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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2022

Veysel Inal, Temel Gurdal, Tunahan Degirmenci and Mucahit Aydin

There is extensive literature on the effect of military expenditure on economic growth. However, there is also a wide gap in the literature on the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

There is extensive literature on the effect of military expenditure on economic growth. However, there is also a wide gap in the literature on the relationship between productivity and innovation, which is considered the driving force of economic growth and military expenditures. To this end, this study examines the effect of military expenditures on economic growth, innovation and labor productivity for the period 1995–2019 in most militarized countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The tests used in the study's empirical analysis are techniques that take into account cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. The stationarity of the variables was tested with the Pesaran’s (2007) unit root test. Then, empirical findings were revealed based on the analysis through Westerlund’s (2008) cointegration test and Emirmahmutoglu and Kose’s (2011) panel causality test.

Findings

According to the empirical results, there is a long-run relationship, in other words, a cointegration between military expenditures and productivity, innovation and economic growth. Additionally, there are causality relationships between military expenditures and productivity, innovation and economic growth.

Practical implications

These results support the arguments of military Keynesianism and the Benoit hypothesis.

Originality/value

Despite the widespread theoretical debate, no empirical study tests the effect of military expenditure on productivity and innovation to the author's best knowledge. Hence, this study aims to fill this gap in the literature. Moreover, the fact that the econometric method used is based on second generation tests and the timeliness of the period range makes the study's findings more significant.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2022

Cleopatra Oluseye Ibukun and Wuraola Mahrufat Omisore

This paper examines the long-run and dynamic causal relationship among air pollution, health expenditure and economic growth in Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey (MINT…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the long-run and dynamic causal relationship among air pollution, health expenditure and economic growth in Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey (MINT countries).

Design/methodology/approach

The bounds test approach to cointegration and causality test was employed on data covering 1995–2018.

Findings

The study shows evidence of a long-run relationship among the variables in MINT countries and the causality test confirms the existence of a bidirectional causal nexus between health expenditure and economic growth in the four countries. It also confirms that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and economic growth, except in Nigeria where a unidirectional causal relationship was found running from CO2 emissions to economic growth. In addition, a bidirectional causal relationship was found between air pollution and health expenditure in Turkey, while no causal relationship was found among these variables in Nigeria.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited by available data and it only focuses on four emerging economies. To address this, future studies can expand this scope to more emerging economies with severe air pollution and also extend the scope when more recent data becomes available.

Practical implications

This study suggests that pollution standards in MINT countries should be monitored and enforced with transparency so as to mitigate its health implications and ensure the sustainability of economic growth.

Social implications

The study confirms the importance of keeping air pollution as low as possible because of its negative effect on health and economic output.

Originality/value

The study accounts for the complexity of each MINT country instead of providing a general discussion on the relationship between air pollution, health expenditure and economic growth in MINT countries.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2022

Vaseem Akram

There is vast disparity in public expenditure on science, technology and environment (STE) across various Indian states. Public expenditure on STE is crucial in…

Abstract

Purpose

There is vast disparity in public expenditure on science, technology and environment (STE) across various Indian states. Public expenditure on STE is crucial in maintaining symmetric growth, social cohesion and sustainable development. Literature on this topic is scarce, which prompted the investigation of club convergence of STE public expenditure. In particular, the purpose of this paper to study the club convergence of STE public expenditure in the case of 20 Indian states during the period from 1987–1988 to 2019–2020.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies the clustering algorithm to identify club convergence, advanced by the Phillips and Sul test, which enables identification of multiple steady states or club convergence, unlike beta and sigma convergences.

Findings

The findings of this paper show that all Indian states do not converge towards single steady states. This suggests a disparity in STE public expenditure across Indian states. Moreover, the findings favour three clubs that have their own unique transition paths. The results of this study are supported by the robustness check.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that the allocation of public expenditure on STE can be made based on club convergence to achieve social cohesion, sustainable development and millennium development goals across states.

Originality/value

Although several previous studies have investigated the convergence of public expenditure by considering either aggregate public expenditure or health/education expenditure, literature on the convergence hypothesis of STE public expenditure, particularly across Indian states, is scarce. Moreover, this paper is unique, as it examines multiple steady states or club convergence. Finally, this paper contributes to policymaking by suggesting which states should be given a push to achieve social cohesion and sustainable development.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Xianbo Zhou and Fengping Tian

The purpose of this paper is to present a nonparametric comparative study on the HCMS consumption of urban and rural households in China.

1771

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a nonparametric comparative study on the HCMS consumption of urban and rural households in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies the panel data for China's thirty provinces in 1991‐2007 as a sample and presents a local linear estimation to the nonparametric Working‐Leser panel data models on the HCMS consumption of the rural and urban households in China. The nonparametric Hausman test is applied to test the random effects specification against the fixed effects.

Findings

Both the parametric and nonparametric estimation of the Working‐Leser panel data models give us a similar result: that the HCMS commodity is quite elastic in both the rural and urban China. Nonparametric estimate also shows that the urban‐rural difference of the HCMS expenditure share in the total expenditure is mainly due to the large urban‐rural difference of total expenditure. Under the same total expenditure, the HCMS is more elastic in the urban than in the rural regions.

Practical implications

To decrease the urban‐rural difference in the HCMS consumption, the government should enhance the income or total expenditure level of the rural households, especially in the impoverished and remote areas in China. Urbanization plays a critical role in access to health care and can help make substantial changes in rural health care in China.

Originality/value

Compared to the parametric estimation, the nonparametric estimation gives us the added information that the expenditure elasticity of the HCMS consumption in China gradually declines as one moves up the per capita total expenditure distribution. The paper could make a contribution to the relatively thin literature on the Chinese medical and health consumption market.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Colin Mair, Arthur Midwinter and John Moxen

Trends in Scottish public library expenditure in the 1980s are examined, and resource allocation procedures and national trends are discussed. The index used to calculate…

Abstract

Trends in Scottish public library expenditure in the 1980s are examined, and resource allocation procedures and national trends are discussed. The index used to calculate library material inflation rates are criticised and it is demonstrated that this leads to a misrepresentation of the basic expenditure pattern. The interpretation and implications of variations in spending between authorities are discussed.

Details

Library Review, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 April 1990

Jayne Fuglister and William Paxton

Financial reporting standards require that many future‐oriented expenditures for intangibles, such as development costs and personnel training, be expensed in the current…

Abstract

Financial reporting standards require that many future‐oriented expenditures for intangibles, such as development costs and personnel training, be expensed in the current period. These standards cause such expenditures to be indistinguishable from expenditures for current revenues, and penalize the earnings of firms making future‐oriented expenditures for intangibles. The current focus on earnings encourages firms to sacrifice long‐term economic objectives for higher reported earnings. This paper analyzes the need for improved reporting for future oriented expenditures. Improved accounting for future‐oriented expenditures would enhance the market’s ability to value stocks, improve company performance, and benefit investors and creditors.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

Pamela Norum

The accessories, footwear and hosiery industries have always been important complements to the apparel industry. While the demand for apparel has been studied fairly…

Abstract

The accessories, footwear and hosiery industries have always been important complements to the apparel industry. While the demand for apparel has been studied fairly extensively, the demand for accessory items has been overlooked. To gain a better understanding of the demand for accessories, footwear, and hosiery, it is the purpose of this research to estimate expenditure equations for accessories, footwear and hosiery; and to profile the consumer characteristics of the purchasers and non‐purchasers of these items. An economic model of demand provides the theoretical framework. Expenditure equations are estimated using data from the 1990–91 Consumer Expenditure Survey. The results indicate that income, family size and education positively affect expenditures on accessories, footwear and hosiery while the results for age, occupation and region vary among the categories. The results have implications for producers and marketers of accessories, footwear and hosiery.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Ali Kazemi Karyani, Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Abolghasem Pourreza and Faramarz Shaahmadi

Health can be influenced by many factors. One of the factors is the political context of the country and democracy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

Health can be influenced by many factors. One of the factors is the political context of the country and democracy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of freedom in press and polity index in overall, public, private and out of pocket health expenditures.

Design/methodology/approach

A long-term panel data approach has been used to examine the relationship between democracy and health expenditures. The authors inserted polity and freedom into press indexes in the health expenditure model.

Findings

Increase in freedom of the press and democracy will increase the overall, public and private health expenditures while they decrease out of pocket health expenditures.

Originality/value

Polity and freedom index has a significant impact on all the health expenditure models.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Pedestrian Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-848-55750-5

Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2008

George Miller, Charles Roehrig, Paul Hughes-Cromwick and Craig Lake

Purpose: We estimate national health expenditures on prevention using precise definitions, a transparent methodology, and a subdivision of the estimates into components to…

Abstract

Purpose: We estimate national health expenditures on prevention using precise definitions, a transparent methodology, and a subdivision of the estimates into components to aid researchers in applying their own concepts of prevention activities.

Methodology/Approach: We supplemented the National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA) with additional data to identify national spending on primary and secondary prevention for each year from 1996 to 2004 across eight spending categories.

Findings: We estimate that NHEA expenditures devoted to prevention grew from $83.2 billion in 1996 to $159.8 billion in 2004, in current dollars. As a share of NHEA, this represents an increase from 7.8 percent in 1996 to 8.6 percent in 2004. This share peaked at 9 percent in 2002 and then declined due to reductions in public health spending as a percent of NHEA between 2002 and 2004. Primary prevention represents about half the expenditures, consisting largely of public health expenditures – the largest prevention element.

Originality/Value of Paper: Our 2004 estimate that 8.6 percent of NHEA goes to prevention is nearly three times as large as the commonly cited figure of 3 percent, but depends on the definitions used: our estimate falls to 8.1 percent when the research component is excluded, 5.1 percent when consideration is limited to primary prevention plus screening, 4.2 percent for primary prevention alone, and 2.8 percent if we count only public health expenditures. These findings should contribute to a more informed discussion of our nation's allocation of health care resources to prevention.

Details

Beyond Health Insurance: Public Policy to Improve Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-181-7

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