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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Ebru Ipek and Philipp Paulus

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which a destination's security level affects the relationship between personality traits and individuals' expatriation

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which a destination's security level affects the relationship between personality traits and individuals' expatriation willingness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply an experimental vignette methodology using a 2 × 1 between subjects-design with two destinations characterized by different security levels (dangerous vs. safe) among 278 participants (students and employees). Partial least squares multigroup analysis (PLS-MGA) was employed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The findings indicate that different personality variables appear to impact individuals' expatriation willingness depending on the security level of a destination: emotionality and conscientiousness predicted expatriation willingness to dangerous environments, whereas openness to experience predicted expatriation willingness to safe environments. The personality traits of honesty–humility, extraversion and agreeableness were not found to influence expatriation willingness in either scenario.

Practical implications

The study discusses a set of practical recommendations for the selection and the management of eligible individuals who are willing to expatriate to dangerous locations.

Originality/value

The study is among the first to examine the influence of personality on expatriation willingness in safe and dangerous environments at the same time. It advances prior research by providing a more nuanced understanding of the context-specific effects of personality on expatriation willingness.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

Yanghua Zhou

The purpose of this study is to address the research gap and quantitatively examine how the psychological contracts (PCs) between Japanese expatriates and Japanese…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to address the research gap and quantitatively examine how the psychological contracts (PCs) between Japanese expatriates and Japanese multinational corporations (MNCs) influence the expatriation success of both Japanese expatriates and Japanese MNCs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study constitutes exploratory research, using a quantitative analysis as the main research method and a qualitative approach as a complement. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and data from 100 Japanese expatriate respondents were analyzed.

Findings

The results indicate that the fulfillment of PCs is indeed important for expatriation success. The age factor of expatriates also has significant impact on expatriation success. There is no complementary relationship between the fulfillment of Japanese expatriates and MNCs.

Research limitations/implications

Other organization variables may also be considered. Future research could also examine organizations' perceptions of Japanese expatriates' fulfillment of PCs. It is necessary for developing advanced methods to conduct increasingly precise research and provide improved methodological contributions.

Practical implications

The efforts of both individual expatriates and MNCs are therefore indispensable to achieve successful expatriation. Attention should be paid to the training and development of younger expatriates.

Originality/value

This study allows the author to address the gap in studies regarding the expatriation success of both Japanese MNCs and expatriates from the perspective of PCs. This study has created a scale to measure the expatriation success. This study explores the interaction effect of the fulfillment of PCs by expatriates and MNCs, which has not been addressed in the literature on expatriation success.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Christian Nowak and Christian Linder

The purpose of this paper is to assess the costs and benefits of expatriation persists as a difficult challenge for many organizations and scholarly guidance on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the costs and benefits of expatriation persists as a difficult challenge for many organizations and scholarly guidance on the process of compiling and allocating the costs of expatriation remains insufficient. The authors argue therefore that there is a need for developing an instrument that enables practitioners to calculate an estimate of the total cost of expatriation which can eventually be set in relation to the expected benefits of an assignment.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate how the total cost of expatriation can be computed, the authors provide an exploratory overview of previous research on international assignments, expatriate return of investment (eROI) and principles of cost accounting. Then, essential costs of expatriation are discussed and combined in one model for assessing the total cost of expatriation.

Findings

The authors will demonstrate that expatriation costs are best understood as process costs. In addition, the authors will provide a tool to calculate eROI.

Originality/value

The paper show how to determine the costs of major phases of expatriation. It allows us to calculate the break-even point of an international assignment and it can be used to compare this investment with alternative methods of international mobility. Most importantly, the authors are able to identify crucial cost drivers which allow the development of more precise and targeted recommendations for management action.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Martin Mabunda Baluku, Dorothee Löser, Kathleen Otto and Steffen Erik Schummer

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of protean-related traits and attitudes in the development of international mobility (expatriation) and entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of protean-related traits and attitudes in the development of international mobility (expatriation) and entrepreneurial intentions among early career professionals. Career mobility is of increasing relevance to achieving career success in the era of protean and boundaryless careers, and in the present day highly globalized labor market. International mobility provides opportunities for work in organizations (corporate expatriation) as well as in entrepreneurship (expat entrepreneurship).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports two studies examining the role of “protean career personality,” conceptualized as consisting of personal initiative and flexibility on entrepreneurial and expatriation intention, looking at career orientation attitude as the mediating mechanism. In study 1, the impact of personal initiative and flexibility on the two career mobility paths is explored using a sample of 442 German undergraduate students. Study 2 replicates these relationships among a sample of 100 early career professionals who graduated with a diploma in psychology.

Findings

Results indicate that for the sample of undergraduate students, flexibility and career orientation were positively related to expatriation intention. However, the mediation path was non-significant. On the other hand, personal initiative and career orientation were essential for entrepreneurial intentions, with a significant mediation path. For the early career professionals in contrast, only flexibility turned out to be resourceful for both expatriation and entrepreneurial intentions.

Practical implications

Suggestions for supporting early career professionals to develop interest in working abroad or in entrepreneurship are provided. Particularly, the results indicate that protean traits affect mobility intentions differently. To strengthen intentions for expatriation work, attention should be paid enhancing the ability for staying flexible when it comes to career choices. This applies to both undergraduate students and early career professionals. However, a strong career orientation is also essential to the development of expatriation intention among current students. On the other hand, enhancing proactivity could strengthen entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students.

Originality/value

This study applies protean-related traits and attitudes; and how they work together in the development of mobility intentions among undergraduate students and early career professionals. The study reveals differential roles of these traits and attitudes among these groups, with regard to expatriation and entrepreneurship. This is important for career guidance.

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Luisa Helena Pinto and Regina Caldas

– The purpose of this study is to examine how international workers engage into and make sense of expatriation and how sense-making enacts further action.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how international workers engage into and make sense of expatriation and how sense-making enacts further action.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the corporate influence over expatriation, empirical data were collected from a single case study organization, a well-established Portuguese retail company. The primary data sources were the in-depth interviews with 13 international workers, while other secondary data sources included company documents that provided the background information required to understand the interviewees and describe the organization. The experiences of expatriation through the accounts and stories of these workers were subject to thematic content analysis.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that international workers act as sense-makers and sense-givers vehicles about expatriation. By doing so, they enact a plausible and dominant story that ultimately bounds the perception of divergent cues and limit their own action. While this ongoing dialogue between expatriation meaning and action can raise organizational actors’ capacities to negotiate and influence further meaning and action, it also validates existing practices and generates further compliance.

Originality/value

Despite being limited to a single organizational context, this study offers a contextualized approach to the study of expatriation that complements earlier research and highlights sense-making dynamics and related outcomes, further extending the applications of the sense-making perspective. This study suggests new research avenues exploring the politics and negotiation bonds from which expatriation sense-making can emerge as well as the opportunities for disruptive sense-making.

Details

Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Yochanan Altman and Yehuda Baruch

Within the current discourse on contemporary careers and the context of international assignments, this paper seeks to conduct a study of a large European MNC, with the…

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5944

Abstract

Purpose

Within the current discourse on contemporary careers and the context of international assignments, this paper seeks to conduct a study of a large European MNC, with the aim of theory development on expatriation/repatriation.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study, based on semi‐structured interviews in a major financial institution.

Findings

Motivation to expatriate falls into two distinct categories – company initiated assignments; and self‐initiated, career orientated and/or self‐development focused. The authors propose a two dimensional model to depict the emergence of a new expatriation path alongside the traditional one – differentiating those who respond to an international assignment call within a clearly framed career development path; and those embarking on international assignment as, primarily, a personal growth opportunity. A distinctive sub‐group of corporate self‐initiated expatriates is identified for the first time.

Research limitations/implications

A qualitative study within one company.

Practical implications

The emergent models could be utilized by HR managers to shape future policies and practices for global assignments.

Originality/value

Providing a new model to explicate the relevance of a protean career attitude in a global boundaryless career environment; outlining of new emergent international career trajectories, in particular corporate self‐initiated careers.

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2007

Stephen J. Perkins and Romain Daste

The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of influences on interaction between corporate personnel and development specialists and line functions associated…

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3365

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of influences on interaction between corporate personnel and development specialists and line functions associated with expatriating managers. Line managers are expected to accept greater responsibility for people management and development. But line managers' strategies for managing risks inherent in supervising expatriate managers may cause to surface incompatibilities with specialists' corporate “policy conscience” role. A pluralistically inclined perspective on “managerial interest streams” offers insights into inter‐group perceptions and behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on organisational actors' interpretations, a non‐standardised survey by e‐mail, covering a small sample of expatriate managers (n=20) employed in various countries by a large UK‐headquartered healthcare retail group, was complemented by semi‐structured interviews with personnel and development specialists in a further seven large multinational companies.

Findings

Potential tensions around the application of corporate expatriation policy may be attributed to factors “educating” line and specialist orientations to expatriate managers.

Originality/value

The value of the paper is in the development of an original model sketching pluralistically located interaction around expatriation management. While limited to an exploratory empirical investigation, the practical implications derive from specification of opportunities and threats to partnership building between those involved in expatriating managers.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Pooja B. Vijayakumar and Christopher J. L. Cunningham

Globalization has led to individuals working and living outside their native country. The purpose of this paper is to examine relationship between motives for expatriation

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1578

Abstract

Purpose

Globalization has led to individuals working and living outside their native country. The purpose of this paper is to examine relationship between motives for expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment in Indian expatriates working in the US information technology (IT) industry. Additionally, the moderating effects of self-initiated expatriates (SIE) and organizational expatriates (OE) on the relationship between motives for expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment were studied. Also, existing measures in this area of research were analyzed to improve validity and utility for future studies. Participants responded to questions via an internet survey.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from 336 Indian IT professionals working in America. The authors evaluated the psychometric quality of reasons for expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment measures by considering various fit statistics, modification indices and rational judgment based on item content. The authors used a maximum likelihood extraction method with an oblique rotation (Geomin) for these factor analyses, given the theoretically and empirically supported relationship between the subdimensions of both measures. Using these purified measures, a hierarchical regression analyses procedure was used to test the hypothesized relationships. A computational tool called PROCESS was used to test the hypothesized moderating effect of expatriate type on the relationship between motives for expatriation and cross-cultural adjustment.

Findings

Preliminary factor analytic work suggested modifications to the reasons for expatriation measure used to quantify participants’ motives for expatriation. Using this revised measure, those with stronger financial (mercenary) motives for expatriation also reported less positive cultural adjustment, while those with stronger exploratory motives for expatriation reported more positive cultural adjustment. Some evidence was also observed for a weak, but notable moderating effect of expatriate type (SIE vs OE) on the relationship between expatriation motives and cultural adjustment.

Originality/value

This study presents a revised measure of expatriation motives, as well as expanded theoretical and empirical evidence base to help future researchers working with expatriates. The findings may be also helpful to organizations and consultants who work to prepare expatriates for their assignments, especially when these expatriates are Indian professionals preparing to work in the USA.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2010

Ben Herzog

In this chapter, the revocation of citizenship laws in three democratic countries – Canada, Israel, and the United States – are compared. At first glance, it appears that…

Abstract

In this chapter, the revocation of citizenship laws in three democratic countries – Canada, Israel, and the United States – are compared. At first glance, it appears that in each of the countries, there is one common factor that provides the pretext for expatriation – the particular conception of citizenship and nationhood (usually highlighted and constructed during military conflicts). This explanation accords with the existing literature on citizenship. This chapter shows that there is another principle that all countries share that plays a role in the perception of citizenship and its revocation. Forced expatriation as a policy became more widespread with the institutionalization of the national world order which does not tolerate multiple national allegiances.

Details

Democratic Paths and Trends
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-092-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2002

Yehuda Baruch, D.J. Steele and G.A. Quantrill

The paper tells us about the experience of a financial services company in managing its expatriation and repatriation processes. Data were gathered from official company…

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8334

Abstract

The paper tells us about the experience of a financial services company in managing its expatriation and repatriation processes. Data were gathered from official company sources and via in‐depth interviews with former expatriates. The analysis indicates that some 50 percent of people left the company following the repatriation within a few years after return. The experience gained by the company manifests the importance of proper management of the processes of expatriation and in particular repatriation. To attain a successful expatriation and repatriation the management should handle both processes as an integrated part of career management, since expatriation can form a crucial point in the development of a psychological contract between the employee and the company.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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