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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2020

Zillah Webb, Karen Dodd, Alexandra Livesey, Sanjay Sunak, Chris Marshall, Lee Harrison and Heather Liddiard

Assessment of executive functioning is an important element of a comprehensive assessment of intellectual abilities. Few assessments available are accessible for…

Abstract

Purpose

Assessment of executive functioning is an important element of a comprehensive assessment of intellectual abilities. Few assessments available are accessible for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and none have population-specific norms. This paper aims to describe the adaptation of the behavioural assessment of dysexecutive syndrome (BADS).

Design/methodology/approach

Adaptations were made to the BADS tests to create the BADS – intellectual disabilities (BADS-ID). Data from three doctoral dissertations were combined to explore the utility, reliability, validity and component structure of the BADS-ID. Properties of the BADS-ID were compared with the Cambridge Executive Functioning Assessment (CEFA).

Findings

The BADS-ID is accessible to IQ range 50–70 and has a two-component structure. It has good inter-rater reliability, but poor internal consistency. It has a good face and content validity but evidence for concurrent and discriminative validity is weak. All properties are comparable to or better than the CEFA.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to improve reliability and validity. The development of an accessible test battery with known reliability and validity for individuals with ID should facilitate research into executive functioning in this population. There is the potential to develop population-specific norms from the data.

Practical implications

An accessible test battery for individuals with ID is helpful in clinical situations.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore the adaptation of the BADS for use with individuals with ID.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Karin A. Spenser, Ray Bull, Lucy Betts and Belinda Winder

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to…

Abstract

Purpose

Prosociality is considered important in the study of offenders and associated cognitive skills: theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning, are said to enable self-control and reduce the risk of offending behaviours. Previous research has made associations between these skills and executive functioning; however, research into a link between them, in an offending population, is limited. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

To further understand the practicalities of this, the present study considered the predictive abilities of the constructs believed to underpin executive functioning: working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control, in relation to theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning. In total, 200 male and female offenders completed measures in all six constructs.

Findings

Using path analysis working memory was demonstrated to be predictive of theory of mind and empathic understanding, cognitive flexibility was found to be predictive of theory of mind, and inhibitory control was found to be predictive of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning.

Research limitations/implications

The study focussed on offenders serving a custodial sentence of six months or less and did not differentiate between crime categories or take into consideration the socio-environmental backgrounds or ethnicity. Therefore, considering these things could further establish the generalisability of the current findings. It is noted that the more focussed the intervention is to the specific needs of an offender, the greater the impact will be. Therefore, pre-screening tests for the constructs discussed may be able to more accurately assess an offenders’ suitability for a programme, or indeed tailor it to meet the specific needs of that person.

Practical implications

These findings may enable practitioners to more accurately assess offenders’ suitability for interventions aimed at reducing offending behaviours by improving levels of prosociality and develop more focussed programmes to meet the specific needs of individual offenders to reduce re-offending.

Social implications

As recommended in the study, a more tailored approach to offender rehabilitation may be a potential aid to reducing levels of recidivism.

Originality/value

The present study adds to the literature as it is the first to consider whether the constructs of executive functioning can predict levels of theory of mind, empathic understanding and moral reasoning and so provide a more accurate method in assessing the cognitive abilities of offenders prior to participation in rehabilitative interventions.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Isabel Brunton and Tom Hartley

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) programme, prepared for the Joint Prison Probation Service Accreditation Panel…

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351

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) programme, prepared for the Joint Prison Probation Service Accreditation Panel, might reduce antisocial behaviour if delivered to school‐aged children.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents two studies. In the first, adult offenders' executive function was measured before and after undertaking the ETS course, using a self report form. Change in behaviour following the course was assessed using behaviour checklists completed by prison staff. In the second study, schoolchildren's executive function was measured using a self report form and their behaviour was also assessed using a comparable behaviour checklist.

Findings

The results showed an association between antisocial behaviour and poor executive function in both offenders and schoolchildren. Offenders displayed less antisocial behaviour following the ETS course. Executive function and antisocial behaviour measured before the ETS course predicted reduction in antisocial behaviour following the course.

Research limitations/implications

The studies do not establish a causal role for the ETS programme in reducing antisocial behaviour, and it was not possible to investigate the effect of the programme in schoolchildren. However, the results indicate that further research may be fruitful.

Practical implications

The possibility that an adapted ETS programme might lead to a reduction in antisocial behaviour in schoolchildren should be investigated. Behavior checklists and measures of executive function should guide the selection of individuals joining the ETS programme.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that the ETS programme might be effective outside a criminal justice setting, as an early intervention with schoolchildren aimed at preventing later offending.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Anne Norris, Deborah Saber, David Morrison, Daven Morrison and Greg Trompeter

The purpose of this study is to identify a psychological profile for public accounting firm partners who are likely to place the partnership and client shareholder at…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to identify a psychological profile for public accounting firm partners who are likely to place the partnership and client shareholder at risk. Proprietary data from an executive counseling firm provided a unique opportunity to compare two groups of partners: those identified by their senior partners as placing the firm at risk (n=31) and those not so identified (n=64). The groups were compared using psychological measures, lifestyle measures, personal measures, and work history variables. Results found no significant measurable difference between the audit partners who were identified as posing a risk and those not so identified. This suggests that specific factors cannot lead a partner to engage in risky behaviors, but rather several, in combination, may be necessary. Implications for research include learning more about concepts such as resistance to temptation, motivation, and rationalization. Implications for practice are to focus on structuring business practices to provide early warning signs and minimize opportunities to engage in risky behavior. Continued and increased diligence in the client screening and client continuation and review process remain essential for best practices.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-086-5

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Warren K. Bickel and Richard Yi

Conceptual paper purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine a new conceptual model of addiction and interpret the results from delay discounting studies in light…

Abstract

Conceptual paper purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine a new conceptual model of addiction and interpret the results from delay discounting studies in light of this new perspective.

Methodology/approach – To accomplish this we (1) introduce this new conceptual model, (2) briefly review executive function, including evidence for executive dysfunction among the addicted, (3) describe the unique relationship of temporal discounting to the new model and executive dysfunction, and (4) reinterpret the discounting literature in light of this new conceptual model.

Findings – Addicted individuals discount the future more than controls. This is consistent with greater relative activation of the impulsive system and decreased relative activation of the executive system. It also supports the new conceptual model of addiction.

Research implications – The new model provides a model for understanding the observations from the broader area of research in temporal discounting.

Originality/value of chapter – Given the view of executive function as important for the cross-temporal organization of behavior, we think that temporal discounting, the valuing of future commodities, qualifies this process to be included as an executive function.

Details

Neuroeconomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-304-0

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Sandra Verhülsdonk, Ann-Kristin Folkerts, Barbara Höft, Tillmann Supprian, Josef Kessler and Elke Kalbe

The purpose of this study is to collect the first empirical data on the cognitive state of elderly prisoners in Germany and to examine associations between cognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to collect the first empirical data on the cognitive state of elderly prisoners in Germany and to examine associations between cognitive function and sociodemographic, clinical and incarceration characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

All prisoners aged 60 years and older of five prisons in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were asked to participate. The cognitive screening instruments mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the DemTect were used to assess global cognition. Executive functions were tested with the trail making test and the frontal-assessment-battery. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess participants’ affective state.

Findings

The sample of this study consisted of 58 prisoners with a mean age of 65.52 years (standard deviation = 6.03); 82.8% are male. Using the MMSE with age- and education-corrected z-scores, 36.9% of the prisoners showed marginal or impaired global cognition scores. Using the DemTect, 41.4% of the prisoners were classified as being cognitively impaired. Up to 40% of the prisoners showed deficits in executive functioning and around 60% of the prisoners showed depressive symptoms. The correlation analysis revealed significant associations between cognitive scores and age (rho = –0.335, p = 0.014), education (rho = 0.309, p = 0.020), sentence duration (rho = 0.409, p = 0.007) and duration of current incarceration (rho = 0.302, p = 0.043). The DemTect total score was significantly associated with the PHQ-9 (rho = –0.335, p = 0.016).

Practical implications

A large group of the prisoners showed a higher prevalence of cognitive dysfunction than that observed in same-age people who are not incarcerated. Taken together, there is an urgent need for an adequate management of older cognitively impaired prisoners including routine cognitive testing and guidelines-oriented treatment of cognitive symptoms.

Originality/value

This study has several strengths. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study examining the cognitive and affective state in a German prison population. The authors considered female and male prisoners, as well as different prison settings, representing a realistic prison sample. The authors used several neuropsychological instruments to get a more detailed insight into the older prisoners’ cognitive status while trying to consider the economy of time and possible attention deficits to prevent dropouts during testing.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Tali Farbiash and Andrea Berger

Inhibitory control (IC) is a central executive function that shows significant development throughout the preschool years. IC is known as a factor that underlies the…

Abstract

Inhibitory control (IC) is a central executive function that shows significant development throughout the preschool years. IC is known as a factor that underlies the ability to self-regulate in daily situations. This ability is challenged when a child faces negative emotions; a challenge that is seen in children’s IC performance and brain activity. This chapter elaborates on the effects that negative emotional experiences have on children’s IC functioning. Moreover, previous studies regarding the way emotional experiences are reflected in brain activity are included. Additionally, this chapter will offer a comprehensive review of the factors affecting individual differences in IC, including the role of children’s temperamental effortful control and negative affectivity. Further, the role of parenting behaviors will be discussed, focusing on the way in which maternal self-regulation influences child inhibitory control, including related educational implications.

Details

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-474-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

William B. Wolf

Presents the thoughts on decision processes of Chester I. Barnard, one of the century’s greatest management theorists. Includes his classic article, “Mind in everyday…

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1744

Abstract

Presents the thoughts on decision processes of Chester I. Barnard, one of the century’s greatest management theorists. Includes his classic article, “Mind in everyday affairs”; his unpublished book, “The Significance of Decisive Behaviour in Social Action”; his correspondence with Herbert Simon, and significant comments found in his personal papers.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Joseph A. Maciariello and Karen E. Linkletter

The political philosophy of American federalism was a critical influence on the work of Peter Drucker. Drucker drew on federalist ideas to devise ways to distribute and…

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1464

Abstract

Purpose

The political philosophy of American federalism was a critical influence on the work of Peter Drucker. Drucker drew on federalist ideas to devise ways to distribute and check power within organizations, curbing the darker side of human nature. In this article, the authors aim to discuss the history of federalism, and to demonstrate how Drucker used that philosophy to shape his own management theories. The article also seeks to provide suggestions for applying federalist principles to today's organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Drucker's own writings, as well as historical primary sources, are analyzed to illustrate the influence of federalism. The authors use specific examples from Drucker's own work, including his study of General Motors and his concept of management by objectives, to illustrate how federalism informed Drucker's vision for a functioning society of institutions.

Findings

Although Drucker has been criticized as a utopian, he, like the federalists and their philosophical forefathers, grappled with the role and nature of virtue in society, the balance between individual liberty and the greater good, and the need for checks and balances on power. As evidenced by Drucker's work, federalism offers a potential solution to today's organizations for managing complex networks and alliances, as well as creating an effective top‐management team.

Research limitations/implications

Future research into the applicability of federalism to contemporary organizations is suggested.

Originality/value

This paper provides an in‐depth analysis of the impact of federalist principles on Drucker's work, and offers specific suggestions for applying federalism to managing organizations today. It provides an important connection between the discipline of management and the liberal arts.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Ekkehart Staufenberg

This paper is based on seminar, workshop and lecture materials presented at national and international conferences, and follows an invitation to cover this topic as part…

Abstract

This paper is based on seminar, workshop and lecture materials presented at national and international conferences, and follows an invitation to cover this topic as part of a one‐day conference on mental health issues in autism spectrum disorders (Staufenberg, 2005; 2007). The paper will seek to a) outline a review of the current evidence base and clinical approaches to the appraisal of risk behaviour or aggressive conduct in general and forensic psychiatric practice, before b) reviewing the current issues in the clinical risk appraisal in individuals with complex neurodevelopmental syndromes of the high functioning autism spectrum, and in particular Asperger's syndrome.References based on clinical and structured instrument‐based risk appraisal will also introduce the pertinence of assessing personality traits in individuals with Asperger's syndrome, with specific reference to forensic neuropsychiatry‐based expertise and case vignettes. A discussion of potential research directions and collaborations will conclude this introductory guide to the emerging field of forensic developmental neuropsychiatry.

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