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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2020

Robin Bell and Heather Bell

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic…

Abstract

Purpose

Experiential approaches have become increasingly common in entrepreneurship education in response to calls for different approaches to the traditional didactic process-driven approach. Experiential approaches offer the potential to develop the skills and mindset that are required in entrepreneurship. Research has highlighted the critical importance of educator pedagogical competence in the delivery and quality of teaching and learning in further and higher education. Nevertheless, educator narratives and practices are often based on foundations that suggest a lack in the depth of knowledge and understanding of the underlying pedagogic learning theories and practice. This paper brings educational theory and pedagogic practice together in a three-stage framework of the experiential entrepreneurship learning process to support entrepreneurship educators within further and higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews and brings together the seminal educational theories and philosophies of constructivism, objectivism, Kolb's (1984) theory of experiential learning, Schön's (1983) reflection-in-action and Mezirow's (1997) theory of transformative learning, to develop a framework which underpins the experiential entrepreneurship learning process.

Findings

This paper develops a three-stage framework which informs the roles of an educator and a learner in experiential entrepreneurship education within further and higher education, based on educational theories and philosophies that inform the learning process.

Practical implications

The developed framework supports the pedagogic competence of educators in the delivery of experiential entrepreneurship education through a deeper understanding of the supporting theory that informs the pedagogic practice. This will provide consolidation to enable educators to maximise the effectiveness of their educational practice (Kaynardağ, 2019) and can increase the legitimacy of entrepreneurship education (Foliard et al., 2018).

Originality/value

This paper meets calls in the literature to provide a closer engagement between educational theory and pedagogic practice to afford guidance as to how educators can navigate some of the different educational theories and philosophies to consolidate the effective delivery of quality experiential entrepreneurship education. Applying seminal educational theories and philosophies to ensure the quality of experiential education can support the legitimacy of experiential entrepreneurship education.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Richard Mandel and Erik Noyes

The purpose of this paper is to analyze experiential entrepreneurship education offerings – programs and courses – among the “Top 25” undergraduate schools of…

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3813

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze experiential entrepreneurship education offerings – programs and courses – among the “Top 25” undergraduate schools of entrepreneurship in the USA. The motivation is to understand the array and vitality of experiential initiatives across the country. A related aim is to unearth obstacles to offering experiential entrepreneurship and identify affordable, viable options. Surveying undergraduate program deans, chairs and administrators, the authors inventory and analyze experiences offered in top entrepreneurship programs. The target audience for the research is entrepreneurship education researchers and business program leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is a survey approach. A survey was sent to the entrepreneurship program leaders of the “Top 25” business schools according to recently published rankings. In total, 57 percent of the target population responded to the survey.

Findings

The authors find that credit-yielding experiential entrepreneurship offerings are abundant. Yet an array of challenges constrain the growth this mode of delivery – including finding suitable faculty, mentors and other support resources.

Research limitations/implications

A potential limitation of the study is its focus on “Top 25” undergraduate entrepreneurship programs, as this may not be reflective of activity in the wider sample of entrepreneurship programs.

Practical implications

The first inventory of its kind, this study provides vital knowledge about the array of practices by leading programs. The study may be used to drive benchmarking and further innovation by leaders of entrepreneurship programs.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the most comprehensive, recent study of undergraduate, experiential entrepreneurship education.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 58 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

J. Ben Arbaugh, Alvin Hwang, Jeffrey J. McNally, Charles J. Fornaciari and Lisa A. Burke-Smalley

This paper aims to compare the nature of three different business and management education (BME) research streams (online/blended learning, entrepreneurship education and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare the nature of three different business and management education (BME) research streams (online/blended learning, entrepreneurship education and experiential learning), along with their citation sources to draw insights on their support and legitimacy bases, with lessons on improving such support and legitimacy for the streams and the wider BME research field.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze the nature of three BME research streams and their citation sources through tests of differences across streams.

Findings

The three streams differ in research foci and approaches such as the use of managerial samples in experiential learning, quantitative studies in online/blended education and literature reviews in entrepreneurship education. They also differ in sources of legitimacy recognition and avenues for mobilization of support. The underlying literature development pattern of the experiential learning stream indicates a need for BME scholars to identify and build on each other’s work.

Research limitations/implications

Identification of different research bases and key supporting literature in the different streams shows important core articles that are useful to build research in each stream.

Practical implications

Readers will understand the different research bases supporting the three research streams, along with their targeted audience and practice implications.

Social implications

The discovery of different support bases for the three different streams helps identify the network of authors and relationships that have been built in each stream.

Originality/value

According to the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to uncover differences in nature and citation sources of the three continuously growing BME research streams with recommendations on ways to improve the support of the three streams.

Details

Organization Management Journal, vol. 18 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Jonathan M Scott, Andy Penaluna and John L Thompson

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical appraisal of how experiential approaches can more effectively enhance the achievement of desired learning outcomes in…

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2106

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical appraisal of how experiential approaches can more effectively enhance the achievement of desired learning outcomes in entrepreneurship education. In particular, the authors critique whether actual learning outcomes can be profitably used to measure effectiveness; and consider how student performance can be evaluated through the twin lenses of implementation or innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors undertook a review of both traditional and experiential approaches to entrepreneurship education. In addition to comparing these approaches, the authors critiqued a number of “taken for granted” assumptions regarding the effectiveness of experiential approaches to entrepreneurship education and made recommendations.

Findings

Although there is a large body of research on experiential approaches towards entrepreneurship education, the authors know little about how these approaches contribute towards the effective achievement of desired learning outcomes. Whilst many authors claim that such approaches are effective, such assertions are not supported by sufficient robust evidence. Hence the authors need to establish more effective student performance evaluation metrics. In particular: first, whether actual learning outcomes are appropriate measures of effectiveness; and second, the authors should evaluate student performance through the lenses of the two “Is” – implementation or innovation.

Practical implications

Whether actual learning outcomes are used as a measure of effectiveness at all needs to be critiqued further. Implementation involves doing things that are determined by others and matching against their expectations, whereas innovation comprises producing multiple and varied solutions that respond to change and often surprise.

Originality/value

Through revisiting the discussions on the art and the science of entrepreneurship education, this paper represents an initial critical attempt – as part of an ongoing study – to fill a gap in entrepreneurship education research. The paper, therefore, has significant value for students, entrepreneurship educators and policy-makers.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2014

Yuen-Ping Ho, Pei-Chin Low and Poh-Kam Wong

This paper investigates empirically the link between entrepreneurship education programs and students’ entrepreneurial behavior, with a particular focus on the distinction…

Abstract

This paper investigates empirically the link between entrepreneurship education programs and students’ entrepreneurial behavior, with a particular focus on the distinction between experiential and classroom-based education. We introduce a more refined measure of entrepreneurial engagement that combines entrepreneurship intention and actual steps taken to realize that intention. Using data from a survey of 836 students at the National University of Singapore (NUS), we utilize linear regression models to examine not only the direct effect of entrepreneurship education program participation on entrepreneurial engagement, but also its possible interaction effect with several psychological constructs drawn from the Theory of Planned Behavior. The results show that participation in university entrepreneurship programs, especially experiential-learning programs, has significant positive influence on students’ entrepreneurial engagement. Moreover, the effect of program participation is significantly moderated by the students’ attitudes and perceptions. The findings have important practical implications for universities in designing entrepreneurship programs on campus. The study supports the call to move toward hands-on experiential programs as a more effective way for educational institutions to influence students’ entrepreneurial behavior and encourage venture creation activity on campus. We also contribute to the literature by confirming the impact of entrepreneurship education not only on entrepreneurial intentions but also on the concrete steps taken by students toward venture creation.

Details

Innovative Pathways for University Entrepreneurship in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-497-8

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2017

Ralph Nyadu-Addo and Mavis Serwah Benneh Mensah

Entrepreneurship education thrives on the pillars of experiential education. Using the case of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Ghana, the purpose…

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1441

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship education thrives on the pillars of experiential education. Using the case of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Ghana, the purpose of this paper is to examine the entrepreneurship clinic (EC) as a viable pedagogy for the promotion of experiential education in entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on insider action research to analyse, within Joplin’s five-step model, the case of the EC at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana.

Findings

The analysis showed that the KNUST clinic comprises five main activities including preparation, orientation, selection and matching, coaching and monitoring and evaluation. In relation to Joplin’s five-step model, the first three stages of the clinic provide focus for the clinic while the remaining two stages – coaching and monitoring and evaluation – entail activities that are geared towards action, support, feedback and debrief. Through the clinic, thousands of tertiary students have been trained in entrepreneurship and new venture creation; some selected participants have been coached while others have had the opportunity to qualify for business incubation.

Research limitations/implications

Although the paper discusses some achievements of the clinic in relation to enrolment and fundraising, it does not assess the impact of the clinic on the entrepreneurial competencies, intentions and initiatives of participants, hence, these issues are recommended for future research.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates that it is feasible to implement the EC methodology, irrespective of the cost and time implications that are often associated with experiential educational methodologies. However, support from university management, funding raising from internal and external sources and technical support from industry and government agencies are key to the sustainability of clinics.

Originality/value

The paper adds novelty to the entrepreneurship education literature by bringing to the fore how a university in an emerging African economy is implementing and managing the EC pedagogy.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2020

Thomas Howard Morris and Pascal D. König

Policy makers have called for more entrepreneurship throughout societies as a response to the digital transformation. This paper argues that the rapidly changing…

Abstract

Purpose

Policy makers have called for more entrepreneurship throughout societies as a response to the digital transformation. This paper argues that the rapidly changing conditions of the digital age indeed mark a change in the bases of entrepreneurship. Specifically, as adaptivity becomes key, a learning capacity and general ability to adapt becomes a critical factor in entrepreneurial activity. The paper identifies self-directed learning (SDL) as a fundamental competence in this regard and examines its role for entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial competence.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops a theoretical framework for the role of SDL in entrepreneurship through a process of systematic review of previous studies that have linked SDL to entrepreneurship.

Findings

The formulated theoretical framework shows how SDL competence combines with experiential learning in supporting the kind of adaptivity needed for entrepreneurial competence, especially under more rapidly changing conditions. SDL competence also gains wider importance through enabling individuals to meet the demands of organizational changes in our highly volatile world.

Practical implications

SDL competence prepares individuals for entrepreneurship and resilience in face of rapid changes as well as for being more entrepreneurial in the conduct of their lives more generally. Fostering SDL competence can thus be regarded as an important objective of entrepreneurship education.

Originality/value

The described self-directed experiential learning cycle offers a novel perspective that clarifies how both self-directed and experiential learning competences are integral for understanding the basis of adaptiveness in entrepreneurial activity.

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2017

Jaime L. Williams and Richard J. Gentry

Entrepreneurship education exists to give provide students the tools and perspective necessary to make an informed decision about when starting a business is right for…

Abstract

Entrepreneurship education exists to give provide students the tools and perspective necessary to make an informed decision about when starting a business is right for them. It is holistic, giving students a sense for the entire process as well as what it means to be an entrepreneur. It is occasionally technical; it is undoubtedly exciting and complex. Why then does so much of academe employ rote-lecturing techniques to provide this training? Entrepreneurship is a process and a behavior set – not a person-specific attribute. Until students are allowed out of their seats to engage in behaviors other than note taking, they will not understand how to act entrepreneurially. This chapter explores this inconsistency, why traditional approaches are so problematic and modern experiential approaches that can help.

Details

The Great Debates in Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-076-1

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Jonathan Matthew Scott, Kathryn Pavlovich, John L. Thompson and Andy Penaluna

Little is known about how experiential entrepreneurship education approaches contribute toward enhancing the engagement of students in the learning process. Using a…

Abstract

Purpose

Little is known about how experiential entrepreneurship education approaches contribute toward enhancing the engagement of students in the learning process. Using a purposive and convenience sample of individual student reflective journals, the purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate how the process of constructive misalignment enhances the level of student engagement through a team-based experiential entrepreneurship education assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from a purposive and convenience sample of reflective journals, an individual “performance assessment” element of three Masters-level courses (courses 1, 2 and 3) that included an “active” group business ideas generation presentation and a report. These texts were analyzed through content analysis that critically evaluates and summarizes the content of data and their messages.

Findings

While expected learning outcomes included teamwork and communication, the higher levels of active learning and student engagement related to innovation and generating a business idea was much more modest. Rather, the study finds that significant learning opportunities were apparent when students experienced unexpected aspects of constructive misalignment, such as linguistic–cultural challenges, nonparticipation and freeriding.

Originality/value

Building on Biggs’ (2003) model of constructive alignment in course design and delivery/assessment, this paper elucidates various unexpected and surprising aspects. It suggests that constructive misalignment could provide major learning opportunities for students and is thus more likely in these team contexts where entrepreneurship students experience constructive misalignment. Educators should, therefore, continue to design experiential entrepreneurship courses and their performance assessments through team-based approaches that achieve higher levels of engagement as well as more active learning.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 62 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Robin Bell and Peng Liu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceived challenges that Chinese vocational college educators face in developing and delivering constructivist active and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceived challenges that Chinese vocational college educators face in developing and delivering constructivist active and experiential entrepreneurship education.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data were collected from 24 focus groups of educators who had been tasked with embedding constructivist entrepreneurship education into their teaching and curriculum, at four different vocational colleges situated in four different provinces in China. The data were coded and analysed for emerging themes using a process of bottom-up thematic analysis.

Findings

A range of concerns were identified from the focus groups and these could be divided into five main challenges, which were the role of the educator in the constructivist learning process and their ability to control the process; the educators perceived student reaction to the process and their engagement with it; the time and technology required to deliver the process; the link between the learning and industry; and the educators’ perception of the requirements to meet internal expectations.

Research limitations/implications

This research explores the educators’ perceptions of the challenges they face in developing and delivering active and experiential constructivist entrepreneurship education. Whilst these concerns may impact how the educators’ approach the task, these concerns are only perceived, as the educators’ have not yet implemented the introduction of constructivist entrepreneurship education when other challenges may become evident.

Originality/value

Encouragement by the Chinese Government to develop and deliver constructivist active and experiential entrepreneurship education has resulted in a number of tensions and challenges. Entrepreneurship education in China is still relatively young and under researched and this research contributes to the literature by exploring the challenges that educators face in developing and delivering constructivist entrepreneurship education in Chinese vocational colleges.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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