were collected in two stages from both Telecommunication subsectors (Cellular Mobile Operators and Fixed Local Loop Operators) of Pakistan through the cross-sectional survey. In the first stage, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the sample of 611 respondents from both Cellular Mobile and Fixed Local Loop operators of Pakistan. In the second stage, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the sample of 423 respondents from the Fixed local loop operators. EFA was conducted by using SPSS version 23 to finalize the OE scale, and for confirmatory factor analysis, PLS-SEM using Smart PLS was used to confirm the reliability and validity of the OE Scale.

Findings

The results of EFA reveal that OE is a multidimensional construct with three dimensions and 23 items. The dimensions of the developed OE Scale explored in this study are cultural enablers (CE), continuous process improvement (CPI) and enterprise alignment (EA). The confirmatory factor analysis of OE confirmed the scale dimensionality, reliability and validity along with the hypothesis testing to measure the impact of antecedent variable HRP on OE.

Research limitations/implications

Organizations pursue to improve and align their operational processes but usually unable to confirm the implementation of their desired objectives. Based on the developed OE scale, managers may assess the implementation of OE principles in their organizations. This research has been conducted in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan only, and the developed instrument needs to be further tested in other organizations.

Practical implications

The instrument developed in this study will help both researchers and practitioners to assess the principles of operational excellence in their organizations and enable them to design the strategies for improving organizational performance.

Social implications

The results of this study will create awareness about the principles of operational excellence. The developed OE instrument will assist in identifying the gaps in organizational norms and values from the perspective of paying respect to every individual inside and outside the organization. OE instrument will be further helpful in the identification and assurance of health, safety, protection of the environment and community issues.

Originality/value

This study provides a reliable and validated scale for the scientific area of operation management and helps managers with the assessment of operational excellence in their organizations. This newly developed scale is also valid to test and use in different studies and industries by researchers and practitioners.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Sandeep Phogat and Anil Kumar Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model (structural equation modeling (SEM)) from the 16 identified just in time (JIT) elements useful for implementation of JIT in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model (structural equation modeling (SEM)) from the 16 identified just in time (JIT) elements useful for implementation of JIT in maintenance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using questionnaires posted to 421 manufacturing industries and automotive service industries in India from which 133 usable responses were obtained. First, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is carried out to identify the factor structure after that confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is carried out to verify the factor structure of a set of identified JIT elements. CFA is conceded by an SEM statistical technique. In this paper, EFA is applied to extract the factors in JIT implementation by the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 24) software and confirming these factors by CFA through analysis of moment structures (AMOS 18) software.

Findings

Out of 18 identified JIT elements through literature and expert opinion only 16 JIT elements are selected for the study, two JIT elements removed due to the low value of correlation item-total correlation (CITC). Three factors extracted through EFA, which affects the benefits of JIT implementation in maintenance in quality improvement, production improvement and process control. SEM using AMOS 18.0 was used to perform the first-order three-factor structure (quality improvement, production improvement and process control) of the JIT implementation in maintenance.

Originality/value

The results will be useful for maintenance managers and maintenance professionals to understand the process of implementation of JIT in maintenance and to gain benefits after the implementation of JIT in maintenance in their respective organization.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Talal AlShammari, Paul Jennings and Brett Williams

Emergency medical services (EMS) educational standards in Saudi Arabia have developed at an unprecedented rate, and the rapid pace of development has resulted in a…

Abstract

Purpose

Emergency medical services (EMS) educational standards in Saudi Arabia have developed at an unprecedented rate, and the rapid pace of development has resulted in a considerable disparity of educational approaches. Therefore, an empirically based core competency framework should be developed. The aim was to utilize exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in the reduction and generation of a theoretical Saudi competency model.

Design/methodology/approach

A purposive sample was utilized in a national quantitative cross-sectional study design of Saudi Red Crescent Authority (SRCA) healthcare workers. The instrument comprised 41 core competency items rated on a Likert scale. EFA alpha factoring with oblique promax rotation was applied to the 41 items.

Findings

A total of 450 EMS healthcare providers participated in the study, of whom 422 (93.8 per cent) were male and 28 (6.2 per cent) female. Of the participants, 230 (60 per cent) were aged 29–39 years and 244 (54.2 per cent) had 5–9 years of experience. An EFA of instrument items generated five factors: professionalism, preparedness, communication, clinical and personal with an eigenvalue > 1, representing 67.5 per cent of total variance. Only variables that had a loading value >0.40 were utilized in the factor solution.

Originality/value

The EFA model Saudi ParamEdic Competency Scale (SPECS) has been identified, with 27 core competency items and five overarching factors. The model has considerable similarities to other medical competency frameworks. However, some aspects are specifically unique to the Saudi EMS context. The SPECS model provides an academic blueprint that can be used by paramedic educational programs to ensure empirical alignment with the needs of the industry and community.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Rameshwar Dubey, Tripti Singh, Sadia Samar Ali, V.G. Venkatesh and Omprakash K. Gupta

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the dimensions of Indian manufacturing firms’ competencies and to study the impact of these competencies on firm performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the dimensions of Indian manufacturing firms’ competencies and to study the impact of these competencies on firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have adopted a literature survey to identify variables and gaps in the research. Based on the construct and its item identified through the literature review the authors have developed a structured questionnaire which was pre-tested before being used for the final survey. The authors have collected data from 100 firms out of 275 targeted firms in two phases which represents a 36.36 per cent response rate. The data have been subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using varimax rotation, which reduced the data into seven parsimonious and orthogonal factors. The authors then carried out regression analysis using EFA output to test the relationship between six independent variables, representing competencies of the firm and performance.

Findings

Findings show that EFA has reduced the data into seven factors, out of which six represent firm competencies and one represents firm performance. The competencies which have been identified are supply-demand coordination and product pricing, logistics, marketing, procurement, manufacturing simplicity and product quality and preventive maintenance. The EFA output was further tested using multiple linear regression analysis which shows that out of six competencies, four are positively supporting, except procurement which is negatively supporting and logistics which is found to be statistically insignificant.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusive model suggests that there is considerable impact from other deterministic variables which are not assumed in the present study, and some of the variance has been accounted for by stochastic variables and response error. However, utmost care has been taken to minimise response error by personal follow-up with each of these firms. The outcome of the quantitative analysis provides an insight into firm competencies and their impact on firm performance. It is very important for the managers who are interested in deriving superior performance from their firm and focusing on supply-demand coordination and product pricing, manufacturing simplicity, marketing and product quality and preventive maintenance practices.

Originality/value

This original study has been carried out by researchers in India on Indian manufacturing firms and adopted an EFA technique to identify dimensions which are unique in their contribution.

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Zhimin Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to explore key factors driving four types of brand relationships, which will explain the reasons why different relationships can form in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore key factors driving four types of brand relationships, which will explain the reasons why different relationships can form in theory and direct brand managers to build brand relationships in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 702 data was collected through four branch scales. The empirical methods of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used in turn to extract the key factors driving every kind of brand relationships.

Findings

The conclusion is that the established instrument relationships are driven by three factors which are: sociogroup pressure, condition restriction and saving the existing; the established emotion relationships are driven by four factors which are company reputation, approval of geography, approval of authority and word of mouth; the acquired instrument relationships are driven by three factors which are low price, brand homogeneity and attempt on new products: and the acquired emotion relationships are driven by six factors which are brand meaning, the staffs' service, marketing promotion, product design, product value and brand element.

Research limitations/implications

There were three limitations in this research. First, the limitation of the sample structure decided this research as an exploratory one. Second, this research only adopted a static perspective although a relationship is a dynamic concept. Third, a few items were not drawn up appropriately so that the fitness of a few models was not perfect.

Originality/value

The formation mechanisms of different brand relationships have not been entirely explored in the former literatures. Based on a new sortation theory of four brand relationships in China, this research exploratorily put forward the completed key factors driving every kind of relationships.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Kayvan Miri‐Lavassani, Vinod Kumar, Bahar Movahedi and Uma Kumar

Though many studies and reports have been published about the scale of identity fraud (IDF), no work has been done on developing models to measure IDF. The purpose of this…

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Abstract

Purpose

Though many studies and reports have been published about the scale of identity fraud (IDF), no work has been done on developing models to measure IDF. The purpose of this paper is to propose a measurement model for IDF and test the validity of that measurement model.

Design/methodology/approach

After providing a background on the concepts of IDF, the paper discusses the related term, identity theft. Next, a measurement model is developed, based on the current practice of measurement of IDF in four countries. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used in identifying the indicators and factors of IDF. After the EFA is conducted, confirmatory factor analysis is employed to test the validity of the measurement model. These tests are conducted using the data collected from Canadian financial institutions.

Findings

The review of the current empirical studies suggests that IDF should be assessed using a measurement model with 33 indicators to measure five factors of IDF. However, the analysis of Canadian financial institutions suggests that a measurement model that includes 27 indicators and four factors is most appropriate for the data.

Research limitations/implications

The measurement model developed in the present paper is based on an examination of a sample of financial institutions in Canada. Hence, the results of this paper cannot be generalized to organizations in other sectors of the economy. Further studies in other sectors of the economy are required to identify industry‐specific measurement model.

Practical implications

This paper is the first approach toward developing a model for measuring IDF.

Originality/value

This paper is the first study that attempts to scientifically identify and validate a measurement system in the area of IDF.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Yaser Sobhanifard

The purpose of this paper is to explore a hybrid model of the consumption of organic foods, combining the use of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and an artificial neural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore a hybrid model of the consumption of organic foods, combining the use of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and an artificial neural network (ANN).

Design/methodology/approach

The study has three phases. In the first phase, the Delphi method is employed, and 15 motives for the consumption of organic food are identified; these motives are used to develop the model in the second phase. Finally, in the last phase, an ANN is used to rank the motives to determine their priority.

Findings

The EFA model explored includes four factors that have a positive effect on the level of organic food consumption. These are naturalness, trust, sanitariness and marketing. Results from the use of an ANN indicate that the main variables in organic food consumption are claims, psychological variables and doubt. From the results of the EFA model it is clear these three variables are components of the factor of trust.

Practical implications

Marketers can use the model developed in this paper to satisfy the needs of their customers and hence enhance their market share and profitability. This study shows that improvements in truth in the claims made for organic products, perceived security from using these products and doubts about the safety of other foods can lead marketers to their goal. Informative advertisements can inculcate trust and naturalness among consumers as main factors.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this study is the light it sheds on how consumers think about organic foods. It develops a model incorporating motives for consuming organic food and determining the priorities held by consumers of organic foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2018

Behzad Ghasemi and Changiz Valmohammadi

The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement instrument toward knowledge management (KM) implementation in the Iranian oil industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement instrument toward knowledge management (KM) implementation in the Iranian oil industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an in-depth study of the relevant literature, the critical success factors (CSFs) related to the sub-factors were identified. Then, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate the instrument. Finally, based on the developed instrument, the KM implementation was evaluated in the subsidiaries of the Iranian oil industry.

Findings

The obtained results reveal the 13 factors as follows: human resource management; KM processes; information technology; business strategy; intellectual capital; KM system; executive practices of KM; management information system; culture; partnership and cooperation with business partners; KM road map; leadership commitment and support; and organizational environment.

Research limitations/implications

As this study was conducted in the Iranian oil industry, cautious should be taken regarding the generalizability of the results.

Practical implications

The proposed instrument can help policymakers and top managers of the subsidiaries of Iranian oil industry in successful implementation and measurement of their KM practices.

Originality/value

Identification and measurement of the CSFs of KM implementation through developing a comprehensive instrument in the context of the Iranian oil industry.

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