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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Saitab Sinha, I.M. Jawahar, Piyali Ghosh and Ashutosh Mishra

Casting employers as customers, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between expectations, perceptions and disconfirmation beliefs with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Casting employers as customers, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between expectations, perceptions and disconfirmation beliefs with the satisfaction of employers regarding the competencies possessed by fresh engineering graduates hired by such employers in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data collected from 284 employers, the authors have hypothesized and examined a partial mediation model in which disconfirmation beliefs mediate the relationships between expectations and perceptions, and employer satisfaction. Furthermore, the authors have tested if this mediated relationship is moderated by the age and sex of respondents representing employers.

Findings

Results indicate that employers’ satisfaction can be explained from the framework of the expectancy-disconfirmation theory. Employers’ expectations and perceptions are established to be associated with employers’ satisfaction with new hires, and positive disconfirmation mediates these relationships. Results also indicate that age moderates the effect of predictor variables employers’ expectations and employers’ perception on the mediator disconfirmation. Sex, however, did not moderate any relationship.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate the usefulness of the expectancy-disconfirmation theory for studying employer satisfaction with competencies of recent engineering graduates in India. Findings are relevant to multiple stakeholders including employers hiring engineering graduates, engineers and technical institutions.

Originality/value

Expectancy-disconfirmation theory has been successfully applied to measure customer satisfaction in consumer behaviour research, while satisfaction of employers has been studied in the field of organizational behaviour. The paper stands out in the literature as one of its major implications is to extend the expectancy-disconfirmation theory to predict employers’ satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Jochen Wirtz and John E.G. Bateson

Research on perceived risk and multiattribute models with uncertain attributes has shown that consumers are familiar with unit‐to‐unit variability of products and…

Abstract

Research on perceived risk and multiattribute models with uncertain attributes has shown that consumers are familiar with unit‐to‐unit variability of products and services, and can expect some kind of performance level distribution. This has led to the modelling of expectations along two dimensions – expected mean performance and some measure of its variance. This perspective is in accordance with theories on decision making in economics, finance and decision science. Satisfaction models, however, implicitly assume that expectations are unidimensional, and so far, no research has examined the impact of expected performance heterogeneity on the satisfaction processes. This is surprising, particularly in services marketing, as a high degree of performance heterogeneity is a frequently cited feature of service encounters. In this study, different levels of expected performance heterogeneity were manipulated using a unique laboratory simulator. The results clearly show that expected performance heterogeneity can have impact on the satisfaction process. In particular, at small levels of actual disconfirmation the presence of uncertainty in expectations improves the level of disconfirmation, shifting it towards “better than expected”, and improving overall satisfaction. At higher levels of disconfirmation, uncertainty in expectations did not show any effect on disconfirmation levels.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

Chia‐Hui Yen and Hsi‐Peng Lu

The purpose of this study is to integrate expectancy disconfirmation theory (EDT) to explore cognitive beliefs and affect influencing an individual's intention to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to integrate expectancy disconfirmation theory (EDT) to explore cognitive beliefs and affect influencing an individual's intention to repurchase in online marketplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used EDT to conduct an empirical study and data were collected from a total of 303 bidders of online auctions. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the relationships of the research model.

Findings

The findings show that bidders' disconfirmation of online auctions is positively associated with their satisfaction, which in turn is positively associated with their repurchase intentions.

Practical implications

Both bidders' expectation of policy and auctioneers' performance of policy are important determinants of disconfirmation. Auctioneers need to recognize the distinctive roles of information policy in selling and bidding rules. Besides, neither bidders' expectation of sellers' reputation nor their expectation of service quality has a significant relationship with disconfirmation. This finding implies that in a mature e‐commerce environment bidders pay more attention to the sellers' performance than their prior expectation.

Originality/value

This study, which aims to shed light on bidder behavior in online auctions, is the first study that has applied an EDT‐based model to investigate the determinants of repurchase intention in online auctions.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

María Isabel Roldán Bravo, Francisco Javier Lloréns Montes and Antonia Ruiz Moreno

This study aims to use expectation disconfirmation theory (EDT) to investigate how an organization’s satisfaction with its supply network’s behavior influences its…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use expectation disconfirmation theory (EDT) to investigate how an organization’s satisfaction with its supply network’s behavior influences its intention to open innovation with that network. This paper proposes that an organization’s orientation to open innovation is influenced by confirmation of previously held expectations of trust and commitment and level of perceived procedural justice in its open innovation partner. This paper also examines the effect of this orientation on the organization’s supply chain competence.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from a survey of 286 European firms, the study proposes and evaluates a structural equation model.

Findings

The results show that a positive disconfirmation of trust (where perceived trust exceeds expectations) plays a crucial role in shaping organizations’ intentions to continue open innovation with their supply networks. These results show that disconfirmation is a good predictor of overall satisfaction with open innovation. This paper also confirms the positive effect of orientation to open innovation on supply chain competence. Finally, this paper obtained evidence for the positive effect of supply chain competence on firm performance.

Originality/value

This study shows the importance of managing expectations in open innovation under the EDT. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no previous research has analyzed the consistency between the trust and commitment an organization expects from its open innovation partner and the trust and commitment it ultimately perceives as a factor explaining its degree of orientation to open innovation. Therefore, this research contributes to a better understanding of open innovation enablers and also its consequences.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

Hengyun Li, Fang Meng and Bing Pan

With the growing online review manipulation and fake reviews in the hospitality industry, it is not uncommon that a consumer encounters disconfirmation when comparing the…

Abstract

Purpose

With the growing online review manipulation and fake reviews in the hospitality industry, it is not uncommon that a consumer encounters disconfirmation when comparing the existing online reviews with his/her own product or service evaluation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of review disconfirmation on customer online review writing behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a mixed-method combining online secondary big data modeling and experimental design.

Findings

Review disconfirmation influences customers’ emotional responses embedded in the review; a customer who encounters review disconfirmation tends to exert more reviewing effort, manifested by writing longer reviews; negativity bias exists in disconfirmation effects, in that negative review disconfirmation shows more significant and stronger effects than positive review disconfirmation.

Practical implications

Findings from this study provide important managerial implications for business owners and marketers who attempt to influence online reviews. The study suggests that fictitious online review manipulation might be detrimental to the business.

Originality/value

This research contributes to two literature streams, including research on the social influence of online consumer reviews, and the relationship between disconfirmation and consumers’ post-consumption behavior, by extending the influence of disconfirmation from the offline context to the online context.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Manuel Rey Moreno, Ramón Rufín Moreno and Cayetano Medina Molina

– The purpose of this paper is to examine how satisfaction is generated towards e-learning platforms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how satisfaction is generated towards e-learning platforms.

Design/methodology/approach

This work aims to analyse the differences in the functioning of the model that explains how satisfaction is generated among users of e-learning platforms if expectations are measured before entering into contact with the service or afterwards. The statistical analysis was completed by developing a structural equation model using the SmartPLS 2.0.M3.

Findings

The results show that, if the expectations are measured before entering into contact with the good or service, disconfirmation plays a major role in the model. If the expectations are measured after entering into contact with the good or service, the main role is played by expectations in the model. Of the variables included, perceived usefulness and effort expectancy affect satisfaction, not thus enabling conditions and social influence.

Originality/value

The authors study the difference between the results obtained when using the cross-sectional design, where all the variables are mediated once the consumer has entered into contact with the good or service, and the half-longitudinal design, where expectations are measured beforehand.

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Leib Leventhal

The purpose of this paper is to argue that understanding and exceeding customer expectations in the aged care services is more complex than other health services and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that understanding and exceeding customer expectations in the aged care services is more complex than other health services and general services because of the multiple stakeholders and additional intimacies that exist.

Design/method/approach

The author first explores expectation theory and how it links to customer behaviour and then discusses confirmation/disconfirmation theory.

Findings

The author builds an argument that aged care service providers must understand consumer needs and expectations so that customer satisfaction is generated.

Originality/value

Exploring patient and relative expectation and satisfaction in different theoretical contexts.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Stephen G. Saunders

Many service employees rely on non-contractual voluntary customer tips as a major source of their income. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Many service employees rely on non-contractual voluntary customer tips as a major source of their income. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the relationship between the service employee’s cognitive evaluation of the tip (expectations-disconfirmation tip gap), affective state (AS) and displayed emotions (DE) toward customers in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental, between-subjects, scenario-based research design was conducted on 107 waiters in the US restaurant industry. A simple mediation model was first tested, before testing a more complex moderated mediation model that was developed to investigate if employees self-control (SC) moderates the relationship between the employees tip gap, AS, and DE.

Findings

An employee’s negative disconfirmation tip gap negatively influences the employee’s AS, which in turn results in negative DE toward customers in the workplace. However, an employee’s positive tip gap does not positively influence the employee’s AS, relative to the control. In addition, employees’ SC does not moderate the relationship, which suggests that when employees experience negative tip disconfirmation they may openly violate the service provider’s display rules and service scripts, and display negative emotions toward customers in the workplace.

Research limitations/implications

The scenario-based research design was limited to self-reported perceived levels of SC and DE. The scenario was also limited to one country and one tipping context (i.e. restaurants). Future studies could compliment these findings by conducting both qualitative studies, and survey research that relies on actual tipping data or re-enactments of actual service encounters.

Practical implications

Service managers not only need to manage display rules and service scripts to influence employee DE, but also need to manage employee tip expectations, especially when employees expect to receive tips that are greater than actual tips (i.e. negative disconfirmation). Communicating and educating employees on customer tipping and what tips to expect should be central to managing employees who rely on customer tips.

Originality/value

Tipping has received very little attention in the services management literature. This study broadens the focus of tipping research in the literature by presenting a more complex expectations-disconfirmation tip gap model.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Tong Che, Meng Ji, Xiabing Zheng and Bo Feng

The online-to-offline (O2O) business is developing rapidly and is highly popular in many countries. Nevertheless, O2O suffers from a large number of customer complaints…

Abstract

Purpose

The online-to-offline (O2O) business is developing rapidly and is highly popular in many countries. Nevertheless, O2O suffers from a large number of customer complaints that result in consumer loss. Focusing on the O2O context, this study integrates expectation disconfirmation theory (EDT) and justice theory to investigate consumers' dissatisfaction toward O2O websites.

Design/methodology/approach

A research model was proposed and tested using 329 survey responses.

Findings

Results show that the identified website disconfirmation and offline service disconfirmation could lead to consumer dissatisfaction. Importantly, the impacts of disconfirmation factors are contingent upon the justice perception of consumers. When a transaction is perceived as unfair, website disconfirmation arouses a higher level of dissatisfaction, and the negative emotions could transfer from O2O and damage the website's reputation.

Originality/value

This study explores the continuance intentions of customers toward O2O websites from a dissatisfaction perspective, with insights for future service studies and O2O service managers.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Richard A. Spreng and Jyh‐shen Chiou

Consumer satisfaction continues to be an important area of both academic research and managerial interest. Yet most satisfaction research has utilized US subjects to…

Abstract

Consumer satisfaction continues to be an important area of both academic research and managerial interest. Yet most satisfaction research has utilized US subjects to develop and test satisfaction theory. The purpose of this research is to test the basic disconfirmation of expectations model in a very different culture than the USA, and compare the results to a matched sample of subjects in the USA. Specifically, a sample of student subjects from Taiwan is compared to a sample of student subjects in the USA. The results indicate support for the generalizability of the model in this Asian culture.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 36 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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