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1 – 10 of over 6000
Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2006

Julie Berry Cullen and Randall Reback

We explore the extent to which schools manipulate the composition of students in the test-taking pool in order to maximize ratings under Texas’ accountability system in…

Abstract

We explore the extent to which schools manipulate the composition of students in the test-taking pool in order to maximize ratings under Texas’ accountability system in the 1990s. We first derive predictions from a static model of administrators’ incentives given the structure of the ratings criteria, and then test these predictions by comparing differential changes in exemption rates across student subgroups within campuses and across campuses and regimes. Our analyses uncover evidence of a moderate degree of strategic behavior, so that there is some tension between designing systems that account for heterogeneity in student populations and that are manipulation-free.

Details

Improving School Accountability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-446-1

Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2009

Sophie Witter

Objective – The first wave of experiences of exemptions policies suggested that poverty-based exemptions, using individual targeting, were not effective, for practical and…

Abstract

Objective – The first wave of experiences of exemptions policies suggested that poverty-based exemptions, using individual targeting, were not effective, for practical and political economic reasons. In response, many countries have changed their approach in recent years – while maintaining user fees as a necessary source of revenue for facilities, they have been switching to categorical targeting, offering exemptions based on high-priority services or population groups. This chapter aims to examine the impact and conditions for effectiveness of this recent health finance modality.

Methodology/approach – The chapter is based on a literature review and on data from two complex evaluations of national fee exemption policies for delivery care in West Africa (Ghana and Senegal). A conceptual framework for analysing the impact of exemption policies is developed and used. Although the analysis focuses on exemption for deliveries, the framework and findings are likely to be generalisable to other service- or population-based exemptions.

Findings – The chapter presents background information on the nature of delivery exemptions, the drivers for their use, their scale and common modalities in low-income countries. It then looks at evidence of their impact, on utilisation, quality of care and equity and investigates their cost-effectiveness. The final section presents lessons on implementation and implications for policy-makers, including the acceptability and sustainability of exemptions and how they compare to other possible mechanisms.

Implications for policy – The chapter concludes that funded service- or group-based exemptions offer a simple, potentially effective route to mitigating inequity and inefficiency in the health systems of low-income countries. However, there are a number of key constraints. One is the fungibility of resources at health facility level. The second is the difficulty of sustaining a separate funding stream over the medium to long term. The third is the arbitrary basis for selecting high-priority services for exemption. The chapter therefore concludes that this financing mode is unstable and is likely to be transitional.

Details

Innovations in Health System Finance in Developing and Transitional Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-664-5

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the…

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Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

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Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Charles Abrams

After first being issued in draft in July 1998 and then taking a year to go through Parliament, the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (FISMA) finally became law on…

Abstract

After first being issued in draft in July 1998 and then taking a year to go through Parliament, the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (FISMA) finally became law on 14th June, 2000. The Treasury, the government department responsible for the UK financial services industry, has, however, just announced that the FISMA will not come fully into force until summer 2001, although some sections may perhaps come into force earlier.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Benjamin W. Hoffman and Albert L. Nagy

This paper aims to investigate whether the expected implementation of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX 404(b)) (the integrated audit requirement) caused…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether the expected implementation of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX 404(b)) (the integrated audit requirement) caused auditors to discount their audit fees for non-accelerated filers in anticipation of expected increased future economic rents (DeAngelo, 1981) from those clients.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper predicts that auditors charged their non-accelerated filer clients lower audit fees during the years 2005-2007 (in anticipation of increased expected future economic rents from the implementation of the SOX 404(b) requirement) compared with the years 2010-2012 (when it had been determined that non-accelerated filers were permanently exempt from complying with SOX 404(b)). The authors use ordinary least squares regression analysis to examine whether audit fees increased significantly for non-accelerated filers after the permanent exemption announcement.

Findings

The results show a significant positive association between the exemption announcement and audit fees, supporting the theory that auditors discounted their audit fees for non-accelerated filers in the pre-exemption announcement period. This finding is robust when sensitivity tests are used.

Practical implications

The findings of audit fee discounting literature related to the post-SOX period are mixed. This study adds to this stream of literature by supporting the notion that audit fee discounting is being practiced post-SOX and is a potential unintended consequence of SOX 404 and the exemption. Thus, investors will be interested in the results of this paper when making their investment decisions with regard to non-accelerated filers.

Social implications

The results of this paper show that, even in the post-SOX environment, auditors will employ the use of audit fee discounting if a change in regulation incentivizes it. This commentary on the present state of the audit pricing market should be of interest to audit pricing policymakers.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first to study audit fee discounting outside the realm of initial audit engagements.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Kerry Burke, Julian Hammar, Lisa Koff, Loretta Shaw‐Lorello, Amanda Weiss and Kristian Wiggert

The alert endeavors to clarify the current state of play regarding the registration requirements for commodity pool operators (CPOs) and to discuss certain exemptions from…

Abstract

Purpose

The alert endeavors to clarify the current state of play regarding the registration requirements for commodity pool operators (CPOs) and to discuss certain exemptions from registration and no‐action relief that may be applicable to sponsors of private funds.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors' approach is focused on the practical steps a fund sponsor may need to take to claim an exemption from the CPO registration requirements. The authors obtained the research from publicly available CFTC sources.

Findings

Although many private equity funds may be exempt from the CPO registration requirements, many of the CFTC's exemptions are not self‐executing and necessitate ongoing action by the fund sponsor.

Practical implications

Before entering into any swaps, a sponsor of a private fund should consider whether the swap transaction will impact any exemptive relief currently claimed by the sponsor and whether any further CFTC action is required as a result of such transaction.

Originality/value

The article should provide a roadmap of the possible exemptions from CPO registration for sponsors of private funds.

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Benjamin W. Hoffman and Albert L. Nagy

This paper aims to investigate whether the Sarbanes-Oxley Act: Section 404(b) exemption caused an increase in auditor changes due to changes in expectations for both…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether the Sarbanes-Oxley Act: Section 404(b) exemption caused an increase in auditor changes due to changes in expectations for both auditors and their clients.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper predicts that this exemption caused a significant amount of auditor changes post-exemption, due to a change in expected future economic rents (audit scope demands) for auditors (clients). Logistic regression analysis is used to examine whether auditor changes increased for non-accelerated filers (public companies with less than $75 million in public float), who were affected by this exemption, compared to auditor changes for accelerated filers (public companies with greater than $75 million in public float), who were not affected by this exemption.

Findings

The results show a significant positive association between the exemption and auditor dismissals for non-accelerated filers compared to that of accelerated filers. This finding is robust when sensitivity tests are used.

Practical implications

Prior literature finds that an increase in auditor changes can have various positive and negative effects on the affected companies. Thus, investors will be interested in the results of this paper when making their investment decisions with regard to non-accelerated filers.

Social implications

The results of this paper will aid policymakers as they consider the pros and cons of this exemption, as it pertains to the affected companies.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to study the effects of this exemption on auditor turnover for the affected companies.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 31 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Douglas R. Snow

Legislative procedures that expose tax expenditure proposals to scrutiny outside the taxation committees can improve a state legislature’s ability to control its tax base…

Abstract

Legislative procedures that expose tax expenditure proposals to scrutiny outside the taxation committees can improve a state legislature’s ability to control its tax base. These procedures -- fiscal notes, special subcommittees, joint taxation and spending committees, and bill size C move decisions away from the exclusive control of committees whose interests may be more narrow than the interests of the legislature as a whole. Strong legislative procedures do not, and should not, eliminate the passage of new tax exemptions, but it is desirable to enact only exemptions that match major policy objectives. Several factors, including an important economic special interest, a tax rate increase, or a major shift in intergovernmental fiscal relations, can boost an exemption past even the strongest procedures. Procedures appear to be most effective in limiting exemptions with a relatively small fiscal effect.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Norashikin Kamarudin, Zubaidah Zainal Abidin and Malcolm Smith

Audit helps both shareholders and stakeholders to make informed decisions about future directions, based on how the company is performing. The issue of audit exemption

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Abstract

Purpose

Audit helps both shareholders and stakeholders to make informed decisions about future directions, based on how the company is performing. The issue of audit exemption among small companies has been addressed in studies in the UK, Australia and Singapore, together with several others, while Malaysia still legally obligates all companies, irrespective of their size, to be audited annually. The purpose of this exploratory study is to explore the factors associated with a push for audit exemption among small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of SMEs in Malaysia's Klang Valley is conducted to examine their perceptions of audit value, audit burden and audit costs, and their implications for the acceptance of the current audit provisions.

Findings

After follow‐ups the survey yields a response rate of 83 percent, with 360 valid responses received. The results indicate that all three factors have a significant relationship with the level of acceptance of audit exemption. Their preferred audit exemption threshold is also presented.

Research limitations/implications

The results from this study provide useful information for policy makers, auditors and directors of small companies in regards to audit exemption.

Originality/value

The results of the study provide new information for policy makers, auditors and directors of small companies, with implications for future regulation on audit exemption.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Dorit Rubinstein Reiss

Much of the discussion surrounding the antivaccine movement focuses on the decision of parents to not vaccinate their children and the resulting danger posed to others…

Abstract

Much of the discussion surrounding the antivaccine movement focuses on the decision of parents to not vaccinate their children and the resulting danger posed to others. However, the primary risk is borne by the child left unvaccinated. Although living in a developed country with high vaccination rates provides a certain amount of protection through population immunity, the unvaccinated child is still exposed to a considerably greater risk of preventable diseases than one who is vaccinated. I explore the tension between parental choice and the child’s right to be free of preventable diseases. The chapter’s goal is twofold: to advocate for moving from a dyadic framework – considering the interests of the parents against those of the state – to a triadic one, in which the interests of the child are given as much weight as those of the parent and the state; and to discuss which protections are available, and how they can be improved. Specific legal tools available to protect that child are examined, including tort liability of the parents to the child, whether and to what degree criminal law has a role, under what circumstances parental choice should be overridden, and the role of school immunization requirements in protecting the individual child.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-811-6

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 6000