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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Robin Bell and Heather Bell

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic…

Abstract

Purpose

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic process-driven approach. Experiential approaches offer the potential to develop the skills and mindset that are required in entrepreneurship. Research has highlighted the critical importance of educator pedagogical competence in the delivery and quality of teaching and learning in further and higher education. Nevertheless, educator narratives and practices are often based on foundations that suggest a lack in the depth of knowledge and understanding of the underlying pedagogic learning theories and practice. This paper brings educational theory and pedagogic practice together in a three-stage framework of the experiential entrepreneurship learning process to support entrepreneurship educators within further and higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews and brings together the seminal educational theories and philosophies of constructivism, objectivism, Kolb's (1984) theory of experiential learning, Schön's (1983) reflection-in-action and Mezirow's (1997) theory of transformative learning, to develop a framework which underpins the experiential entrepreneurship learning process.

Findings

This paper develops a three-stage framework which informs the roles of an educator and a learner in experiential entrepreneurship education within further and higher education, based on educational theories and philosophies that inform the learning process.

Practical implications

The developed framework supports the pedagogic competence of educators in the delivery of experiential entrepreneurship education through a deeper understanding of the supporting theory that informs the pedagogic practice. This will provide consolidation to enable educators to maximise the effectiveness of their educational practice (Kaynardağ, 2019) and can increase the legitimacy of entrepreneurship education (Foliard et al., 2018).

Originality/value

This paper meets calls in the literature to provide a closer engagement between educational theory and pedagogic practice to afford guidance as to how educators can navigate some of the different educational theories and philosophies to consolidate the effective delivery of quality experiential entrepreneurship education. Applying seminal educational theories and philosophies to ensure the quality of experiential education can support the legitimacy of experiential entrepreneurship education.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2014

To examine the impacts experiential learning can have on student learning in and out of the classroom. Models of experiential learning are presented including the…

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the impacts experiential learning can have on student learning in and out of the classroom. Models of experiential learning are presented including the experiential learning theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The historical roots of experiential learning are reviewed before a new experiential learning theory is presented, VAKT-enhanced, to demonstrate the many unique paths that learners take toward content learning, retention, and synthesis.

Findings

Apprenticeship experience is universally recognized as an effective method of learning; we learn from doing. Yet, the field of literacy has maintained for decades that reading skills must be taught, often carried out in a drill fashion, also known as the proverbial skill-and-drill technique

Practical implications

A multisensory approach that involves experiencing literature through hands-on and e-learning environments can promote reading acquisition efficiently, bridging the gap between diverse student bodies. Students must be rejuvenated to become interested or maintain interest in literacy, and using technology and experiential learning should be of central focus.

Details

Theoretical Models of Learning and Literacy Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-821-1

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2017

Yashar Mansoori

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the instructions of the lean startup methodology influence entrepreneurs. It explores what happens when such instructions are…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the instructions of the lean startup methodology influence entrepreneurs. It explores what happens when such instructions are enacted by entrepreneurs in the context of a “prescriptive accelerator”. The goal is to shine a light onto the mechanisms by which these instructions are acquired and then utilised by entrepreneurs and to outline in some detail the implications of adhering to the lean startup methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs an in-depth phenomenological semi-structured interview design. Two rounds of interviews were conducted, one at the beginning and one at the end of the programme with the CEOs and founders of 11 entrepreneurial ventures, totalling 22 interviews. The analysis of the interviews resulted in five second-order themes that are discussed in light of the processes of experiential and vicarious learning.

Findings

The findings suggest that through two distinct modes of vicarious and experiential learning, the instructions of the lean startup methodology are acquired, internalised and consequently put into practice by entrepreneurs. The paper further highlights the modifications to entrepreneurs’ governing variables and action strategies, as well as the resulting consequences of these modifications. This provides insights into possible outcomes of following the lean startup methodology in the context of a prescriptive accelerator where a strong focus on adhering to a systematic entrepreneurial methodology is a characteristic feature.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to our understanding of the under-studied and novel phenomena of the lean startup methodology and prescriptive accelerators. It complements the prevailing understanding of entrepreneurial learning as being largely experiential by accounting for the vicarious learning processes that occur in pedagogical settings such as prescriptive accelerators. It therefore shows that prescriptive accelerators provide unique learning situations where the combination of vicarious and experiential learning impacts the business development activities. Further, it provides a model of entrepreneurs’ theory of action as the outcome of the interactions between the lean startup methodology and the two modes of vicarious and experiential learning.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2014

Jennifer Patterson

The purpose of this paper is to apply experiential learning theory to discuss a UK project-based knowledge transfer partnership (KPT) project between a university and a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply experiential learning theory to discuss a UK project-based knowledge transfer partnership (KPT) project between a university and a third sector organisation offering outdoor and experiential education for around 32,000 inner city children annually. It uses different models to critically consider how different experiential paradigms or world-views support different understandings of project experience in the real world. It examines the nature of experiential learning through project experience, applying a phenomenological inquiry to reflect on how experiential learning is valued academically and culturally. It considers environmental influences to balance the relational practices that represent intangible experiential elements in partnership work.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a postmodern qualitative methodology, this paper applies different frameworks to narrative, a synthesis of data from the project, an interview, literature and reflection to present a critical consideration of experiential learning constructs. It foregrounds the academic value of ethical subjectivity and as such also presents a reflective Feminist auto-ethnographic praxis grounded in the project.

Findings

Experiential learning is critical for human inquiry. Valuing experiential learning methods differently offers ethical applications for facilitating project work and partner relationships.

Practical implications

Applied experiential learning theory supports organisational understanding in project work. An ethics of subjectivity places equal value on expertise in its own environment leading to a facilitated rather than a hierarchical transfer of knowledge, critical for project success. The project is financially successful and has wide reaching social and environmental impact. Thinking differently about provision means a substantial number of children beyond those physically visiting the organisation will benefit through teacher training.

Social implications

The UK government no longer funds outdoor education. This paper demonstrates the importance of fostering environmental relationships for human identity, to support education for sustainable development and wider societal and environmental understandings.

Originality/value

Developed through project process this is a new values-based, environmental, organisational and educational transformational approach to partnership. It is useful in education, working in partnership with businesses and ESD.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Dalien René Benecke and Rose‐Marie Bezuidenhout

This paper seeks to present a view on the experiential learning practices in public relations education in South Africa. The focus of the study on which the article is…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to present a view on the experiential learning practices in public relations education in South Africa. The focus of the study on which the article is based is to identify the view of the educators on experiential learning and the different experiential learning methods used in the education and training of public relations learners in South Africa. Kolb's theory of experiential learning (1984) is used as a point of departure.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research approach supported by quantitative research techniques was used to determine the perception, interpretation and implementation of experiential learning by higher education institutions as service providers of public relations qualifications.

Findings

In summary the findings of the study indicated a shared opinion of the importance of experiential learning but that experiential learning as a learning approach is not followed.

Originality/value

The proposed framework uses experiential learning principles as a basis for the education and training of public relations learners.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2014

Paige E. Sindt and James M. Lucas

Social and technological changes of the 21st century influence how and what students learn while in college. New research about student learning suggests a critical need…

Abstract

Social and technological changes of the 21st century influence how and what students learn while in college. New research about student learning suggests a critical need for higher education to reform teaching and learning methods. Experiential and inquiry-based learning (IBL) are essential to engaging students and achieving the type of learning demanded by today’s global workforce. These skills include critical analysis, systems thinking, problem-solving, and spanning cultural and disciplinary boundaries. For decades, international educators purported that education abroad provided these skills for participants, yet recent research suggests that the same factors inhibiting deep learning on campus can also affect global, experiential environments. No longer can faculty members assume that students will learn from experience alone; they must intentionally construct activities accounting for the specific characteristics and needs of learners. This chapter outlines trends influencing student learning, making the case that traditional, content-based, directed instruction is poorly suited for student learning in the 21st century. The authors suggest that applying experiential and inquiry-based practices is essential to constructing effective education abroad program. Case studies, strategies, tools, and resources are provided to assist faculty with developing competencies to teach through an experiential and inquiry-based pedagogical framework.

Details

Inquiry-based Learning for Faculty and Institutional Development: A Conceptual and Practical Resource for Educators
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-235-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

David Lamb

The purpose of this paper is to use an experiential learning model in an introduction to events unit/module in partnership with Sport Canterbury (one of 17 regional Sports…

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3371

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use an experiential learning model in an introduction to events unit/module in partnership with Sport Canterbury (one of 17 regional Sports Trusts, throughout New Zealand). During this unit/module students explored the creation and manipulation of an event experience and gained real-life hands on experience. Through their engagement in this process, students were able to acquire skills and knowledge that helped them experience the whole event planning cycle in planning, implement and evaluating an event. Experiential learning approaches are a valuable tool to overcome the knowledge-practice gap recognised in many vocationally orientated disciplines, including event management.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a mixed methods approach including an on-line questionnaire, a number of interviews with students enrolled in the unit/module a survey involving the evaluation of those involved in the events organised by the students and a review of critical reflection diaries, written by students.

Findings

This paper highlights that an extensive range of event skills both personal and team based were acquired, developed and practised during the unit/module and students were able to relate the theory of event studies to the practice of managing an event. In particular students reported that they were able to utilise, record and reflect on their experience and adapt their learning to organising a real-life event. The experiential learning model used in this study resulted in students being actively engaged in their learning through involvement and active participation in an actual event, where they were able to apply what they had learnt in the classroom to the real world. The connection between theory and practice is therefore, pivotal and is a prevailing theme of this paper.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates how students of event management were provided with the skills and knowledge to run events, by personal involvement in a real-life event in a student centred learning environment. Students enrolled on this unit/module were made responsible for every aspect of managing the annual Rebel Kiwisport Challenge (a series of recreation-based events held over a half day period for primary schoolchildren based in the Canterbury region). Balancing the theoretical input with the practical aspects of events in the introduction to events module/unit enabled students to become multitasking and as a result gain highly portable skills that will help them succeed in their future careers in events. Indeed, in a survey involving 1,100 employers in Australia Neilsen (2000) reported that the five most important skills needed for graduate employment were oral business communication skills, creativity, problem-solving skills, independent and critical thinking skills and flexibility. Similar research undertaken by Greenan et al. (1997) in the UK and Braxton et al. (1996) in the USA, report the same findings. Although, there is a dearth of literature in the social sciences on experiential learning, the same debate within event management education is sadly lacking and it is hoped that this study will help fill a gap in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2020

Caitlin Candice Ferreira

Through the lens of experiential learning theory, this conceptual paper examines the factors influencing the likelihood of transitioning from hybrid to full-time…

Abstract

Purpose

Through the lens of experiential learning theory, this conceptual paper examines the factors influencing the likelihood of transitioning from hybrid to full-time entrepreneurship. It is critical to evaluate the experiential learning that takes place during the hybrid phase, in order to establish a more nuanced understanding of the dynamic entrepreneurial journey.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper made use of a secondary data analysis of the existing academic literature, in particular using a thematic analysis, in order to propose a conceptual model and associated propositions.

Findings

The proposed conceptual model identifies four factors: fear of failure, perceived risk, entrepreneurial competency development and self-efficacy that are predicted to influence the transition decision. This paper establishes hybrid entrepreneurship as an effective learning ground and path toward full-time entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

Providing insights into the factors that influence the transition, allows policy makers to establish systems and incubators to support hybrid entrepreneurs reach the tipping point at which they have sufficient knowledge to enter full-time entrepreneurship. This paper establishes the importance of developmental policies aimed at encouraging hybrid entrepreneurship. There are also implications for managers of hybrid entrepreneurs to establish policies that encourage a culture of transparency and reap the benefits of enhanced employee development.

Originality/value

The paper has three predominant sources of value. First, offering a multidisciplinary approach by extending an existing theory to a new context; second, through the establishment of a conceptual model, offering propositions readily linked to hypotheses for future empirical assessment and third, enhancing the visibility of hybrid entrepreneurship in the literature to encourage public policy intervention and support.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

Judith A. White

Summarizes the findings and observations from managerial andprofessional development workshops with managers, physicians, educators,and social workers where a theory of…

Abstract

Summarizes the findings and observations from managerial and professional development workshops with managers, physicians, educators, and social workers where a theory of experiential learning was applied in workshop design and content, along with the Learning Styles Inventory. In a follow‐up study of some of the workshops, participants reported an increase in self‐understanding and appreciation of their own and their colleagues′ learning styles and a valuing of the differences and integration of all four learning styles. Some reported an improvement in their working relationships between peers, supervisees, managers, and clients.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Adrian V. Ely

The urgent challenges of sustainability require novel teaching methods facilitating different types of learning. The purpose of this paper is to examine the important role…

Abstract

Purpose

The urgent challenges of sustainability require novel teaching methods facilitating different types of learning. The purpose of this paper is to examine the important role of experiential learning in higher education programmes relating to sustainability and to evaluate a number of teaching and learning activities (TLAs) that can be used to leverage this approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on questionnaire surveys carried out for over seven years with students from a highly international master’s-level course, this paper describes the utility of experiential learning theory in teaching around “innovation for sustainability”. Drawing on Kolb’s theories and subsequent modifications, the paper reviews and evaluates the TLAs used in the course that have fostered experiential learning in the classroom, including role-play seminars, case study-based seminars and sessions centred around sharing and reflecting on personal professional histories.

Findings

The qualitative data and discussion illustrate the utility of experiential learning approaches in post-graduate education for sustainable development, especially in generating empathy and understanding for different sustainability perspectives and priorities from around the world. In particular, the paper offers novel insights into the strengths and limitations of the TLAs.

Originality/value

These insights are valuable to education for sustainable development practitioners dealing with international student intakes displaying variable levels of professional experience who are looking to foster experiential learning, reflection and inter-cultural empathy. They can inform the design of classroom-based TLAs that are capable of equipping students with not only the analytical skills for career success but also the inter-cultural sensibility required for international leadership in the sustainable development domain.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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