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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2008

Jun Li and Jing Lin

Along with the “reform and open door” policy launched in the late 1970s, China has experienced an annual average GDP growth rate of 9.8% between 1978 and 2002 (Hu, 2003

Abstract

Along with the “reform and open door” policy launched in the late 1970s, China has experienced an annual average GDP growth rate of 9.8% between 1978 and 2002 (Hu, 2003, October 19). China's economy system has also gone through a fundamental transition from a central planning system to a socialist free market economy. To cope with the booming economy and radical social changes, the higher education system of China has been undergoing a process of expansion with marketization (World Bank, 1997).

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The Worldwide Transformation of Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1487-4

Abstract

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Nonlinear Time Series Analysis of Business Cycles
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-838-5

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Frank Elter and Svein Ulset

This chapter develops a multi-path theory of diversified international expansion that explains how multiple wave-shaped performance curves are created as multinational…

Abstract

This chapter develops a multi-path theory of diversified international expansion that explains how multiple wave-shaped performance curves are created as multinational companies expand into increasingly distant and dissimilar countries. According to this theory, multinational mobile network operators (MNOs) recover from over-diversified expansion by improving their local adaptation strategies by means of reconfiguring the value chain and entering local partnerships, by improving their global replication capabilities or by concentrating expansion to clusters of similar country markets. Three dynamic propositions are developed and exemplified concerning MNOs’ diversified international expansion. Implications for international diversification research finalize the chapter.

Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2007

Randall E. Newnham

How do traditional state interests fit into a new Europe in which globalization may seem to render them irrelevant? Globalization is often thought of as undermining the…

Abstract

How do traditional state interests fit into a new Europe in which globalization may seem to render them irrelevant? Globalization is often thought of as undermining the sovereignty of states. States are forced to work through multilateral institutions in a globalizing world, which may seem to render states largely irrelevant. As this chapter will show, though, some countries are able to use multilateral institutions (such as the European Union, EU) as a new arena to advance their national goals. Germany is a classic example of such a state. Since its history of aggression has left the country distrusted by its neighbors, Germany has found that it can best advance its national goals by embedding them in multilateral processes – such as European integration.

The following chapter will examine this process by focusing on one case: the role of German–Polish relations in the 2004 expansion of the EU. After an introductory section, the chapter will first focus on Germany's goals, showing how it hoped that expansion would further German national interests, including its economic and security needs and the historical necessity of atoning for the Second World War. Yet Berlin also was careful to avoid overt unilateral actions, working carefully through the EU to advance its agenda. Next, the chapter will trace Germany's actions, showing how it worked to support the 2004 expansion and Poland's inclusion in it, often over the objections of some of its EU partners. Finally, the chapter will detail the outcome of the process, showing that the results were positive for both Germany and Poland, as well as for the overall cause of European integration. Thus, for the Germans at least, the seeming dichotomy between “doing good and doing well” can be reconciled. This may offer a model for other countries to follow, showing that a careful use of state power can advance national goals even in a globalizing world.

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Globalization: Perspectives from Central and Eastern Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1457-7

Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2006

Regina E. Werum and Lauren Rauscher

This chapter is part of a larger project that examines recent educational expansion efforts in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, a nation that provides a valuable case…

Abstract

This chapter is part of a larger project that examines recent educational expansion efforts in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, a nation that provides a valuable case study of challenges shaping higher educational expansion efforts in developing countries. The initial goal of the project was to identify supply and demand issues in postsecondary training. Though we did not collect data with the intent to examine neo-institutional or status competition dynamics, this theme emerged inductively from a series of interviews conducted with individuals and focus groups, making it an ideal case study for this volume.

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The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-308-2

Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2009

Rodney C. Shrader, Javier Monllor and Lois Shelton

Young/small firms are often seen as acquisition targets, but rarely viewed as potential acquirers. However, in this study we found that one-third of the young ventures in…

Abstract

Young/small firms are often seen as acquisition targets, but rarely viewed as potential acquirers. However, in this study we found that one-third of the young ventures in our sample pursued aggressive growth though acquisition of their competitors. Furthermore, contrary to conventional wisdom, we found striking evidence that young firms pursuing growth via acquisition significantly outperformed their peers who pursued growth via internal development. Thus, growth via acquisition clearly represents a viable strategic option for young, small firms.

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Entrepreneurial Strategic Content
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-422-1

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2022

Xi Zhong, Weihong Chen and Ge Ren

Whether and when the innovation aspiration shortfall (e.g. innovation performance lower than aspirations) will affect emerging economy firms (EEFs)' international expansion

Abstract

Purpose

Whether and when the innovation aspiration shortfall (e.g. innovation performance lower than aspirations) will affect emerging economy firms (EEFs)' international expansion remains an important unanswered theoretical and practical question.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on performance feedback theory, this study explores the impact of innovation aspiration shortfall on EEFs' international expansion and the moderating role of CEO origin.

Findings

This study finds that innovation aspiration shortfall has a positive impact on EEFs' international expansion. This study also uncovers that EEFs are less likely to implement international expansion in response to innovation aspiration shortfall when the CEO is a founder than when the CEO is a non-founder, and EEFs are more likely to implement international expansion in response to innovation aspiration shortfall when the CEO is an outsider-CEO than when the CEO is an insider-CEO.

Originality/value

This study proposes that the interaction between innovation aspiration shortfall and CEO origin can be a useful predictor of EEFs' international expansion.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2022

Álvaro Rodríguez-Sanz and Luis Rubio-Andrada

Airport capacity constraints lead to operational congestion and delays, which have become major threats to the aviation industry. They impose large costs on airlines and…

Abstract

Purpose

Airport capacity constraints lead to operational congestion and delays, which have become major threats to the aviation industry. They impose large costs on airlines and their passengers. Uncertainty in demand or unexpected events can cause a mismatch between capacity and demand, resulting in either capacity oversupply, with a decrease in efficiency, or airport congestion over an extended period. Moreover, airport capacity is rather difficult to define due to its multifaceted and dynamic nature, and it depends both on the available infrastructure and on operating procedures. Additionally, traditional capacity management methods do not consider relevant behavioral economic challenges to conventional analysis, particularly failure of the expected utility hypotheses and dependence of valuations on reference points. This study aims to develop a preliminary framework to include economic concepts when evaluating expansions of airport capacity.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews major opportunities in airport demand and capacity management from an economic perspective while appraising the challenges involved in airport capacity expansion processes that have not been fully completely in past studies. Although welfare economics provides the conceptual foundations for demand/capacity analyses, the authors integrate the findings regarding capacity definition, uncertainty management and behavioral economics into standard economics to guide the measurement of the airport capacity expansion problem.

Findings

The authors obtain several insights regarding airport capacity and demand management. First, airport capacity is a complex metric when evaluating airport expansion, and it depends both on the available infrastructure and on operating procedures. Furthermore, airport throughput is highly conditioned by factors that shape capacity and delay and shows significant variability when these factors are modified. Second, a marginal change in capacity at congested airports may have a great impact on demand distribution, airline competition, aircraft types, fares, operating revenues, route map and other characteristics of a given airport. Behavior after capacity expansion is highly reliant on the slot allocation models. Additionally, overall social welfare is usually affected after changes in infrastructure in terms of increased connectivity, economic benefits and negative externalities, including noise and local pollution. Third, on-time performance is clearly nonlinear, and thus sensitive to variations in demand and capacity. Finally, airport capacity and demand management involve a trade-off between mitigating congestion and maximizing capacity utilization, so decision-making tools are required to support and enhance policy and managerial choices. Three main challenges arise when developing new methods for evaluating airport expansions: the definition of capacity, the management of uncertainty in demand and the need to consider economic concepts.

Originality/value

This paper explores and produces an in-depth understanding of the problem of airport capacity and demand balance. The authors propose a preliminary framework that considers the challenges that have been previously identified and that, particularly, provides an economic perspective for airport capacity expansion processes. This framework is completed with a theoretical model to help policymakers and airport operators when faced with a capacity development decision.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 94 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Heng Xu, Xuliang Wu and Yatian Liu

This paper aims to theoretically investigate an online company’s optimal decision on its offline expansion strategy. In the past five years, many large online retailers…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to theoretically investigate an online company’s optimal decision on its offline expansion strategy. In the past five years, many large online retailers and internet-based companies such as Amazon, Google, Alibaba, Tencent and JD.com have expanded their offline market but it was observed that they adopted different expansion strategies. Specifically, some of them expand the offline market by acquiring offline retailers, while some do so by purchasing a portion of offline retailer’s stake. This difference leads to a quite different structure in post-expansion market, having an impact on profit, consumer surplus and social welfare. The goal of this paper is to model such expansion strategies in a general way and complete studies on profits and welfare.

Design/methodology/approach

By constructing a Salop model with two offline retailers and one online company, this paper analyzes the case where the online company can expand its offline market by either acquiring or jointing (e.g. stakeholding) with one offline retailer. The former strategy (named Strategy A) allows the online company to fully control and capture residual claims of the offline retailer. With the adoption of the latter strategy (named Strategy C), on the other hand, the online company can obtain a fixed proportion of its offline partner’s quasi rent. In the price competition, the online company chooses its optimal offline expansion strategy by predicting its profit in the post-expansion market.

Findings

This paper found that the equilibrium crucially depends on the synergy effect due to online–offline integration, and such synergy also influences both consumer and social welfare. This study shows the various conditions on the synergy that affect an online company moves toward offline markets. Accordingly, this finding can assist online companies with or without retailing business to choose an optimal strategy when expanding offline markets. Moreover, by doing some necessary welfare analysis, this study shows that the online company’s offline expansion is not always benefiting consumers nor be socially desirable, which may shed some lights on the possible competition policy in the case where online companies practice in offline expansion.

Originality/value

Different from conventional wisdom in online-offline integration, the theory indicates that the offline expectation of online company may not always benefit consumers nor be socially desirable. Moreover, the findings also shed some lights on the possible competition policy in the case where online companies practice in offline expansion.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 31 March 2021

Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk, Anna Małgorzata Grudecka and Anna Napiórkowska

The aim of this paper is to identify ways and motives of application of e-commerce in the foreign expansion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) fashion brands.

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to identify ways and motives of application of e-commerce in the foreign expansion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) fashion brands.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study was used as the research method. Data were obtained from primarily in-depth interviews with managers of four Polish SMEs –fashion brands owners, whose products are sold in the foreign markets using e-commerce, and secondary sources.

Findings

Through this study the authors identified both strategic-proactive and market-reactive motives of e-commerce applications in SMEs’ fashion brands in the internet-enabled foreign expansion and three different models of usage of e-commerce in the foreign expansion of SMEs.

Research limitations/implications

The research was based on the multiple case study of only Polish SMEs in the fashion industry. The conclusions of this study can be applied by fashion companies in their internet-based foreign expansion.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing body of literature on the internationalization process of SMEs, and particularly on the application of cross-border e-commerce in the foreign internet-enabled expansion of fashion SMEs by identifying three various models of applying e-commerce, in the internet-enabled foreign expansion and their both proactive and reactive motives.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 71000