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1 – 10 of over 136000
Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Cuijuan Liu, Zhenxin Xiao, Yu Gao, Maggie Chuoyan Dong and Shanxing Gao

Although manufacturer-initiated rewards are widely used to secure distributors’ compliance, the spillover effect on unrewarded distributors (i.e. observers) in the same…

Abstract

Purpose

Although manufacturer-initiated rewards are widely used to secure distributors’ compliance, the spillover effect on unrewarded distributors (i.e. observers) in the same distribution channel is under-researched. Using insights from social learning theory, this paper aims to investigate how manufacturer-initiated rewards affect observers’ expectation of reward and shape observers’ compliance toward the manufacturer. Furthermore, this paper explores how such effects are contingent upon distributor relationship features.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, hierarchical multiple regression and bootstrapping analyses were performed using survey data from 280 Chinese distributors.

Findings

The magnitude of a manufacturer-initiated reward to a distributor stimulates expectation of reward among observers, which enhances compliance; observers’ expectation of reward mediates the impact of reward magnitude on compliance. Moreover, network centrality (of the rewarded peer) negatively moderates the positive impact of reward magnitude on observers’ expectation of reward, whereas observers’ dependence (on the manufacturer) positively moderates this dynamic.

Practical implications

Manufacturers should pay attention to the spillover effects of rewards. Overall, they should use rewards of appropriate magnitude to show willingness to recognize outstanding distributors. This will inspire unrewarded distributors, which will then be more compliant. Furthermore, manufacturers should know that specific types of distributor relationship features may significantly vary the spillover effects.

Originality/value

This study illuminates the spillover effects of manufacturer-initiated reward by opening the “black box” of the link between reward magnitude and observers’ compliance and by specifying the effects’ boundary conditions.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2022

Bora Min

This study aims to draw on the malleable nature of processing fluency to identify the role of consumer expectation in generating diverging effects of metacognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to draw on the malleable nature of processing fluency to identify the role of consumer expectation in generating diverging effects of metacognitive experiences on perception of product innovativeness and product evaluation. It also examines critical boundary conditions to offer a more sophisticated understanding of the interactive effect of expectation and processing fluency.

Design/methodology/approach

Studies 1, 2A and 2B recruited 1,922 online participants, and Studies 3 and 4 recruited 644 college students. The authors manipulated product innovativeness expectation by exposing participants to expert reviews of new products, and processing fluency by presenting product detail in either easy-to-read font/color contrast or difficult-to-read font/color contrast. Subsequently, perceived product innovativeness and product evaluation including actual product adoption were measured.

Findings

When a product was expected to be innovative (ordinary), feelings of difficulty with processing its detail increased (decreased) perceived innovativeness and, in turn, interest in purchase. The observation occurred only when a credible external source (vs firms) generated the innovativeness expectation or consumers’ elaboration level was not high. Furthermore, when innovativeness became associated with negative implications, perceived innovativeness no longer enhanced but impaired purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

Studies used incrementally new products only. Really new products involving a high adoption risk might produce a diverging effect. The findings need to be replicated with higher involvement products. An ideal level of difficulty with comprehending product information was not examined in the present research.

Practical implications

Results carry significant weight for firms who seek to draw consumer attention to their new products by choosing an optimal format of product presentation. The findings suggest that they can proactively administer a proper level of ease/difficulty with comprehending product detail depending on the extent of product innovativeness and target audience.

Originality/value

Extant research has not addressed how the malleable nature of processing fluency systematically affects innovativeness perception and product evaluation. The key contribution of this paper to the metacognition literature is the role of consumer expectation that alters the meaning of metacognitive experiences in relation to innovativeness perception. In addition, this is one of the first to empirically investigate perceptual processing fluency in the elaboration likelihood model theory.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2022

Juan Gabriel Brida, Bibiana Lanzilotta and Lucia Rosich

From these data, the authors construct an uncertainty index through the use of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model to measure the impact of uncertainty on GDP, controlling…

Abstract

Purpose

From these data, the authors construct an uncertainty index through the use of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model to measure the impact of uncertainty on GDP, controlling for inflation, which may affect macroeconomic performance. Results indicate that uncertainty is negatively correlated with the economic cycle and the inter-annual variation of the biannual average product.

Design/methodology/approach

This study empirically explores the dynamics of expectations of the Uruguayan manufacturing firms about industrial economic growth. This study explores the dynamics of the industrial economic growth expectations of Uruguayan manufacturing firms. The empirical research is based on firms' expectations data collected through a monthly survey carried out by the Chamber of Industries of Uruguay (CIU) in 2003–2018.

Findings

Granger causality tests show that uncertainty Granger-causes industrial production growth and a one standard deviation shock on uncertainty generates a contraction in the industrial production growth rate. Finally, the authors use statistical and network tools to identify groups of firms with similar performance on expectations. Results show that higher uncertainty is associated with smaller, more interconnected groups of firms, and that the number of homogeneous groups and the distance between groups increases with uncertainty. These findings suggest that policies focused on the coordination of expectations can lead to the development of stable opinion groups.

Originality/value

The paper introduces new data and new methodologies to analyze the dynamics of expectations of manufacturing firms about industrial economic growth.

Highlights

  1. An empirical approach to compare expectations of firms is introduced.

  2. The occurrence of groups of opinion is tested.

  3. Central companies in the network of expectations are detected.

  4. More uncertainty implies a higher degree of discrepancy between the overall firm’s opinions and more compact opinion groups.

An empirical approach to compare expectations of firms is introduced.

The occurrence of groups of opinion is tested.

Central companies in the network of expectations are detected.

More uncertainty implies a higher degree of discrepancy between the overall firm’s opinions and more compact opinion groups.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Kenneth E. Clow and Douglas W. Vorhies

Reports on research into measurement of consumer expectations.Examines the stability of consumer expectations and considers whetherthe measurement of expectations should…

1083

Abstract

Reports on research into measurement of consumer expectations. Examines the stability of consumer expectations and considers whether the measurement of expectations should occur before or after the service encounter. Discusses the measurement issue as a way of building competitive advantage by meeting consumer expectations of the service.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Khandokar Istiak and Md Rafayet Alam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible asymmetric response of inflation expectations to oil price and policy uncertainty shocks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible asymmetric response of inflation expectations to oil price and policy uncertainty shocks.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used the test of asymmetric impulse responses proposed by Kilian and Vigfusson (2011) to explore the issue of asymmetry.

Findings

Unlike other studies that assume symmetric effects, this study finds asymmetric effects of oil price and policy uncertainty on inflation expectations for positive and negative shocks and for pre- and post-financial-crisis periods. In particular other things being same, a same magnitude oil price shock has greater effect on inflation expectations in post-crisis period than in pre-crisis period. Moreover, in post-crisis period a positive increasing oil price shock has greater effect on inflation expectations than a negative decreasing oil price shock.

Practical implications

The paper concludes that FED’s greater focus on output stabilization since financial crisis has made inflation expectations less anchored and a sudden surge in oil price may quickly trigger inflation through inflation expectations.

Originality/value

Exploring the issue of the possible asymmetric effects of oil price and economic policy uncertainty on inflation expectations is a relatively new topic (as other studies only assumed symmetry and did not investigate the possible asymmetry in this regard).

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

R. Dixon, A.D. Woodhead and M. Sohliman

Investors and financial statement users may have differing beliefs about the responsibility of an independent accounting firm performing an audit of a client's financial…

5494

Abstract

Purpose

Investors and financial statement users may have differing beliefs about the responsibility of an independent accounting firm performing an audit of a client's financial statements. This study aims to investigate the existence of an audit expectation gap between auditors and financial statement users in Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method adopted in this study is identical to that used by Schelluch, Best et al. and Fadzly and Ahmed.

Findings

The results found evidence of a wide audit expectation gap in Egypt in the areas of auditor responsibilities for fraud prevention, maintenance of accounting records, and auditor judgment in the selection of audit procedures. To a lesser extent, an expectation gap was found concerning the reliability of audit and audited financial statements, and the usefulness of audit.

Research limitations/implications

The different economic and cultural conditions in Egypt may restrict the generalisability of this study.

Practical implications

In order to reduce the expectation gap and improve decision‐making by financial statement users, the results of this study support the adoption of the long‐form audit report, augmentation of the auditing framework, strengthening of the auditor's integrity, and finally educating users on the nature and functions of audit.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the understanding of the diverse nature of the expectations gap by examining the different economic and cultural setting of Egypt.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Leib Leventhal

The purpose of this paper is to argue that understanding and exceeding customer expectations in the aged care services is more complex than other health services and…

3601

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that understanding and exceeding customer expectations in the aged care services is more complex than other health services and general services because of the multiple stakeholders and additional intimacies that exist.

Design/method/approach

The author first explores expectation theory and how it links to customer behaviour and then discusses confirmation/disconfirmation theory.

Findings

The author builds an argument that aged care service providers must understand consumer needs and expectations so that customer satisfaction is generated.

Originality/value

Exploring patient and relative expectation and satisfaction in different theoretical contexts.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Waqar Ahmed, Muhammad Shahid Soroya and Ghulam Fareed Malik

The purpose of this paper is to study of services of front desk staff using SERVQUAL aims to measure the perception and expectations of the library users. The librarians…

1486

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study of services of front desk staff using SERVQUAL aims to measure the perception and expectations of the library users. The librarians, keeping in view the expectations will get an idea that how much the services should be improved while the users will have an idea that what they want, and what are they provided with. In additions, the difference between the perception and expectations of the male library users and female library users is explored to give an idea to the librarians that what dimension of the services they need to explore.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative research method was used to conduct this study. The SERVQUAL instrument was used to measure the levels of perception and expectation through a structured questionnaire at the five points Likert scale. The tool was used with the permission of the author Berry et al. (1985). All the libraries of affiliated medical college with the University of Health Sciences were the population for this study. Through random sampling technique, 20 questionnaires per medical colleges were filled by the students of medical colleges. In total, 202 questionnaires returned and were analyzed after data entry in Statistical Package for Social Science version 19.

Findings

Mean of the total respondents indicate that the improvement in all the five dimensions of the service quality is required as the expectations found to be higher in all the five dimensions as compared to the perceptions. Perceived values are higher among female library users, so the library front desk staff requires increasing the perceived values of male users through improving their services to male library users. While comparing the expectations between male and female users, the results indicate that male library users want more responsiveness and reliability from the staff.

Research limitations/implications

This study measures the perceptions and expectations of the student library users of the medical college affiliated with University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Only main libraries excluding the small departmental libraries are included in this study. This study can be generalized in other private medical colleges as well as other researchers can study further in their own environment.

Practical implications

The results indicate that the expectations are higher. Keeping in view, the librarians will work to meet the expectations of the users. The expectation of the female users are higher in tangibility and empathy dimensions, while the male users expect more in reliability, responsiveness and assurance dimensions. In short, all the results showed that the expectations were higher than the perceptions. Keeping this study in view, the librarians can improve their weak areas of front desk staff services to meet the expectations of the users.

Originality/value

It is the first study of its type to measure the service quality of front desk staff. The service quality of front desk staff is never been measured in medical colleges using SERVQUAL in Lahore. The results of this study provide the guidelines to satisfy library users. The difference between the perception and expectations provides librarians and library managers with a road map to develop the service quality of front desk staff to meet the expectation level of the user’s for their satisfaction. This study can be generalized to the medical colleges other than Lahore.

Details

Library Management, vol. 36 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2009

Ignacio Rodríguez del Bosque, Héctor San Martín, Jesús Collado and María del Mar García de los Salmones

As there is still only limited research about expectation formation in destination marketing, the aim of this paper is to enhance this body of knowledge by providing…

5937

Abstract

Purpose

As there is still only limited research about expectation formation in destination marketing, the aim of this paper is to enhance this body of knowledge by providing theoretical and empirical evidence about the role of different factors which generate tourist expectations. In particular, since expectations may significantly condition not only the tourist choice process but also the perceptions of experiences, the objective of this paper is to examine the factors contributing to the expectations of a tourist destination. Based on service expectations literature, a theoretical framework postulates the main factors generating tourist expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical research tests the research hypotheses. More specifically, several in‐depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative research) and a survey conducted in a holiday destination (quantitative research) led to data collection.

Findings

Tourist expectations are a second‐order factor based on inter‐correlations among several first‐order factors (i.e. past experience, external communication, word‐of‐mouth communication and destination image). In addition, image can be considered as the main factor generating expectations of a destination.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is the geographic area (tourist site) of the research process. The tourist destination under investigation significantly influences the characteristics of the sample, of which national tourists are the main constituent.

Originality/value

Managing the destination image and the quality of experience is critical to induce favorable expectations of the destination in the tourist's mind. In addition, the coherence and reliability of destination communication need to be controlled in expectations management.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2008

Robert E. Miller, Nita G. Brooks, Thomas W. Jones and Lee Winick

This paper reports the results of a field study that examined the expectations of users as they relate to the quality of service offered by the information systems (IS…

Abstract

This paper reports the results of a field study that examined the expectations of users as they relate to the quality of service offered by the information systems (IS) function within organizations. While the results indicate that users have consistently high expectations across organizations, the results also indicate that expectations can differ due to age and gender. The paper discusses the implications of these results, along with ways that management can use this information to better influence user expectations.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

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