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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Deepak K. Srivastava and Monika Panday

The purpose of this paper is to provide an instrument to measure the dimensionality of Indian expatriate adjustment.

1196

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an instrument to measure the dimensionality of Indian expatriate adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

In an effort to measure the dimensionality of Indian expatriate adjustment in the USA, Black's instrument was used in this paper.

Findings

The factor analysis gave a different factor structure from that proposed by Black. Expatriate scores did not merge into three dimensions of expatriates' adjustment; rather they merged into two dimensions. Unlike Black's study, interaction with host nationals was not found to be a separate dimension. A possible explanation is that linguistic skills and the presence of Indian diaspora support Indian expatriates during their interactions with Americans.

Research limitations/implications

The exploratory character of this study with its small convenience sample of Indian expatriates makes the findings tentative.

Practical implications

The paper is a useful source of information for students planning to make a career in international business and practitioners already engaged in international business activities.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified information need and offers help in expatriate adjustment.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2022

Sihong Wu, Di Fan and Anaiya Jeetendra Dabasia

Drawing on Herzberg's motivation-hygiene perspective, this study examines the factors affecting expatriate adjustment and the relationship between expatriate adjustment

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on Herzberg's motivation-hygiene perspective, this study examines the factors affecting expatriate adjustment and the relationship between expatriate adjustment and subsidiary performance of emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Using structural equation modeling, this study tests a proposed conceptual model based on a matched dataset collected from 38 EMNEs.

Findings

The findings reveal that perceived organizational support (POS) and family adjustment are positively associated with expatriate adjustment, while remuneration and job burnout have no significant relationships with expatriate adjustment. In addition, expatriate adjustment is positively associated with the foreign subsidiary performance of EMNEs.

Originality/value

This study contributes to expatriate adjustment research in the EMNE context by distinguishing motivators and hygiene factors in affecting the expatriates' attitudes toward international assignments. Empirical evidence of expatriate adjustment-subsidiary performance relationship also enriches the authors’ knowledge of EMNEs' expatriation practices.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Muhammad Sarfraz, Qasim Ali Nisar and Ali Raza

Drawing upon the social exchange and psychological capital literature and applying a multilevel perspective, this paper examines how personal and organizational factors…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon the social exchange and psychological capital literature and applying a multilevel perspective, this paper examines how personal and organizational factors contribute to expatriates' adjustment and performance of international assignments in a terrorism-induced risky environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a non-probability sampling approach (e.g. purposive and subsequent snowball sampling). The authors tested the hypotheses using survey data of 138 expatriates with current international assignments in Pakistan.

Findings

Expatriates' perceived organizational and risk-taking propensity influences their performance through improved adjustment. Moderating effects suggest that an individual's satisfaction with the received organizational rewards strengthens the risk-taking propensity to adjustment relationship; resilience strengthens the adjustment to performance relationship.

Originality/value

This study extends existing expatriation literature by focusing on a specific type of risk factor pertinent to international assignments, i.e. terrorism. Integrating individual and organizational factors that influence adjustment and subsequent performance provides a clear picture rather if such factors are operationalized separately in the terrorism-induced risky environment context.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2022

Hao Huang, Hong Liu, Xingguang Zhao, Hanrong He and Yusen Ding

The purpose of this research study is to explore the influence of perceived organizational support (POS) on organizational embeddedness and organizational identification…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research study is to explore the influence of perceived organizational support (POS) on organizational embeddedness and organizational identification in the simulated home environment. Another objective of this study is to provide an effective cross-cultural adjustment model adopted by many Chinese enterprises operating overseas. Furthermore, it examines the mediating effects of organizational embeddedness and organizational identification on POS and expatriate adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of this quantitative research study was acquired from a questionnaire survey completed by 326 expatriates from Chinese enterprises in a power station in Bangladesh, and regression analyses were conducted using SPSS software.

Findings

The study found that POS of expatriates is positively correlated with their organizational embeddedness and organizational identification, and it positively impacts expatriate adjustment. Moreover, the study also evaluated that organizational embeddedness and organizational identification positively influence expatriate adjustment. Finally, it was demonstrated that organizational embeddedness mediates the relationship among living POS, emotional POS and expatriate adjustment. Organizational identification mediates the relationships among work POS, emotional POS and work adjustment. Organizational identification mediates the relationships between work POS and interaction adjustment.

Practical implications

The research results demonstrate that the living, work and emotional support to the expatriates from the projects department of Chinese enterprises is of particular importance for their better adjustment in overseas engineering projects. Furthermore, these results are particularly conducive to the successful management of employees accommodated in fully-closed and semi-closed simulated homes.

Originality/value

In the setting of a simulated home in the overseas engineering projects, this research study has demonstrated for the first time that the living, work and emotional support provided by an organization can effectively help its expatriate workers acclimatize during their overseas placement.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Hak Liong Chan, Dahlia Zawawi, Siew Imm Ng and Debbra Toria Anak Nipo

International assignments are an effective tool to develop employees' cultural competencies, yet expatriate failure rates remain high. This paper aims to examine salient…

Abstract

Purpose

International assignments are an effective tool to develop employees' cultural competencies, yet expatriate failure rates remain high. This paper aims to examine salient stakeholders' (i.e. organisations, host country nationals (HCNs) and spouses) support as antecedents of expatriates' work adjustment and task performance. It also explores work adjustment as a mediator between support and task performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting the quantitative approach, survey data were collected from 112 expatriates who were married and based in organisations in Malaysia. Partial least squares-structural equation modelling was employed to analyse the data.

Findings

The findings validate the direct influences of perceived organisational support (POS) on work adjustment, HCN support on work adjustment, and spousal support on task performance. The indirect effect of HCN support on task performance through work adjustment was also established. When expatriates' work adjustment improves as a result of receiving HCN support, their task performance is enhanced.

Practical implications

This study evidences that expatriate-hiring firms should provide suitable support for expatriates when they work overseas. Local employees and spouses should likewise be tasked to help expatriates maximise their full potential in achieving successful performance in their assignments.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study is the exploration of the relationships between support, work adjustment and task performance among expatriates. It also adds to the limited knowledge on the role of specific stakeholders in the expatriate context.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 July 2021

Yuwen Liu

The purpose of this article is to advance the understanding of expatriates' psychological attachment toward both their parent company and its foreign subsidiary by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to advance the understanding of expatriates' psychological attachment toward both their parent company and its foreign subsidiary by highlighting how workplace friendships enhance the process of adjustment for expatriates and how these effects on adjustment subsequently translate into expatriates' dual commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 187 expatriates, working in managerial positions, in subsidiaries of multinational corporations, all of whom were assigned expatriates. Serial multiple indirect effects were tested.

Findings

The results indicated that the relationship between workplace friendships and interaction adjustment was supported, but the relationship between workplace friendships and work adjustment was not supported. The serial indirect effects of international adjustment and work adjustment on the relationship between interaction adjustment and expatriates' dual commitment were supported.

Originality/value

This study seeks to fill a gap in the research literature on expatriates by focusing on the issue of workplace friendships and expatriates' dual commitment. The findings help bolster the literature on relational schemas in that expatriates' workplace friendships establish scripts for expatriates' expected outlines of adjustment in work domains. This study also provides insights relevant to the literature on social interaction and adjustment, as the findings support our theory that expatriate commitment is not directly contingent on workplace friendships but rather on the mediating roles of both interaction adjustment and work adjustment.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 51 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2013

Hyounae Min, Vincent P. Magnini and Manisha Singal

Whether expatriate cross-cultural training programs significantly influence expatriate adjustment has been debated for more than two decades. The purpose of this paper is…

2901

Abstract

Purpose

Whether expatriate cross-cultural training programs significantly influence expatriate adjustment has been debated for more than two decades. The purpose of this paper is to examine a pivotal variable not yet addressed in the literature: the expatriate's perceptions of the employer's investment in the training (termed “perceived corporate training investment”: PCTI).

Design/methodology/approach

Completed surveys were collected from 71 hotel expatriate managers stationed around the globe.

Findings

When an expatriate manager perceives that his/her company's investment in expatriate training (PCTI) exceeds industry standards, it leads to enhanced work adjustment. Interestingly, PCTI is also found to significantly influence the expatriate's general adjustment in the foreign culture. A firm's organizational learning climate mediates the relationship between PCTI and both forms of adjustment (work and general).

Research limitations/implications

It could prove informative for future research to model additional variables in these relationships, such as an expatriate's spousal support.

Practical implications

These findings suggest that firms should not only invest in expatriate training, but should also communicate to their expatriates the extent and importance that they assign to investment in training to foster a positive learning climate that in turn improves adjustment.

Originality/value

This research is the first to examine perceived corporate training investment (PCTI). Since PCTI is found to ultimately influence an expatriate's work adjustment and general adjustment, it is a key variable that should be considered by multinational hotel firms.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Nuno Guimarães-Costa, Miguel Pina e Cunha and Arménio Rego

The purpose of this paper is to understand the behaviours described by expatriates (“what expatriates say they do”) when they are pressed for adjustment and, at the same…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the behaviours described by expatriates (“what expatriates say they do”) when they are pressed for adjustment and, at the same time, they feel ethically challenged.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed 52 expatriates from the European Union working in Sub-Saharan Africa who were immersed in what was considered by them to be an ethically challenging context or situation while they were in the process of adjusting to their international assignment. The authors conducted a reflexive qualitative analysis between the data and existing literature.

Findings

The authors found that the feeling of moral discomfort that causes the perception of an ethical challenge is triggered by an event that contrasts with the expatriates’ notion of morals. After feeling ethically challenged, expatriates engage in a sensemaking process that is hinged in an “intended future identity”.

Research limitations/implications

The authors contribute to the literature by stressing the ethical dimension of adjustment. The authors complement the normative approaches to ethical decision making in international contexts. The research identifies a set of events that are considered as ethical challenges by business expatriates.

Practical implications

The research opens the possibility to anticipate and manage potential conflicts, thus minimizing the probability of expatriation failure. Early knowledge about an expatriate's intended future identity can provide relevant information concerning the probable type of adjustment problems s/he will face.

Originality/value

The research combines two hitherto separate streams of literature – expatriate adjustment and ethical decision making in international contexts – to open the possibility of ethical adjustment. This is supported by a sensemaking process that is also grounded in future intentions, and not only in past experiences and present signals.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2014

Muhammad Awais Bhatti, Mohamed Mohamed Battour, Ahmed Rageh Ismail and Veera Pandiyan Sundram

Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level, and societal…

11699

Abstract

Purpose

Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level, and societal level) but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of personality traits (big five) on expatriates adjustment and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this regards, data were collected from 201 expatriates working in Malaysia and analyzed by using structural equation modelling with Amos 16.

Findings

The findings of this study indicated that personality traits (big five) which include extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism positively influence expatriate adjustment which further influence expatriate performance rated by peers. In other words, expatriates adjustment (work, interaction, and general) mediate the relationship between big five personality traits (extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism) and expatriates job performance (task, relationship building, and overall performance).

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study will help the researchers to further understand the importance of personality traits required for successful completion of international assignment. Furthermore, the findings also suggest human resource professionals to consider these personality traits before selecting an individual for international assignment. Finally, future research directions have been proposed.

Originality/value

Literature on expatriate adjustment and job performance is still at developing stage. This paper shed light on the individual characteristics which work as predictors for expatriates adjustment and job performance.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2013

Muhammad Awais Bhatti, Mohamed Mohamed Battour and Ahmed Rageh Ismail

The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effects of expatriate adjustment (work, general and interaction) between individual (previous international…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effects of expatriate adjustment (work, general and interaction) between individual (previous international experience, self‐efficacy, social network and cultural sensitivity) and organizational factor (direct and indirect support) and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 201 expatriates working in Malaysia and analyse by using structural equation modelling (Amos‐16).

Findings

The results of the study indicated that expatriate adjustment (work, general and interaction) mediate the relationship between individual and organizational factors and expatriate performance (supervisor rated).

Research limitations/implications

The data were collected from the expatriates working in Malaysian universities. There can be differences between education industry and pure business organization in terms of working environment, selection process and management support. The respondents were citizens of different countries around the world which include Asia, Europe and Middle East. Even though Malaysia is a multicultural society and expatriates from any part of the world can find themselves in Malaysia, this research did not group the respondents in terms of their cultural differences and similarities with Malaysian culture.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that human resource managers and MNC's management should provide direct and indirect support to the expatriates and their families in terms of language and cultural training, career development, logistical assistance, family mentoring, psychological counselling, job search, self‐development and social activities. Furthermore, recruitment managers and MNC's management should consider these factors before appointing any employee for international assignment. Finally, the findings of this research suggest that better expatriate performance help MNC's to perform better in their international operations which will ultimately improve the home and host country economic situation. The better performance of MNC's in their international operations through effective expatriate performance will encourage other domestic organizations to expand their operations globally.

Originality/value

Expatriate literature have highlighted many individual and organizational factors which affect expatriate job performance and adjustment but the role of some individual and organizational factors is still not clear and/or ignored by past researchers. For example, the role of direct and indirect support has not been well conceptualized in past studies. In addition, only a few studies have explained the importance of self‐efficacy, cultural sensitivity and social network in expatriate literature. Furthermore, role of previous international experience has generated conflicting results in past research.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 62 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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