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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Bilal Saeed, R. Tasmin, Ayyaz Mahmood and Aamer Hafeez

Considering the relevance of operational excellence as a business strategy, organizations are striving to improve themselves by adopting best practices and universally…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the relevance of operational excellence as a business strategy, organizations are striving to improve themselves by adopting best practices and universally accepted principles through the process of continuous improvement, and these principles should be embedded in the culture of an organization. Organizations pursue to align themselves by continuously improving their processes by adopting scientifically proven techniques and cultural transformation throughout the organization. However, there is a lack of scientific instruments for the assessment of operational excellence. The objective of this study is to develop a scale for the assessment of practices of operational excellence principles in the organizations. Further reliability and validity of the developed scale are measured by testing the relationship between Human Resource Practices (HRP) and Operational Excellence (OE).

Design/methodology/approach

This study comprises quantitative design through exploratory and confirmatory studies and also includes qualitative analysis to develop a scale for the assessment of Operational Excellence (OE). Interviews from industry experts have been conducted to identify the major components for which organizations are striving for OE. Previous literature and excellence models, especially principles of the Shingo Operational Excellence Model (SOEM), have been reviewed and considered to finalize the scale items. Data were collected in two stages from both Telecommunication subsectors (Cellular Mobile Operators and Fixed Local Loop Operators) of Pakistan through the cross-sectional survey. In the first stage, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the sample of 611 respondents from both Cellular Mobile and Fixed Local Loop operators of Pakistan. In the second stage, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the sample of 423 respondents from the Fixed local loop operators. EFA was conducted by using SPSS version 23 to finalize the OE scale, and for confirmatory factor analysis, PLS-SEM using Smart PLS was used to confirm the reliability and validity of the OE Scale.

Findings

The results of EFA reveal that OE is a multidimensional construct with three dimensions and 23 items. The dimensions of the developed OE Scale explored in this study are cultural enablers (CE), continuous process improvement (CPI) and enterprise alignment (EA). The confirmatory factor analysis of OE confirmed the scale dimensionality, reliability and validity along with the hypothesis testing to measure the impact of antecedent variable HRP on OE.

Research limitations/implications

Organizations pursue to improve and align their operational processes but usually unable to confirm the implementation of their desired objectives. Based on the developed OE scale, managers may assess the implementation of OE principles in their organizations. This research has been conducted in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan only, and the developed instrument needs to be further tested in other organizations.

Practical implications

The instrument developed in this study will help both researchers and practitioners to assess the principles of operational excellence in their organizations and enable them to design the strategies for improving organizational performance.

Social implications

The results of this study will create awareness about the principles of operational excellence. The developed OE instrument will assist in identifying the gaps in organizational norms and values from the perspective of paying respect to every individual inside and outside the organization. OE instrument will be further helpful in the identification and assurance of health, safety, protection of the environment and community issues.

Originality/value

This study provides a reliable and validated scale for the scientific area of operation management and helps managers with the assessment of operational excellence in their organizations. This newly developed scale is also valid to test and use in different studies and industries by researchers and practitioners.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Ross R. Vickers

Constructing and evaluating behavioral science models is a complex process. Decisions must be made about which variables to include, which variables are related to each…

Abstract

Constructing and evaluating behavioral science models is a complex process. Decisions must be made about which variables to include, which variables are related to each other, the functional forms of the relationships, and so on. The last 10 years have seen a substantial extension of the range of statistical tools available for use in the construction process. The progress in tool development has been accompanied by the publication of handbooks that introduce the methods in general terms (Arminger et al., 1995; Tinsley & Brown, 2000a). Each chapter in these handbooks cites a wide range of books and articles on specific analysis topics.

Details

The Science and Simulation of Human Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-296-2

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2018

Ismael Luiz dos Santos and Sidnei Vieira Marinho

This study aims to find evidence of a possible relationship between three constructs that are generally investigated separately: entrepreneurial orientation, understood as…

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3789

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to find evidence of a possible relationship between three constructs that are generally investigated separately: entrepreneurial orientation, understood as entrepreneurship on the organizational level; marketing capability, seen as a highly competitive factor for the organization; and business performance, highlighted as a focus of the entire organization.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey-based quantitative approach was adopted with a cross-sectional temporal perspective. To arrive at results that can be compared, the study uses factor analysis and structural equations modeling techniques, with estimations of maximum likelihood for testing the quality of fit of the measures to the structural models, using SPSS 21 and AMOS 16 software. Data were collected at the 27th EXPOSUPER, which is a trade fair at which 35,000 visitors were present. The data collection instrument used is a questionnaire previously validated by Reis Neto et al. (2013a). The first section covers control variables chosen to profile the firms, the second contains entrepreneurial orientation variables, the third comprises marketing capability variables and the fourth section contains business performance variables, all using seven-point Likert response scales.

Findings

Tests of the entrepreneurial orientation measurement scale produced interesting results in this application within the retail supermarket industry. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicated that a scale with three dimensions was significant. The relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and marketing capability (H1) is positive, through the intermediate dimensions of innovation, proactiveness and risk-taking, used by firms’ management, contributing to their efforts to research and manage the market, to develop products and services and to offer better prices. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis showed that four of the scale’s dimensions of the marketing capability were significant: market research, market management, new product development and pricing. Comparison of these results with those of Reis Neto et al. (2013a) reveals a difference, as although their result, achieved using structural equations modeling, also had four factors; the promotion dimension was the most significant and absorbed the other variables. Despite these differences, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations modeling demonstrated that this construct met the minimum conditions for adequacy, where (H2), formulated to test the relationship between the marketing capability construct, was confirmed. The final construct analyzed in this study was business performance, initially suggested by González-Benito et al. (2009), and also used by Reis Neto et al. (2013a). They used the dimensions profitability, market value and market response, and in the present study, after exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations modeling, the results were identical to those authors results, in that (H3), formulated with the objective of testing the relationship between the entrepreneurial orientation construct and business performance, was confirmed, and although this was not the most robust of the relationships postulated in the three hypotheses, but was of lower significance.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study has achieved its objective, one of the study’s limitations relates to the data collection instrument, which was subject to failures in terms of the number of variables to be analyzed in each dimension. This led to elimination of certain dimensions during the analyses. Another limitation is related to the method used in the study. When questionnaires are used as data collection instruments, respondents often may not understand the true meaning of questions, which could lead them to choose any option, thereby stripping the results of credibility. In view of this limitation, it is suggested that future researchers conduct qualitative studies, using the case study method, which could offer greater clarity and increase understanding of the results related to these subjects. Even considering that this study has certain limitations and restrictions affecting generalization, it is hoped that it raises new questions, interests and inspirations, improving and complementing understanding of this strong social and economic sector.

Originality/value

It is identify the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and marketing capability, since to date there is no evidence from studies confirming the existence of such a relationship. This statement was based on the results of a bibliographic survey conducted using the ProKnow-C, knowledge development process-constructivist methodology, in which, this originality was positive and significant, offering new studies from this point of view.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Pedro Albuquerque, Gisela Demo, Solange Alfinito and Kesia Rozzett

Factor analysis is the most used tool in organizational research and its widespread use in scale validations contribute to decision-making in management. However, standard…

Abstract

Purpose

Factor analysis is the most used tool in organizational research and its widespread use in scale validations contribute to decision-making in management. However, standard factor analysis is not always applied correctly mainly due to the misuse of ordinal data as interval data and the inadequacy of the former for classical factor analysis. The purpose of this paper is to present and apply the Bayesian factor analysis for mixed data (BFAMD) in the context of empirical using the Bayesian paradigm for the construction of scales.

Design/methodology/approach

Ignoring the categorical nature of some variables often used in management studies, as the popular Likert scale, may result in a model with false accuracy and possibly biased estimates. To address this issue, Quinn (2004) proposed a Bayesian factor analysis model for mixed data, which is capable of modeling ordinal (qualitative measure) and continuous data (quantitative measure) jointly and allows the inclusion of qualitative information through prior distributions for the parameters’ model. This model, adopted here, presents considering advantages and allows the estimation of the posterior distribution for the latent variables estimated, making the process of inference easier.

Findings

The results show that BFAMD is an effective approach for scale validation in management studies making both exploratory and confirmatory analyses possible for the estimated factors and also allowing the analysts to insert a priori information regardless of the sample size, either by using the credible intervals for Factor Loadings or by conducting specific hypotheses tests. The flexibility of the Bayesian approach presented is counterbalanced by the fact that the main estimates used in factor analysis as uniqueness and communalities commonly lose their usual interpretation due to the choice of using prior distributions.

Originality/value

Considering that the development of scales through factor analysis aims to contribute to appropriate decision-making in management and the increasing misuse of ordinal scales as interval in organizational studies, this proposal seems to be effective for mixed data analyses. The findings found here are not intended to be conclusive or limiting but offer a useful starting point from which further theoretical and empirical research of Bayesian factor analysis can be built.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Rick Diesel and Caren Brenda Scheepers

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between complexity leadership and contextual ambidexterity as well as the mediating effect of organisational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between complexity leadership and contextual ambidexterity as well as the mediating effect of organisational innovation climate in this link. This study is an answer to a call on which leadership approach and mediating factors can meet today’s seemingly contradictory challenges of efficiently managing business demands, while simultaneously searching for new opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers analysed 1,204 usable survey responses from employees of South African organisations. Analysis was in the form of structural equation modelling. Mediation analysis was carried out on estimates of the indirect effect.

Findings

Results show that complexity leadership was a strong predictor of innovation climate; in turn, innovation climate positively impacts exploratory innovation by 64 per cent; complexity leadership and innovation climate positively affect exploitation by 57 per cent. The innovation climate plays a total mediator role between complexity leadership and exploratory innovation and a partial effect on exploitation.

Practical implications

This study gives human resource management (HRM) insight into strategically directing leadership recruitment and development towards creating an organisational climate to enhance ambidexterity. HRM must conduct regular climate surveys to ascertain whether current leadership is creating an environment that enables exploratory and exploitative innovation.

Originality/value

The authors’ contribution includes a theoretical contribution to the emerging field of complexity leadership by offering conceptual as well as empirical evidence of its role in ambidexterity. This study extends previous research in highlighting organisational climate’s mediating role of being open to new ideas to enable exploratory innovation.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Justyna Wiktorowicz

The purpose of this paper is to propose the method of measurement of competencies using exploratory factor analysis and the evaluation of the relation between competencies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the method of measurement of competencies using exploratory factor analysis and the evaluation of the relation between competencies and economic activity of mature people.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis is based on the Study of Human Capital data (conducted in Poland). The study population people are aged 50+. In statistical analysis explanatory factor analysis and logistic regression were used.

Findings

Competencies are the crucial factor of professional position and career development. However, older people have often out-dated skills and it results in a higher propensity for economic deactivation. On the other hand, older people are valuable on the labour market due to their experience, knowledge and social skills. The survey results indicate that competencies, measured with using of factor analysis, similarly as health, marital status, place of residence and age are significant determinants of early employment deactivation.

Research limitations/implications

Limitation in the evaluation of the risk of economic deactivation factors is the static approach of this analysis. The Study of Human Capital data are the best source of information about competencies of Poles, but its character is not longitudinal.

Originality/value

The analysis of mature people’s competencies is very important in the context of extending working life, but the scientific researches in this area are rare. This paper would reduce the knowledge gap on the topic of reasons for older workers’ deactivation in which competencies are included. Application of exploratory factor analysis in this area is unique.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Joseph M. Petrosko and Meera Alagaraja

The purpose of the paper is to suggest effective choices for key decisions when pursuing a programmatic research strategy in management, spirituality and religion (MSR)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to suggest effective choices for key decisions when pursuing a programmatic research strategy in management, spirituality and religion (MSR). An example is provided of how the suggestions can be used.

Design/methodology/approach

Suggestions for research were gleaned from current sources in research methodology. The example provided was a study of 398 employees who were surveyed on spirituality, job satisfaction and intent to leave their job. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test three research hypotheses.

Findings

Using item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and SEM can be a way to pursue research using variables related to spirituality and religion.

Originality/value

A programmatic research strategy employing SEM can effectively model how spirituality/religious variables directly and indirectly affect outcomes significant to the organization.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Gilmar J. Santos

The purpose of this paper is to advocate that qualitative research tools can replace and merge with quantitative ones, in order to simplify the task of gathering and…

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2866

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advocate that qualitative research tools can replace and merge with quantitative ones, in order to simplify the task of gathering and processing information.

Design/methodology/approach

The study demonstrates how a qualitative technique (card sort) was successfully used to replace a quantitative tool (exploratory factor analysis) for the task of construct development, saving time, funds and sample units. All the steps in the card sort technique are described and exemplified by its application to develop two constructs in a research about newspapers internal communication management.

Findings

The constructs were tested through confirmatory factor analysis across a sample of 184 Brazilian newspapers, satisfying all fit indexes and other statistical requirements.

Research limitations/implications

Although the card sort technique successfully substituted exploratory factor analysis in this research, such a procedure must be used carefully. Whenever exploratory factor analysis is feasible, it must be done. Moreover, the study reports only one case in which the substitution was successful. Therefore, the technique must be repeated to get its validation.

Practical implications

As the processes of gathering data are simplified, the easier it is for managers to base their decisions on research and information.

Originality/value

The study proves empirically the feasibility of merging qualitative and quantitative approach – a procedure that has been advocated but hardly demonstrated. Card sort can be recommended as an interesting tool for corporate communications research, at both managerial and academic levels.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Kerry Ferguson, Carol A. Ireland and Jane L. Ireland

The current study aims to report on the development of a self‐report measure of disclosure strategies in adult male prisoners (violent and acquisitive offences) and its…

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118

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to report on the development of a self‐report measure of disclosure strategies in adult male prisoners (violent and acquisitive offences) and its association with personality and self‐esteem.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed an adapted version of the Delphi technique to develop initial items for inclusion in the new disclosure measure (Disclosure Management Questionnaire: DMQ). This element of the study utilised an “expert sample” of forensic psychologists. A total of 94 prisoners then completed the developed measure. Factor analysis was utilised to explore the structure of the measure, which subsequently allowed associations between disclosure strategies, personality and self‐esteem to be identified.

Findings

Analysis revealed a measure of disclosure (the DMQ) comprising four subscales: Exploratory Engagement, Placatory/Evasive Engagement, Passive Resistance and Active Resistance. Significant correlations were identified between the personality trait Neuroticism and higher levels of Placatory/Evasive Engagement and Active Resistance of forensic clients during the disclosure process. Self‐esteem was also found to correlate with disclosure, in that high trait self‐esteem was found to be associated with higher exploratory engagement, whereas low trait self‐esteem was associated with higher levels of active resistance of the disclosure process.

Originality/value

Developing an understanding of the nature and function of disclosure and how these relate to individual factors such as personality (including trait self‐esteem) provides valuable knowledge and alternative ways of supporting forensic clients in discussing difficult issues related to their offending.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Rana Basu and Prabha Bhola

The purpose of this paper is to explore and identify the contextual quality management practices (QMP) and to empirically examine their underlying dimensions and its…

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1502

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and identify the contextual quality management practices (QMP) and to empirically examine their underlying dimensions and its direct influence or association with performance in context to Indian IT enabled service small- and mid-size enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology adopted in this study is sequential exploratory mixed method approach. This study adopts two stage processes of capturing data, first identifying critical QMP/indicators as obtained from review of literature, followed by in-depth interview based on semi-structured questionnaire from sample of 20 select service SMEs. Based on comprehensive compilation of literature as well as through in-depth interview 21 QMP have been identified. Structured instrument has been developed taking measures as identified. The QMP relevant to SMEs have been derived from Kaynak (2003), Samat et al. (2006), Salaheldin (2009), Kim et al. (2012) and Talib et al. (2013b). The research instrument developed was customised and adapted to the background of Indian IT enabled service SMEs. Similarly for measuring quality performance five items have been identified from previous literature. Five-point Likert scale ranging from “5=strongly agree” to “1=strongly disagree” is used to show the agreement of the respondents. Exploratory factor analysis has been deployed to identify underlying dimensions of QMP. Thereafter, linear regression modelling has been done to better understand the relationships between QMP and quality performance.

Findings

A three-factor solution has been obtained and the individual practices could be reconfigured into three dimensions, namely, organisational management, capacity management and quality documentation and security management (QDSM). The findings reflect that strength of Indian IT enabled service SMEs pertaining to quality implementation lie with customer focus, training and service-level management (SLM). Regression analysis shows that all three factor dimensions are positively influencing quality performance. The predictor score of three factor dimensions clearly reflects that Indian SMEs in service sectors have been focusing more on organisational culture and QDSM. The overall findings resemble very interesting insights which gives indication of unstructured pattern of approach. Keeping in view the pattern of practices it can be predicted that Indian digital SMEs are not practicing continuous improvement. It could be inferred that Indian IT enabled service SMEs approach is non-continuous in nature.

Research limitations/implications

Further analysis may be needed to measure the construct using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The research paper is limited by including only six service sub-sectors which may not be adequate to generalise the results for the entire IT enabled/digital service SMEs within India. The same study can be extended by incorporating more quality management (QM) variables and other contextual factors within the organisation and by involving other service sector SMEs. Future research could be done by incorporating multi-contingency framework and moreover researchers may deploy other sophisticated tools and techniques to investigate how individual QMP are interrelated and its influence on performance by means of linkage research. The conceptual model developed can be validated by incorporating other service sector SMEs by deploying CFA and structural modelling.

Practical implications

This study could be beneficial to entrepreneurs and managers of start-ups and other service industries towards understanding improvement and changing their implementation approach. The theoretically grounded conceptual framework developed could provide entrepreneurial insights to new service managers and entrepreneurs who can better allocate their scarce resources to build quality and scalability effectively.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature in identifying and showing importance of QMP in Indian IT enabled service SMEs. This choice is appropriate for this study as no prior research has been found to be conducted on this particular sector from Indian context, especially from service SMEs point of view. This research contributes in identifying new QMP (i.e. service reporting; content management; SLM and information and security management). Overall, the results of this study contribute towards advancing the understanding of the dimensionality of QM. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first study being undertaken in context to Indian IT enabled service SMEs and is believed that the study provides valuable knowledge from the perspective of QM issues pertaining to Indian service firms.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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