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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Lawrence Cohen

In the Spring 2003 issue of this Journal, I addressed the regulatory uncertainty surrounding the treatment of broker‐dealers’ expense‐sharing arrangements. As pointed out…

Abstract

In the Spring 2003 issue of this Journal, I addressed the regulatory uncertainty surrounding the treatment of broker‐dealers’ expense‐sharing arrangements. As pointed out in that article, in 2002 the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. (NASD) conducted a comprehensive “sweep” examination of member‐firms’ financial reporting procedures, with special attention to the treatment of expenses and liabilities. The results of the sweep confirmed that many broker‐dealers, particularly small firms, relied on parents and affiliates to pay for part or all of their expenses. The results of this regulatory audit raised the NASD’s concern that many broker‐dealers failed to adhere to the financial responsibility rules under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). In large part, this was due to an inherent conflict between the general accounting standards governing the recording of expenses and liabilities and the requirements imposed on broker‐dealers to accrue and book expenses and liabilities under the Exchange Act’s financial reporting rules. Following the sweep, the NASD wrote to certain member firms that did not appear to be following the financial responsibility rules. These letters asked the firms to explain their failure to report expenses that were paid, or subject to payment by, affiliated parties and to justify their procedures on expense and liability reporting. Some broker‐dealers responded that it was not possible to coordinate the accounting of expense‐sharing arrangements with the reporting requirements set forth under the Exchange Act’s rules.

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Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2020

Mahmut Sami Öztürk and Hayrettin Usul

The change of production methods, the industrial revolutions, technological developments, and digital transformation have affected almost all functions in the enterprises…

Abstract

The change of production methods, the industrial revolutions, technological developments, and digital transformation have affected almost all functions in the enterprises. Accounting and auditing areas are also quite affected by this transformation. Another important result of technology and digitalization is the rapid increase in errors, frauds, and irregularities. Enterprises are looking for new solutions and investigations against irregularities and frauds. Audits for errors, frauds, or irregularities are among the interests of forensic accounting. Many methods are used to identify errors and frauds in the forensic accounting. However, it is inevitable that digital technologies should be utilized in forensic accounting applications as a result of the rapid spread of automation and computer programs in enterprises within the framework of digitalized business activities. Hence, enterprises will be able to get more effective results through computer programs and artificial intelligence in terms of fraud audit in forensic accounting. Expert system applications use artificial intelligence to enable computer programs to behave just like people. One of the most widely used, most easily applicable, and most understandable types of expert system is rule-based expert system. The aim of this study is to determine the accounting fraud that may occur in enterprises within the framework of forensic accounting through rule-based expert systems. For this purpose, various applications have been implemented in a large-scale production enterprise through the use of rule-based expert systems for the determination of accounting fraud. Benford’s Law, risk levels, and various other criteria were used in the creation of expert systems. According to the results obtained from the study, it has been seen that by means of rule-based expert system applications, enterprises can better detect existing frauds and prevent further irregularities in the future. The study is important and it is expected that the study will contribute to the literature because it is shown in the study that the rule-based expert systems, applied in many fields under the title of social sciences, can also be applied in the field of forensic accounting and auditing.

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Contemporary Issues in Audit Management and Forensic Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-636-0

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

David L. Gray

Purpose – This article examines the operating lease cost stickiness characteristics exhibited by retail firms.Methodology/approachAnderson, Banker, and Janakiraman (2003

Abstract

Purpose – This article examines the operating lease cost stickiness characteristics exhibited by retail firms.

Methodology/approachAnderson, Banker, and Janakiraman (2003) laid important groundwork for the study of asymmetric cost behavior or cost stickiness. The authors found that a firm’s selling, general, and administrative costs (SG&A) costs increase more with a sales increase than those expenses decrease with an equivalent sales decline. Their findings provided avenues for many studies with differing focal variables; however, extant research has not explored the degree of cost stickiness associated with operating lease expenses. Recognizing the nature and magnitude of operating leases and the competitive and changing environment for retailers, this study adapts Anderson et al.’s (2003) model to provide insights into operating lease stickiness. The study uses archival financial data from 1997 through 2016 for specialty retail firms in testing the lease cost stickiness hypotheses.

Findings – The results of this study supported the hypotheses that operating lease expenses exhibit stickiness behavior and are relatively stickier than future lease commitments for retail firms.

Originality/value – By focusing on retail firms and related lease expenses, this study provides insights into the increasingly competitive retailer environment. This article’s findings will enhance understanding of how specialty retail firms’ managers react to reduced revenues. Finally, given recent authoritative pronouncements affecting accounting for leases and the significance of leasing transactions, research providing insights into cost behavior and managerial actions stands to make an important contribution to literature and practice.

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2015

James E. McNulty and Aigbe Akhigbe

Directors help determine the strategic direction of a corporation and are responsible for ensuring the institution has a good system of internal control. Banking…

Abstract

Directors help determine the strategic direction of a corporation and are responsible for ensuring the institution has a good system of internal control. Banking institutions without a strategic direction emphasizing sound lending practices that promote the long-run financial health and viability of the institution will be sued more frequently than peer institutions. Institutions that do not have a good system of internal control will also be sued more frequently. Hence, legal expense is a bank corporate governance measure. We compare the performance of bank legal expense and a widely cited corporate governance index in a regression framework to determine which better predicts bank performance. The regressions indicate legal expense is a much better predictor, hence a better measure of bank corporate governance. Regulators should require legal expense reporting and rank institutions by the ratio of legal expense to assets to help identify institutions with weak governance. Seven case studies illustrate the role of legal expense in corporate governance.

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International Corporate Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-355-6

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2004

John L. Peterman

A study of the price discounts granted by Morton Salt Company and other producers of table salt in the U.S. on their sales of table salt to grocery wholesalers and…

Abstract

A study of the price discounts granted by Morton Salt Company and other producers of table salt in the U.S. on their sales of table salt to grocery wholesalers and retailers. The discounts were found to be illegal under the Robinson-Patman Act by the Federal Trade Commission and the Supreme Court. The Commission and the Court believed that the discounts were unjustified price concessions granted to “large” buyers, consistent with the concerns of the Robinson-Patman Act. However, the evidence indicates that the most common discount – the “carload discount” – was received by virtually all buyers, regardless of the buyer’s size; the other discounts – “annual volume” discounts – though received primarily by “large” buyers, were likely cost based. The history of the discounts and likely reasons why they were granted are explored in detail.

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Antitrust Law and Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-115-6

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Abstract

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Modelling Our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-808-7

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Eddie Sanchez and Junho Oh

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of institutional and retail investors in S&P 500 index funds separately to determine why they behave differently.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of institutional and retail investors in S&P 500 index funds separately to determine why they behave differently.

Design/methodology/approach

We analyze the relationship between net flow and past index-adjusted returns or expense ratios more extensively via panel data regressions across a broad dataset.

Findings

We find that the holding of institutional investors is, indeed, sticky. The results indicate that the net flow of institutional investors is not sensitive to past index-adjusted returns of expense ratios.

Originality/value

Prior studies have attempted to explain the irrational behavior of investors in S&P 500 index funds. We attempt to show plausible reasons why they behave differently.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Manish Bansal, Ashish Kumar and K. N. Badhani

The authors aim at investigating different forms of classification shifting (CS). CS is a novel form of earnings management under which managers misclassify income…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim at investigating different forms of classification shifting (CS). CS is a novel form of earnings management under which managers misclassify income statement line items and cash flow statement line items with an intent to report favorable operating performance of firms. In particular, the authors check the existence of revenue misclassification, expense misclassification and cash flows misclassification among Indian firms by taking the uniform sample of firms over a single period.

Design/methodology/approach

Operating revenue model (Malikov et al., 2018), core earnings expectation model (McVay, 2006) and operating cash flows model (Roychowdhury, 2006) are employed for measuring revenue misclassification, expense misclassification and cash flows misclassification, respectively. The panel data regression models are used to analyze the data for this study.

Findings

Based on the sample of 12,870 Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) listed firm-years observations between 2010 and 2018, we find that, on average, Indian firms are engaged in revenue misclassification rather than expense misclassification to report inflated core earnings. Firms are found to be engaged in cash flows misclassification too. Besides, we find that magnitude of shifting is greater among larger firms. Results also establish that adoption of Ind AS increases the scope of shifting practices. These results are based on several robustness checks.

Practical implications

The results suggest that investors conduct a comprehensive review of the items of financial statements before using them in their portfolio valuation. It suggests auditors check the basis of revenue classification and standard-setting authorities, like ICAI in India, to make more mandatory disclosure requirements for classification of revenues and cash flows. It suggests lenders not to make lending decisions by looking at the operating performance metrics, as CS is the most preferred tool to positively influence the perception of lenders toward operating performance.

Originality/value

It is the first study that investigates different forms of classification shifting jointly for a sample of firms. Most of the earlier studies have examined one kind of classification shifting at a time. This study adds to the existing literature on earnings management by documenting that some firm-specific factors pressurize firms to prefer one form of shifting over another to report inflated core earnings.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Erkki Kalervo Laitinen

The purpose of this study is to introduce a matching function approach to analyze matching in financial reporting.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to introduce a matching function approach to analyze matching in financial reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

The matching function is first analyzed analytically. It is specified as a multiplicative Cobb-Douglas-type function of three categories of expenses (labor expense, material expense and depreciation). The specified matching function is solved by the generalized reduced gradient method (GRG) for 10-year time series from 8,226 Finnish firms. The coefficient of determination of the logarithmic model (CODL) is compared with the linear revenue-expense correlation coefficient (REC) that is generally used in previous studies.

Findings

Empirical evidence showed that REC is outperformed by CODL. CODL was found independent of or weakly negatively dependent on the matching elasticity of labor expense, positively dependent on the material expense elasticity and negatively dependent on depreciation elasticity. Therefore, the differences in matching accuracy between industries emphasizing different expense categories are significant.

Research limitations/implications

The matching function is a general approach to assess the matching accuracy but it is in this study specified multiplicatively for three categories of expenses. Moreover, only one algorithm is tested in the empirical estimation of the function. The analysis is concentrated on ten-year time-series of a limited sample of Finnish firms.

Practical implications

The matching function approach provides a large set of important information for considering the matching process in practice. It can prove a useful method also to accounting standard-setters and other specialists such as managers, consultants and auditors.

Originality/value

This study is the first study to apply the new matching function approach.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2020

Nicola Moscariello, Fabio La Rosa, Francesca Bernini and Pietro Fera

The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of two different financial reporting models (revenue-expense vs asset-liability) on several earnings attributes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of two different financial reporting models (revenue-expense vs asset-liability) on several earnings attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis compares the earnings attributes of non-financial private firms using the Italian generally accepted accounting principles (Italian GAAP, based on a revenue-expense model) with those of the Italian non-financial private firms voluntarily adopting the international financial reporting standards (IFRS, based on the asset-liability model). To address major methodological concerns, the research design is based on a single-country analysis and on three different samples as follows: firms voluntarily adopting IFRS; a matched sample of Italian GAAP firms; Italian GAAP firms belonging to the Elite programme, and therefore, comparable to the IFRS adopters in terms of incentives towards financial reporting transparency.

Findings

The results show that firms reporting under a revenue-expense model are characterized by a stronger revenue-expense matching degree, along with higher earnings’ persistence, earnings’ predictability and conditional conservatism than firms adopting an asset-liability model. In addition, contrary to the expectations, Italian GAAP firms do not present smoother earnings and do not report greater abnormal accruals than IFRS adopters do. Overall, the findings suggest that the switch from a revenue-expense model to an asset-liability model negatively affects several earnings attributes of non-financial private companies, shedding new light on the drawbacks associated with the adoption of the IFRS accounting model.

Originality/value

This study addresses a theme characterized by sparse research efforts, adding new insights to the debate on the decline in the quality of earnings and on the drawbacks associated with the adoption of the IFRS accounting model.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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