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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Jen Katz-Buonincontro and Joel M. Hektner

The purpose of this paper is to report on a pilot study of the emotional states associated with educational leadership students’ attempts at problem solving “on the fly”…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a pilot study of the emotional states associated with educational leadership students’ attempts at problem solving “on the fly” in their schools and organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to study 375 “problem-perceiving moments” in leadership students using iPod touches, followed by individual cognitive interviews (CIs).

Findings

Students reported higher levels of intrinsic motivation and cognitive engagement when solving new vs old problems. Students experienced both more positive and more negative emotions when attempting to problem solve than when reporting that they were not solving problems, yet lower levels of self-efficacy coupled with insufficient time to reflect on their leadership goals while at work. Consistent with previous research, students reported engaging in metacognitive and reflective activities more frequently while with supervisors and colleagues. In the CIs, students’ narrative descriptions generally supported the quantitative analysis. For example, students described “putting out fires,” and discussed multi-tasking as a deterrent to problem solving. They also talked about balancing the emotional “highs and lows” throughout their day as well as the role of social affirmation in the problem solving process.

Research limitations/implications

While the limitations of this small pilot study include a small sample using self-report data, the implications for educational leadership faculty are to explicitly integrate psychological research into leadership courses to expand students’ knowledge of creative problem solving and focus on building their self-efficacy.

Originality/value

Even though students might not perceive they are good at problem solving, faculty can help them learn how to regulate their emotions and create teamwork conditions for constructively vetting problems. In turn, this kind of instruction and research can enhance leadership students’ persistence as problem solvers, which may help prevent leadership burnout and turnover.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 52 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Michael Roskams and Barry Haynes

The purpose of this study is to pilot test the effectiveness of the experience sampling approach for measuring employee satisfaction with the workplace environment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to pilot test the effectiveness of the experience sampling approach for measuring employee satisfaction with the workplace environment. Additionally, the authors also aimed to explore, which aspects of environmental comfort have the strongest impact on momentary well-being and productivity.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 15 knowledge workers in an open-plan office environment were sent a brief survey (measuring environmental comfort, momentary well-being and perceived productivity) each day over an 11-day study period and provided 78 individual survey responses in total.

Findings

All but one of the measures on the survey had low test-retest reliability, indicating that employees’ experiences of environmental comfort varied significantly each time they completed the survey. Additionally, higher environmental comfort was associated with improved well-being and productivity.

Practical implications

The results suggest that an experience sampling approach to the workplace occupant survey is justified to better capture the temporal variability in experiences of environmental comfort. The results also suggest that improving environmental comfort, particularly by reducing the level of distractions, will enable employees to work more productively.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first field study which has attempted to directly address limitations in traditional occupant surveys by using an experience sampling approach rather than a one-time-only questionnaire.

Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Stuti Thapa, Louis Tay and Daphne Hou

Experience sampling methods (ESM) have enabled researchers to capture intensive longitudinal data and how worker well-being changes over time. The conceptual advances in…

Abstract

Experience sampling methods (ESM) have enabled researchers to capture intensive longitudinal data and how worker well-being changes over time. The conceptual advances in understanding the variability of well-being are discussed. These emerging forms in the literature include affective inertia, affective variability, affective reactivity, and density distributions. While most ESM research has relied on the active provision of data by participants (i.e., self-reports), technological advances have enabled different forms of passive sensing that are useful for assessing and tracking well-being and its contextual factors. These include accelerometer data, location data, and physiological data. The strengths and weaknesses of passively sensed data and future ways forward are discussed, where the use of both active and passive forms of ESM data in the assessment and promotion of worker well-being is expected.

Details

Examining and Exploring the Shifting Nature of Occupational Stress and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-422-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Chongrui Liu, Cong Wang, Hongjie Wang and Donghua Xu

Relying on a multilevel approach, this paper investigates the day-to-day variations in family-supportive supervisor behaviors influencing subordinates' job stress, as well…

Abstract

Purpose

Relying on a multilevel approach, this paper investigates the day-to-day variations in family-supportive supervisor behaviors influencing subordinates' job stress, as well as the mediating role of positive emotions and the moderating role of ethical leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the experience-sampling methodology, the study collected the data from 137 civil servants in China who responded to one daily survey for 10 working days.

Findings

With a total of 1,370 surveys, results supported the hypothesized model linking daily family-supportive supervisor behaviors to daily job stress via subordinates' daily positive emotions. In addition, the study found a moderating effect for ethical leadership positively in the indirect relationship between family-supportive supervisor behaviors and job stress.

Practical implications

The findings in this study serve practitioners in organizational and leadership development. For one thing, this study contributes to raising awareness about the importance of improving family-related support in the workplace in generating subordinates' positive emotions and relieving their job stress. For another, the findings highlight the necessity of cultivating ethical leadership for leaders.

Originality/value

This study fulfills an identified need to clarify how and when daily family supportive supervisor behaviors influence subordinates' daily job stress. This study moves beyond previous research by adopting the experience sampling method and demonstrating important cross-level effects of ethical leadership on the within-individual relationship between family supportive supervisor behaviors and job stress.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Ady Milman

The study aimed to investigate the role of staged authenticity on guests' overall experience when visiting a theme park. It also assessed their evaluative perception of…

4416

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed to investigate the role of staged authenticity on guests' overall experience when visiting a theme park. It also assessed their evaluative perception of the “real experience” versus the “staged experience.” In addition, the study explored the variables that may predict guest's perceived level of authenticity, realism and truth when experiencing “reproduced” landmarks at a theme park.

Design/methodology/approach

The study's setting was the World Showcase at Disney's Epcot theme park that features well-known “staged” landmarks. The study adopted a theoretical framework initially developed by Naoi that measures guests' perceived authenticity at tourist attractions. Personal interviews were conducted with 336 local residents, domestic and international tourists in Central Florida using a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS and included descriptive statistics, t-tests, and multiple regression analysis.

Findings

Patrons' overall experience at Epcot's World Showcase was perceived to be “unique,” “authentic,” “fantasy,” “exotic,” “adventurous,” “secure,” “safe” and “sanitary.” Respondents also perceived the country pavilions to be “truthful,” the architecture to be “realistic” and the ethnic food to be “authentic.” Respondents' perceived level of authenticity, realism, and truthfulness was predicted by their travel experience, visiting experience to Epcot and other Central Florida's theme parks, demographic characteristics, and several variables that measured perceived authenticity.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in the world's third busiest theme park and therefore, guests' perception of “staged authenticity” may be different in other theme parks. The instrument used was adopted from studies that were not conducted in the theme park industry. The study provided a theoretical contribution on the measurement and prediction of guests' level of perceived authenticity when visiting a theme park. This theoretical framework can be extended to other hospitality operations that present “staged authenticity” settings like hotels, restaurants, festivals, events, retail outlets and more. The findings may also be useful for investors, designers, operators, and marketing executives when developing “staged authenticity” experiences for different market segments.

Originality/value

With the continuing growth of the global theme park industry, coupled with its high capital investment in architecture and design, it is necessary to investigate the impact of “staged authenticity” attributes on the overall guest experience.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2018

Anna Krzeminska, Joel Lim and Charmine E. J. Härtel

Occupational stress occurs in a variety of forms, types, and situations. Arguably, a certain level of stress can encourage productivity, ingenuity, and satisfaction. As…

Abstract

Occupational stress occurs in a variety of forms, types, and situations. Arguably, a certain level of stress can encourage productivity, ingenuity, and satisfaction. As occupational stress escalates, however, people’s capacity to deal with it diminishes, eventually compromising work performance and provoking people to express negative emotions. These negative aspects of stress are buffered to a certain extent by individual differences such as personality as well as external contextual factors such as the working environment. This chapter reports a study applying an affective events theory (AET) as a framework to investigate perceived stress in response to negative events in emergency services’ workplaces and the potential buffering effects of servant leadership, affective team climate, and psychological capital. An experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to record daily cases of self-reported negative events experienced by participants over the three week data-collection period. A structured survey questionnaire independent of the ESM was also used to collect data from 44 emergency service operation members. The findings indicate that servant leadership behavior, affective team climate, and individual psychological capital all are significantly related to reduced perceived occupational stress in emergency service team members.

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Yitong Yu, Shi Xu, Gang Li and Da Shi

This study aims to provide researchers in hospitality management with a comprehensive understanding of the experience sampling method (ESM) and to engage them in the use…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide researchers in hospitality management with a comprehensive understanding of the experience sampling method (ESM) and to engage them in the use of ESM in their future research. With this critical discussion of the advantages and challenges of the method, researchers can apply it appropriately to deepen and broaden their research findings.

Design/methodology/approach

This study chooses an empirical example in the context of hotel employees’ surface acting, tiredness and sleep quality to illustrate the application of ESM. Based on the example, this paper conducts a two-level modeling in Mplus, including a cross-level mediation analysis and mean centering.

Findings

This paper demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of ESM for hospitality research and provides a detailed demonstration of how to use the statistical program Mplus to analyze ESM data. With this paper, researchers will be able to consider how to engage ESM in their future studies.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors‘ knowledge, this paper is among the first to provide a hands-on demonstration of ESM to hospitality researchers. The authors call for more research in hospitality management to use ESM to answer complex and pressing research questions.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Andrea Marcela Reina-Tamayo, Arnold B. Bakker and Daantje Derks

The purpose of this paper is to integrate job demands–resources theory and the episodic process model to examine the relationships between episodic cognitive mechanisms…

1241

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate job demands–resources theory and the episodic process model to examine the relationships between episodic cognitive mechanisms (i.e. cognitive interference and attentional pull), work engagement and performance. It is hypothesized that an episode characterized by less cognitive interference and more attentional pull (i.e. attraction toward the work activity) is associated with the highest levels of work engagement and job performance. Additionally, it is hypothesized that episodic challenge/hindrance job demands boost/diminish the positive relationship between episodic job resources and work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Using experience sampling methodology, 48 employees used their smartphones to complete surveys three times a day for one week, resulting in 266 observations.

Findings

Results of multilevel analyses suggest that episodic hindrance job demands (but not challenge job demands) moderate the positive relation between job resources and work engagement.

Originality/value

This study is unique in that it captures fluctuating cognitive processes (i.e. attentional pull and cognitive interference) that take place during work activities.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2022

Junbang Lan, Yuanyuan Gong, Tao Liu, Man-Nok Wong and Bocong Yuan

Drawing on the conservation of resource theory and emotional contagion perspective, this study aims to propose that customer mistreatment has an indirect effect on…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the conservation of resource theory and emotional contagion perspective, this study aims to propose that customer mistreatment has an indirect effect on subsequent customer mistreatment by triggering high levels of surface acting. In other words, there is a vicious circle formed as a result of customer mistreatment and surface acting. This paper further argues that emotional regulation and conscientiousness are effective in breaking this vicious circle.

Design/methodology/approach

An experience sampling study was conducted on 97 frontline service employees in a hotel chain’s restaurants in China, with two daily surveys for ten consecutive days. Multilevel path analyses were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that employees experiencing customer mistreatment in the morning would adopt the surface acting strategy more frequently in the afternoon, which in turn induces more customer mistreatment in the afternoon. Further, this indirect effect can be mitigated by high (versus low) levels of emotional regulation and conscientiousness.

Originality/value

Recently, there has been growing recognition of the vital links between customer mistreatment and negative employee outcomes. However, these studies have failed to consider the carryover effect of customer mistreatment. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first pioneer study on whether and how customer mistreatment can affect subsequent instances of customer mistreatment, thereby offering a more comprehensive understanding of the consequences of customer mistreatment.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2022

Maksim Godovykh

The most commonly described components of customer experience include cognitive and affective aspects. However, the subjective self-reported methods traditionally applied…

Abstract

The most commonly described components of customer experience include cognitive and affective aspects. However, the subjective self-reported methods traditionally applied in tourism research cannot fully represent the instant, dynamic, and affective nature of customer experience. Therefore, there is a need for moment-based approaches and longitudinal methods in tourism research. The chapter provides a selective review of measures that can be used to assess the affective aspects of customer experience. Taking into account the advantages and limitations of each method, the integration of self-reported scales, moment-based psychophysiological techniques, and longitudinal methods should be considered as the best approach to measuring affective components of customer experience in tourism. This holistic interdisciplinary approach will help researchers and tourism practitioners understand the relationship between affective and cognitive components of tourists' pre-visit, onsite, and post-visit experience, as well as evaluate the effectiveness of marketing campaigns, identify weak points of tourists' customer journey, and maximize total travel experience.

Details

Contemporary Approaches Studying Customer Experience in Tourism Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-632-3

Keywords

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