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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 8 August 2022

Lai Wan Hooi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the success factors needed for the development of global human resources from both the organisation’s and expatriates’ perspectives…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the success factors needed for the development of global human resources from both the organisation’s and expatriates’ perspectives in emerging eastern economies. Specifically, this study focuses on pre-expatriation preparation, during-expatriation adjustment and post-expatriation repatriation.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 23 Taiwanese personnel contributed to this case study. Data collected from the focus group discussion and open-ended asynchronous email interviews was analysed using the content analysis approach.

Findings

The results of this study revealed four main selection criteria for the selection process and five desired preparation methods from the organisation and the expatriates’ perspectives.

Originality/value

This study makes two main contributions to cross-cultural related global human resources research. Firstly, this study deepens understanding on the pathway to developing culturally intelligent global human resources for successful mission accomplishment from both the organisation and expatriates’ perspectives based on a three-phase expatriation process in emerging eastern economies. Secondly, this study provides an insight into the best practices that HR practitioners can use in developing global human resources for expatriation.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 May 2022

Olivier Wurtz

This work sheds new light on the roles of gender, age and expatriation type—self-initiated expatriate (SIE) vs. assigned expatriate (AE)—by applying the transactional…

Abstract

Purpose

This work sheds new light on the roles of gender, age and expatriation type—self-initiated expatriate (SIE) vs. assigned expatriate (AE)—by applying the transactional theory of stress and coping (and a validated measurement tool) to the expatriation experience.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on quantitative data from 448 expatriates, the authors examined the coping mechanisms (cognitions and actions) employed by senior and younger expatriates, females and males and SIE and AEs when they face hardships while working abroad.

Findings

Younger expatriates display less active problem-solving coping, planning, and restraint and consume more alcohol and drugs. Female expatriates express their emotions and use social support more than their male counterparts. SIEs rely on emotional social support more than AEs.

Practical implications

Recognizing that individual repertoires of responses to expatriate challenges are bounded by personal characteristics—such as age, gender, and expatriation type—should improve efforts to support expatriates. This research suggests that expatriate support should be tailored. It offers indications on who needs what.

Originality/value

This work provides a fresh perspective and new insights into classic topics (age, gender, and expatriation type). Individuals react differently abroad. They have different resources and face different demands (to a certain extent) that lead to different coping reactions. Older people manage their emotions better, and female expatriates and SIEs gather and use support; these abilities are assets abroad.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2022

Xueting Jiang, Marta Calas and Alexander Scott English

This paper attempts to capture how self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) produce and reconstruct “self” and “place” through their own processes of expatriation and career…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper attempts to capture how self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) produce and reconstruct “self” and “place” through their own processes of expatriation and career development as mobility becomes a norm under present conditions of globalization. In so doing, the paper reexamines assumptions of previous expatriate adjustment scholarship by using phenomenon-driven problematization to critically reflect on underlying theoretical assumptions in the extant literature. Empirically, the paper is an exploratory attempt to understanding and offering fresh insights on the notion of expatriation itself under these present conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Bougon's (1983) Self-Q technique was used to develop interview protocols uncovering cognitive maps of SIEs' “enacted environments” as an abstraction of their experiences, while also mapping their “enacted selves”. Analyzing social action with a cognitive map approach reveals the meanings of specific social territories, i.e. the enactment of SIEs' mobility environments (place) and their subjectivities (self).

Findings

The authors’ findings suggest that SIEs seem to be constituting and reconstituting their subjectivities and their sense of “place” by displacing the notion of “home”. This notion transforms and recedes as SIEs go about their lives abroad, allowing for the emergence of plural subjectivities, never fully formed but formulated and reformulated in social encounters.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the expatriation literature by focusing on processes through which SIEs construct their world through their mobility and overseas experiences. Observing expatriation processes as continuous cycles of creating and recreating “self” and “place” may reflect better how contemporary business practitioners engage in transnational activities. Management scholars should attend to how these processes enact social territories for a better understanding of expatriation as a global phenomenon.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Ebru Ipek and Philipp Paulus

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which a destination's security level affects the relationship between personality traits and individuals' expatriation

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which a destination's security level affects the relationship between personality traits and individuals' expatriation willingness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply an experimental vignette methodology using a 2 × 1 between subjects-design with two destinations characterized by different security levels (dangerous vs. safe) among 278 participants (students and employees). Partial least squares multigroup analysis (PLS-MGA) was employed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The findings indicate that different personality variables appear to impact individuals' expatriation willingness depending on the security level of a destination: emotionality and conscientiousness predicted expatriation willingness to dangerous environments, whereas openness to experience predicted expatriation willingness to safe environments. The personality traits of honesty–humility, extraversion and agreeableness were not found to influence expatriation willingness in either scenario.

Practical implications

The study discusses a set of practical recommendations for the selection and the management of eligible individuals who are willing to expatriate to dangerous locations.

Originality/value

The study is among the first to examine the influence of personality on expatriation willingness in safe and dangerous environments at the same time. It advances prior research by providing a more nuanced understanding of the context-specific effects of personality on expatriation willingness.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Christian Nowak and Christian Linder

The purpose of this paper is to assess the costs and benefits of expatriation persists as a difficult challenge for many organizations and scholarly guidance on the…

6463

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the costs and benefits of expatriation persists as a difficult challenge for many organizations and scholarly guidance on the process of compiling and allocating the costs of expatriation remains insufficient. The authors argue therefore that there is a need for developing an instrument that enables practitioners to calculate an estimate of the total cost of expatriation which can eventually be set in relation to the expected benefits of an assignment.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate how the total cost of expatriation can be computed, the authors provide an exploratory overview of previous research on international assignments, expatriate return of investment (eROI) and principles of cost accounting. Then, essential costs of expatriation are discussed and combined in one model for assessing the total cost of expatriation.

Findings

The authors will demonstrate that expatriation costs are best understood as process costs. In addition, the authors will provide a tool to calculate eROI.

Originality/value

The paper show how to determine the costs of major phases of expatriation. It allows us to calculate the break-even point of an international assignment and it can be used to compare this investment with alternative methods of international mobility. Most importantly, the authors are able to identify crucial cost drivers which allow the development of more precise and targeted recommendations for management action.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Martin Mabunda Baluku, Dorothee Löser, Kathleen Otto and Steffen Erik Schummer

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of protean-related traits and attitudes in the development of international mobility (expatriation) and entrepreneurial…

1085

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of protean-related traits and attitudes in the development of international mobility (expatriation) and entrepreneurial intentions among early career professionals. Career mobility is of increasing relevance to achieving career success in the era of protean and boundaryless careers, and in the present day highly globalized labor market. International mobility provides opportunities for work in organizations (corporate expatriation) as well as in entrepreneurship (expat entrepreneurship).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports two studies examining the role of “protean career personality,” conceptualized as consisting of personal initiative and flexibility on entrepreneurial and expatriation intention, looking at career orientation attitude as the mediating mechanism. In study 1, the impact of personal initiative and flexibility on the two career mobility paths is explored using a sample of 442 German undergraduate students. Study 2 replicates these relationships among a sample of 100 early career professionals who graduated with a diploma in psychology.

Findings

Results indicate that for the sample of undergraduate students, flexibility and career orientation were positively related to expatriation intention. However, the mediation path was non-significant. On the other hand, personal initiative and career orientation were essential for entrepreneurial intentions, with a significant mediation path. For the early career professionals in contrast, only flexibility turned out to be resourceful for both expatriation and entrepreneurial intentions.

Practical implications

Suggestions for supporting early career professionals to develop interest in working abroad or in entrepreneurship are provided. Particularly, the results indicate that protean traits affect mobility intentions differently. To strengthen intentions for expatriation work, attention should be paid enhancing the ability for staying flexible when it comes to career choices. This applies to both undergraduate students and early career professionals. However, a strong career orientation is also essential to the development of expatriation intention among current students. On the other hand, enhancing proactivity could strengthen entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students.

Originality/value

This study applies protean-related traits and attitudes; and how they work together in the development of mobility intentions among undergraduate students and early career professionals. The study reveals differential roles of these traits and attitudes among these groups, with regard to expatriation and entrepreneurship. This is important for career guidance.

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Luisa Helena Pinto and Regina Caldas

– The purpose of this study is to examine how international workers engage into and make sense of expatriation and how sense-making enacts further action.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how international workers engage into and make sense of expatriation and how sense-making enacts further action.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the corporate influence over expatriation, empirical data were collected from a single case study organization, a well-established Portuguese retail company. The primary data sources were the in-depth interviews with 13 international workers, while other secondary data sources included company documents that provided the background information required to understand the interviewees and describe the organization. The experiences of expatriation through the accounts and stories of these workers were subject to thematic content analysis.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that international workers act as sense-makers and sense-givers vehicles about expatriation. By doing so, they enact a plausible and dominant story that ultimately bounds the perception of divergent cues and limit their own action. While this ongoing dialogue between expatriation meaning and action can raise organizational actors’ capacities to negotiate and influence further meaning and action, it also validates existing practices and generates further compliance.

Originality/value

Despite being limited to a single organizational context, this study offers a contextualized approach to the study of expatriation that complements earlier research and highlights sense-making dynamics and related outcomes, further extending the applications of the sense-making perspective. This study suggests new research avenues exploring the politics and negotiation bonds from which expatriation sense-making can emerge as well as the opportunities for disruptive sense-making.

Details

Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Yochanan Altman and Yehuda Baruch

Within the current discourse on contemporary careers and the context of international assignments, this paper seeks to conduct a study of a large European MNC, with the…

6178

Abstract

Purpose

Within the current discourse on contemporary careers and the context of international assignments, this paper seeks to conduct a study of a large European MNC, with the aim of theory development on expatriation/repatriation.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study, based on semi‐structured interviews in a major financial institution.

Findings

Motivation to expatriate falls into two distinct categories – company initiated assignments; and self‐initiated, career orientated and/or self‐development focused. The authors propose a two dimensional model to depict the emergence of a new expatriation path alongside the traditional one – differentiating those who respond to an international assignment call within a clearly framed career development path; and those embarking on international assignment as, primarily, a personal growth opportunity. A distinctive sub‐group of corporate self‐initiated expatriates is identified for the first time.

Research limitations/implications

A qualitative study within one company.

Practical implications

The emergent models could be utilized by HR managers to shape future policies and practices for global assignments.

Originality/value

Providing a new model to explicate the relevance of a protean career attitude in a global boundaryless career environment; outlining of new emergent international career trajectories, in particular corporate self‐initiated careers.

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

Yanghua Zhou

The purpose of this study is to address the research gap and quantitatively examine how the psychological contracts (PCs) between Japanese expatriates and Japanese…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to address the research gap and quantitatively examine how the psychological contracts (PCs) between Japanese expatriates and Japanese multinational corporations (MNCs) influence the expatriation success of both Japanese expatriates and Japanese MNCs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study constitutes exploratory research, using a quantitative analysis as the main research method and a qualitative approach as a complement. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and data from 100 Japanese expatriate respondents were analyzed.

Findings

The results indicate that the fulfillment of PCs is indeed important for expatriation success. The age factor of expatriates also has significant impact on expatriation success. There is no complementary relationship between the fulfillment of Japanese expatriates and MNCs.

Research limitations/implications

Other organization variables may also be considered. Future research could also examine organizations' perceptions of Japanese expatriates' fulfillment of PCs. It is necessary for developing advanced methods to conduct increasingly precise research and provide improved methodological contributions.

Practical implications

The efforts of both individual expatriates and MNCs are therefore indispensable to achieve successful expatriation. Attention should be paid to the training and development of younger expatriates.

Originality/value

This study allows the author to address the gap in studies regarding the expatriation success of both Japanese MNCs and expatriates from the perspective of PCs. This study has created a scale to measure the expatriation success. This study explores the interaction effect of the fulfillment of PCs by expatriates and MNCs, which has not been addressed in the literature on expatriation success.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2007

Stephen J. Perkins and Romain Daste

The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of influences on interaction between corporate personnel and development specialists and line functions associated…

3395

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of influences on interaction between corporate personnel and development specialists and line functions associated with expatriating managers. Line managers are expected to accept greater responsibility for people management and development. But line managers' strategies for managing risks inherent in supervising expatriate managers may cause to surface incompatibilities with specialists' corporate “policy conscience” role. A pluralistically inclined perspective on “managerial interest streams” offers insights into inter‐group perceptions and behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on organisational actors' interpretations, a non‐standardised survey by e‐mail, covering a small sample of expatriate managers (n=20) employed in various countries by a large UK‐headquartered healthcare retail group, was complemented by semi‐structured interviews with personnel and development specialists in a further seven large multinational companies.

Findings

Potential tensions around the application of corporate expatriation policy may be attributed to factors “educating” line and specialist orientations to expatriate managers.

Originality/value

The value of the paper is in the development of an original model sketching pluralistically located interaction around expatriation management. While limited to an exploratory empirical investigation, the practical implications derive from specification of opportunities and threats to partnership building between those involved in expatriating managers.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

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